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ANATOMY OF
FEMALE GENITAL TRACT
• External genitalia
• Internal genitalia
• Accessory reproductive organs
Mons
             veneris


                       Labia • Post commisure
                       majora


External                        • prepuce
                         Labia • Frenulum
genitalia                minora • Fourchette
(vulva,
                                • Fossa navicularis
pudendum)

                                  • Glans
                       clitoris   • Body
                                  • 2 crura

                     • 6 openings
                     • bartholin’s abscess
            vestibule
                     • Hymen
• Blood supply
  – Arteries
     • Br. of internal pudendal artery
        –   Labial A.,
        –   Transverse perineal A.,
        –   A to vestibular bulb,
        –    deep & dorsal arteries to clitoris
     • Br. of Femoral A
        – Superficial & deep external pudendal A
  – Veins
     • Internal pudendal vein
     • Vesical/ vaginal venous plexuses
     • Long saphenous vein
• Nerve supply
  – Ant-sup part
     • Ilio inguinal & genital br. of genitofemoral N (L1,L2)
  – Post-inf part
     • Pudendal br. of post.cut. N of thigh (S123)
  – In between
     • Labial & perineal br.of Pudendal N (S234)


• Lymphatics
  – Superf. Inguinal nodes
  – Gland of Cloquet
  – Ext. & Int. Iliac nodes
Vagina




                      Uterus
Internal
 genital
 organs
                     Fallopian
                       tubes




           ovaries
Vagina
•   Fibromuscular membranous sheath
•   Excretory channel
•   Organ of copulation
•   Birth canal of parturition
•   45 horizontal
•   2.5cm diameter
•   distensibility
• Walls
   – Ant : 7.5 cm
   – Post : 9cm
   – 2 lateral walls
• Fornices :
   – Ant : shallow
   – 2 lateral
   – Post : deep
• Structure
  – mucous coat
  – Submucous layer of loose areolar vascular
    tissues
  – Muscular layer
  – Fibrous coat (from endopelvic fascia)
    :highly vascular
• Vaginal secretion
  – Doderlein’s bacilli : lactic acid from
    glycogen
• Blood Supply
   – Arteries
       •   Cervicovaginal br. Of uterine A
       •   Vaginal A
       •   Middle rectal A
       •   Internal pudendal
       •   Anastomose---form 2 azygos arteries
   – Veins drain into:
       • Internal iliac V
       • Internal pudendal V

• Lymphatics drain into
       • Upper 1/3rd : internal iliac nodes
       • Middle 1/3rd: external iliac nodes
       • Lower 1/3rd (below hymen) : superficial inguinal gp.

