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Grammar in use

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The passive voice
The passive voice
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Grammar in use

  1. 1. Grammar in use Causative form
  2. 2. Causative form • We use have+object+past participle to say that we Have arranged for someone to do something for us. The past participle has a passive meaning. She had her hair cut at the new hairdressers.(she didn’t cut her own hair). • Questions and negations of the verb have are formed with do/does(present simple)or did(past simple) • Did you have the carpets cleaned last week? • We also use have something done to talk about an unpleasant experience that somebody had.when kate was in town,she had her bag stolen (=her bag was stolen) • We can use the verb get instead of have in informal conversation I’ll get the photographs developed when I go into town
  3. 3. Regular active form Causative form Present simple He fixes his bike He has his bike fixed Present continuous He is fixing his bike He is having his bike fixed Past simple He fixed his bike He had his bike fixed Past continuous He was fixing his bike He was having his bike fixed Future simple He will fix his bike He will have his bike fixed Future continuous He will be fixing his bike He will be having his bike fixed. Present perfect He has fixed his bike He has had his bike fixed. Present perfect continuous He has been fixing his bike He has been having his bike fixed. Past perfect He had fixed his bike He had had his bike fixed. Past perfect continuous He had been fixing his bike He had been having his bike fixed. Infinitive -ing form He should fix his bike It’s wort fixing his bike He should have his bike fixed. It’s worth having his bike fixed
  4. 4. Reported speech • We use direct speech to quote someone’s exact words. We enclose their words in inverted commas. • “I live in Highfield Road” ,Eve said. Or Eve said “I live in Highfield Road” • We use reported speech to report the exact meaning of what someone said,but not in the exact words. We do not use inverted commas. Personal pronouns, possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns change according to the meaning of the sentence. Eve said that she lives in highfield road. • We can report someone’s words a long time after they were said (out-of-date-reporting) or a short time after they were said (up-to-date-reporting)
  5. 5. Say-tell-ask • Say: can be used both in diregt and reported speech.it is used with a personal object. When it is used with a personal object it is always followd by to (said to him). In reported speech say is not followed by an object pronoun, but it can be followed by that. • Direct: “im tired” she said OR “im tired,”she said to me. • reported: she said (that) she was tired. • Tell: can be used both in direct and reported speech. It is always followed by personal object(told him) • Direct: “I come from Newcastle Gary told me • Reported: Gary told me that he comes from Newcastle • Ask: is used in direct questions and requests • Direct: “where are you going “ he asked me. • “hurry up” she said. • Reported: he asked me where I was going. • she asked us to hurry up
  6. 6. Say Hello,good morning/afternoon etc,something/nothing, so a prayer, a few words, etc Tell The truth, a lie, a story, a secret, a joke the time , the difference, one from another, somebody one’s name, somebody the way, somebody so, someone’s fortune, etc Ask A question,a favor, the price, after somebody , the time, around , for something/somebody, etc
  7. 7. Direct speech Reported speech “I walk to work everyday” Present simple He said (that)he walked to work everyday. Past simple “I am going to the cinema” Present continuous He said(that)he was going to the cinema. Past continuous “I have finished my homework” Present perfect He said (that) he had finished his homework Past perfect “I bought their new CD” Past simple He said (that) he bought/had bought their new CD Past simple or past perfect “I was playing football at 12 o’clock” Past continuous He said that he was playing /had been playing football at 12o’clock Past continuous or past perfect continuous “I will go and buy some bread” Future simple(will) He said that he would go and buy some bread. Conditional (would)
  8. 8. • The past perfect and past perfect continuous do not change in reported speech. • Some words and time expressions change according to the meaning of the sentence. • Here-there, come-go • Today, tonight -that day that night • Yesterday- the day before,the previous day • Now- then,at that/the time/moment,immediately • Two days ago- two days before,
  9. 9. This week- that week Tomorrow- the next/following month next month- the month after,the following month • Some modal verbs also change, as follows: • Will-would • Can(ability)-could,can(future reference)- could/would be able to • May-might • Shall-should • Must(obligation)-must/had to • Needn’t- needn’t/didn’t need to/didn’t have to

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