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GROUND IMPROVEMENT TECHNOLOGY

- STONE COLUMN TECHNOLOGY
- BAND DRAIN TECHNOLOGY




Sravan MV
Engineer
ALTERNATIVES FOR INADEQUATE GROUND?

   Abandon the site and locate the structure
    elsewhere
   Design deep foundatio...
BASIC PRINCIPLE OF GROUND IMPROVEMENT
          Ground improvement is the modification of
    the ground properties in ord...
STONE COLUMN TECHNOLOGY
STONE COLUMN TECHNOLOGY

    It is also known as Vibro replacement or Vibro
    displacement
   Compacted aggregates for...
STONE COLUMN TECHNOLOGY
Two methods of stone columns:

   Wet / Top Feed Method



   Dry / Bottom Feed Method
STONE COLUMN : WET / TOP FEED METHOD




                                             Vibro Probe

   Step 1 : Penetratio...
STONE COLUMN : DRY / BOTTOM FEED METHOD




   Step 1 : Penetration of probe
   Step 2 : Installation of aggregate throu...
STONE COLUMN : ADVANTAGES

   Technically and potentially economical
    alternative for deep compaction.
   Alternative...
CASE STUDY:
    Four Lane National Highway Connectivity to ICTT –
    Vallarpadam, Kochi
   Connects NH - 47 and NH - 17....
CASE STUDY: INSTALLATION
CASE STUDY : INSTALLATION
CASE STUDY :STONE COLUMN
   Quantity of stone aggregate used : 28,774 cum.
   Geo grid consumed: 35,536. 12 sq.m
   Bul...
BAND DRAIN TECHNOLOGY
BAND DRAIN TECHNOLOGY - PVD

   Used in loose, compressible and water
    saturated clay and silty clays.
   Soils are c...
WHAT IS VERTICAL DRAIN?
                   Consolidation takes place in only
                    one direction
          ...
COMPONENTS OF PVD?
                                          Core
   Core : It is called drained body
    corrugated, fle...
ADVANTAGES OF BAND DRAIN TECHNOLOGY:

   Minimum disturbance to the soil layers during
    installation
   High water di...
CASE STUDY:
    Four Lane National Highway Connectivity to ICTT –
    Vallarpadam, Kochi
   Connects NH- 47 and NH – 17.
...
CASE STUDY: INSTALLATION EQUIPMENT



                     Hydraulic Stitcher
                     Mandrel
             ...
CASE STUDY: BAND DRAIN INSTALLATION
CASE STUDY: BAND DRAIN INSTALLATION
CASE STUDY: BAND DRAIN TECHNOLOGY
   Total length of band drains : 56,21,780 Rm
   Total Granular blanket : 1,23,386 Cum...
CASE STUDY: BAND DRAIN TECHNOLOGY

 After the installation of band
 drains, Casagrande peizometer and plate type
 settleme...
CASE STUDY: BAND DRAIN TECHNOLOGY
Description                    Values
Cumulative Heights             Stage 1 : 3.0m ( i....
THANK YOU!
Ground improvement techniques
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Ground improvement techniques Slide 1 Ground improvement techniques Slide 2 Ground improvement techniques Slide 3 Ground improvement techniques Slide 4 Ground improvement techniques Slide 5 Ground improvement techniques Slide 6 Ground improvement techniques Slide 7 Ground improvement techniques Slide 8 Ground improvement techniques Slide 9 Ground improvement techniques Slide 10 Ground improvement techniques Slide 11 Ground improvement techniques Slide 12 Ground improvement techniques Slide 13 Ground improvement techniques Slide 14 Ground improvement techniques Slide 15 Ground improvement techniques Slide 16 Ground improvement techniques Slide 17 Ground improvement techniques Slide 18 Ground improvement techniques Slide 19 Ground improvement techniques Slide 20 Ground improvement techniques Slide 21 Ground improvement techniques Slide 22 Ground improvement techniques Slide 23 Ground improvement techniques Slide 24 Ground improvement techniques Slide 25 Ground improvement techniques Slide 26 Ground improvement techniques Slide 27