• Nerve supply
       • Parasympathetic : S234
       • Sympathetic: hypogastric plexus
       • Lower end : pudendal N (sensory )
Uterus
• Ho l l    o w, p y r i f o r m
  mu s c    u l a r o r g a n i n
  p e l v   i s
• Po s i    t i o n : a n t e v e r s i o n
  & a n t    e f l e x i o n
    u t e r u s   d e x t r o r o t a t e d
    c e r v i x   l e v o r o t a t e d
• Me a s u r e me n t s
  – 7.5c m l o n g
  – 5c m w i d e
  – 3c m t h i c k
Parts of uterus
• Structure
  – Perimetrium : serous coat
  – Myometrium: thick bundles of sm. M
     • During pregnancy:
        – Outer long.
        – Middle interlacing
        – Inner circular
  – Endometrium
     • Surface epithelium
     • Lamina propria
        – Stromal cells
        – Endometrial glands
        – Vessels & nerves
     • Decidua in pregnancy
     • Secretion: scanty & watery
• Re l a t i o n
  – Anterior
    • Above int.os : uterovesical pouch
    • Below int.os: separated from UB by
      loose areolar tissue
  – Posterior
    • Pouch of Douglas with coils on intestine
  – Lateral
    • Broad ligament
    • Mackenrodt’s ligament
    • Uterine A & ureter
• Ligaments of uterus
  – Uterosacral ligament
  – Transverse cervical/ Mackenrodt’s lig
  – Pubovesicocervical lig
  – Round ligament
  – Broad ligament
     •   Mesovarium
     •   Mesosalpinx
     •   mesometrium
     •   Suspensory lig of ovary/ infundibulopelvic ligament
• Blood supply
  – Arteries:
     • Uterine A
     • Ovarian & Vaginal As.
  – Veins drain into
     • Internal iliac veins
• Lymphatics
• Nerves
  – Sympathetic
     • Motor : T5 & T6
     • Sensory : T10 – L1
  – Parasympathetic
     • Pelvic N ( S2,3,4) : both motor &
      sensory : ends in ganglia of
      Frankenhauser
Fallopian tube
                               (uterine tube, oviduct)
• 10-14 cm
• Lies within the superior
border of broad ligament
• 2 openings
  – Medially into cornua
  – Laterally into abdominal cavity
Parts of fallopian tube
Structure : -3 layers
• Blood Supply
  – Arteries
     • Uterine A
     • Ovarian A
  – Veins
     • Through pampiniforn plexus into ovarian veins
• Lymphatics
     • Para-aortic nodes
• Nerve supply
  – Uterine & ovarian nerves
The Ovary
• Paired, situated on either side of uterus
• Close to lateral pelvic wall
• In ovarian fossa of Waldeyer
• Size: 4*3*2 cm
• Only intra-abdominal structure not covered by
  peritoneum
• Medial pole: attached to uterine cornua by
  ovarian ligament
• Laterally to the pelvic wall by infundibulopelvic
  ligament
• Fimbrial end of oviduct close to ovary & attached
  to it via fimbria ovarica
• Structure : 2 parts

                   • Lined single layer of germinal epithelium of
                     Waldeyer (cuboidal epi.)
                   • Tunica albuginea : stromal cells thickened
     Cortex          beneath germinal epithelium
                   • Contain primordial follicles
                   • Corpus albicans/ atretic follicles



                  • Loose connective tissues, blood vessels,
                    nerves, muscles
    Medulla       • Hilus cells : homologous to interstitial cells of
                    testes
• Blood Supply
  – Arterial : Ovarian A
  – Veins :
     • Through pampiniform plexus     ovarian V.
                    Lt. Renal Vein                 IVC
• Lymphatics
     • Para-aortic nodes
• Nerve supply
     • Sympathetic supply from T10 along ovarian A.
Anatomy of female genital tract

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Anatomy of female genital tract

  • 2. • External genitalia • Internal genitalia • Accessory reproductive organs
  • 3. Mons veneris Labia • Post commisure majora External • prepuce Labia • Frenulum genitalia minora • Fourchette (vulva, • Fossa navicularis pudendum) • Glans clitoris • Body • 2 crura • 6 openings • bartholin’s abscess vestibule • Hymen
  • 4.
  • 5. • Blood supply – Arteries • Br. of internal pudendal artery – Labial A., – Transverse perineal A., – A to vestibular bulb, – deep & dorsal arteries to clitoris • Br. of Femoral A – Superficial & deep external pudendal A – Veins • Internal pudendal vein • Vesical/ vaginal venous plexuses • Long saphenous vein
  • 6. • Nerve supply – Ant-sup part • Ilio inguinal & genital br. of genitofemoral N (L1,L2) – Post-inf part • Pudendal br. of post.cut. N of thigh (S123) – In between • Labial & perineal br.of Pudendal N (S234) • Lymphatics – Superf. Inguinal nodes – Gland of Cloquet – Ext. & Int. Iliac nodes
  • 7. Vagina Uterus Internal genital organs Fallopian tubes ovaries
  • 8. Vagina • Fibromuscular membranous sheath • Excretory channel • Organ of copulation • Birth canal of parturition • 45 horizontal • 2.5cm diameter • distensibility
  • 9. • Walls – Ant : 7.5 cm – Post : 9cm – 2 lateral walls • Fornices : – Ant : shallow – 2 lateral – Post : deep
  • 10.
  • 11. • Structure – mucous coat – Submucous layer of loose areolar vascular tissues – Muscular layer – Fibrous coat (from endopelvic fascia) :highly vascular • Vaginal secretion – Doderlein’s bacilli : lactic acid from glycogen
  • 12. • Blood Supply – Arteries • Cervicovaginal br. Of uterine A • Vaginal A • Middle rectal A • Internal pudendal • Anastomose---form 2 azygos arteries – Veins drain into: • Internal iliac V • Internal pudendal V • Lymphatics drain into • Upper 1/3rd : internal iliac nodes • Middle 1/3rd: external iliac nodes • Lower 1/3rd (below hymen) : superficial inguinal gp. • Nerve supply • Parasympathetic : S234 • Sympathetic: hypogastric plexus • Lower end : pudendal N (sensory )
  • 13. Uterus • Ho l l o w, p y r i f o r m mu s c u l a r o r g a n i n p e l v i s • Po s i t i o n : a n t e v e r s i o n & a n t e f l e x i o n u t e r u s d e x t r o r o t a t e d c e r v i x l e v o r o t a t e d • Me a s u r e me n t s – 7.5c m l o n g – 5c m w i d e – 3c m t h i c k
  • 15.
  • 16. • Structure – Perimetrium : serous coat – Myometrium: thick bundles of sm. M • During pregnancy: – Outer long. – Middle interlacing – Inner circular – Endometrium • Surface epithelium • Lamina propria – Stromal cells – Endometrial glands – Vessels & nerves • Decidua in pregnancy • Secretion: scanty & watery
  • 17. • Re l a t i o n – Anterior • Above int.os : uterovesical pouch • Below int.os: separated from UB by loose areolar tissue – Posterior • Pouch of Douglas with coils on intestine – Lateral • Broad ligament • Mackenrodt’s ligament • Uterine A & ureter
  • 18. • Ligaments of uterus – Uterosacral ligament – Transverse cervical/ Mackenrodt’s lig – Pubovesicocervical lig – Round ligament – Broad ligament • Mesovarium • Mesosalpinx • mesometrium • Suspensory lig of ovary/ infundibulopelvic ligament
  • 19. • Blood supply – Arteries: • Uterine A • Ovarian & Vaginal As. – Veins drain into • Internal iliac veins • Lymphatics • Nerves – Sympathetic • Motor : T5 & T6 • Sensory : T10 – L1 – Parasympathetic • Pelvic N ( S2,3,4) : both motor & sensory : ends in ganglia of Frankenhauser
  • 20. Fallopian tube (uterine tube, oviduct) • 10-14 cm • Lies within the superior border of broad ligament • 2 openings – Medially into cornua – Laterally into abdominal cavity
  • 22.
  • 23. Structure : -3 layers
  • 24. • Blood Supply – Arteries • Uterine A • Ovarian A – Veins • Through pampiniforn plexus into ovarian veins • Lymphatics • Para-aortic nodes • Nerve supply – Uterine & ovarian nerves
  • 25. The Ovary • Paired, situated on either side of uterus • Close to lateral pelvic wall • In ovarian fossa of Waldeyer • Size: 4*3*2 cm • Only intra-abdominal structure not covered by peritoneum • Medial pole: attached to uterine cornua by ovarian ligament • Laterally to the pelvic wall by infundibulopelvic ligament • Fimbrial end of oviduct close to ovary & attached to it via fimbria ovarica
  • 26.
  • 27. • Structure : 2 parts • Lined single layer of germinal epithelium of Waldeyer (cuboidal epi.) • Tunica albuginea : stromal cells thickened Cortex beneath germinal epithelium • Contain primordial follicles • Corpus albicans/ atretic follicles • Loose connective tissues, blood vessels, nerves, muscles Medulla • Hilus cells : homologous to interstitial cells of testes
  • 28.
  • 29. • Blood Supply – Arterial : Ovarian A – Veins : • Through pampiniform plexus ovarian V. Lt. Renal Vein IVC • Lymphatics • Para-aortic nodes • Nerve supply • Sympathetic supply from T10 along ovarian A.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. Add diagram of ext genitalia, clitoris, vestibule, hymen
  2. Diagram
  3. diagram
  4. diagram
  5. diagrammmsss