Ground improvement techniques

  1. 1. GROUND IMPROVEMENT TECHNOLOGY - STONE COLUMN TECHNOLOGY - BAND DRAIN TECHNOLOGY Sravan MV Engineer
  2. 2. ALTERNATIVES FOR INADEQUATE GROUND?  Abandon the site and locate the structure elsewhere  Design deep foundations to carry the weight of the structure to competent stratum  Redesign the structure according to the ground conditions  Improve the properties of the ground prior to construction
  3. 3. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF GROUND IMPROVEMENT Ground improvement is the modification of the ground properties in order to achieve the required ground conditions for the particular use of the ground.  Densification of the ground , E.g.: Compaction  Accelerate the consolidation, E.g.: Vertical drains  Usage of geo synthetics, E.g.: Geotextiles  Usage of admixtures, E.g.: Cement stabilization  Preloading  Mechanical Stabilization
  4. 4. STONE COLUMN TECHNOLOGY
  5. 5. STONE COLUMN TECHNOLOGY  It is also known as Vibro replacement or Vibro displacement  Compacted aggregates form as a vertical columns to improve the soil conditions.  Resulting in considerable increase in vertical load capacity and to an extent contribute to as drains to dissipate pore water pressure.
  6. 6. STONE COLUMN TECHNOLOGY Two methods of stone columns:  Wet / Top Feed Method  Dry / Bottom Feed Method
  7. 7. STONE COLUMN : WET / TOP FEED METHOD Vibro Probe  Step 1 : Penetration of probe  Step 2 : Backfilling of aggregate and compacting  Step 3 : Consolidation of granular fill and finishing the column
  8. 8. STONE COLUMN : DRY / BOTTOM FEED METHOD  Step 1 : Penetration of probe  Step 2 : Installation of aggregate through separate duct along the vibro probe  Step 3 : Consolidation of granular fill and finishing the column
  9. 9. STONE COLUMN : ADVANTAGES  Technically and potentially economical alternative for deep compaction.  Alternative for dynamic compaction, deep blasting etc.,  Quicker than preloading the site  It increases the bearing capacity, reduces the settlements, liquefaction potential.
  10. 10. CASE STUDY: Four Lane National Highway Connectivity to ICTT – Vallarpadam, Kochi  Connects NH - 47 and NH - 17.  Project cost was revised from 329.46 cr to 571.20 cr due to ground improvement, bridges and retaining walls.  Road Length – 17.2km, total length of bridges – 2.93km.  Ground improvement works – 10km.  Wet /Top method of installation was used.  Stone columns where installed in 15 locations between Ch, 0.245 and 16.210
  11. 11. CASE STUDY: INSTALLATION
  12. 12. CASE STUDY : INSTALLATION
  13. 13. CASE STUDY :STONE COLUMN  Quantity of stone aggregate used : 28,774 cum.  Geo grid consumed: 35,536. 12 sq.m  Bulk density considered : 1.8 MT/m3  App. Quantity of aggregate for one column : 35MT  Total number of stone columns : 22,166 no's  Time required for each stone column : 60 min  No. of stone columns installed per day : 15 no's  Total running meter of all the columns : 91,641 Rm
  14. 14. BAND DRAIN TECHNOLOGY
  15. 15. BAND DRAIN TECHNOLOGY - PVD  Used in loose, compressible and water saturated clay and silty clays.  Soils are characterized by very loose skeleton and a large pore sizes filled with water  Requires about ten or more years to consolidate on preload. PVD – Prefabricated Vertical Drain.
  16. 16. WHAT IS VERTICAL DRAIN?  Consolidation takes place in only one direction  Vertical drainage path may be substantially longer  It may take 10+ years to consolidate  Pore water will flow laterally  Pore water pressure dissipates as the layer drains and water is conveyed through vertical drains  It takes only about 6months or so to consolidate
  17. 17. COMPONENTS OF PVD? Core  Core : It is called drained body corrugated, flexible and made of polypropylene, designed to provide high discharge capacity, high tensile and compressive strength.  Filter Jacket: Non – woven ,thermically Filter bonded polypropylene wrapped around the core. Acts as the filter to allow ground water to the core.
  18. 18. ADVANTAGES OF BAND DRAIN TECHNOLOGY:  Minimum disturbance to the soil layers during installation  High water discharge capacity  High tensile strength prevents the collapse of flow path.  Fast and easy installation  Deep installation up to 40m.
  19. 19. CASE STUDY: Four Lane National Highway Connectivity to ICTT – Vallarpadam, Kochi  Connects NH- 47 and NH – 17.  Project cost was revised from 329.46 cr to 571.20 cr due to ground improvement, bridges and retaining walls.  Road Length – 17.2km, total length of bridges – 2.93km.  Ground improvement works – 10km.  PVD were installed in 8 locations between Chainage 8.400 – 15.000
  20. 20. CASE STUDY: INSTALLATION EQUIPMENT  Hydraulic Stitcher  Mandrel  Base Hydraulic Machine
  21. 21. CASE STUDY: BAND DRAIN INSTALLATION
  22. 22. CASE STUDY: BAND DRAIN INSTALLATION
  23. 23. CASE STUDY: BAND DRAIN TECHNOLOGY  Total length of band drains : 56,21,780 Rm  Total Granular blanket : 1,23,386 Cum  Total Geotextiles used : 3,90,714 sq.m  Time taken for install one band drain of 25m : 1min  Time taken for splicing the wick : 1 min
  24. 24. CASE STUDY: BAND DRAIN TECHNOLOGY After the installation of band drains, Casagrande peizometer and plate type settlement recorders where installed in order to check the settlements
  25. 25. CASE STUDY: BAND DRAIN TECHNOLOGY Description Values Cumulative Heights Stage 1 : 3.0m ( i.e., 1.0m above the top of reclamation) Stage 2 : 5.5m ( includes 1.5m of additional surcharge) Waiting period of each stage Stage 1 : 6.0 months Stage 2 : 6.0 months The water coming out of the vertical drains is collected in temporary ditch. The water collected is regularly dewatered to the adjoining area.
  26. 26. THANK YOU!
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