• We use have+object+past participle to say that we Have
arranged for someone to do something for us. The past
participle has a passive meaning. She had her hair cut
at the new hairdressers.(she didn’t cut her own hair).
• Questions and negations of the verb have are formed
with do/does(present simple)or did(past simple)
• Did you have the carpets cleaned last week?
• We also use have something done to talk about an
unpleasant experience that somebody had.when kate
was in town,she had her bag stolen (=her bag was
• We can use the verb get instead of have in informal
conversation I’ll get the photographs developed when I
go into town
Regular active form Causative form
Present simple He fixes his bike He has his bike fixed
Present continuous He is fixing his bike He is having his bike fixed
Past simple He fixed his bike He had his bike fixed
Past continuous He was fixing his bike He was having his bike fixed
Future simple He will fix his bike He will have his bike fixed
Future continuous He will be fixing his bike He will be having his bike fixed.
Present perfect He has fixed his bike He has had his bike fixed.
Present perfect continuous He has been fixing his bike He has been having his bike
Past perfect He had fixed his bike He had had his bike fixed.
Past perfect continuous He had been fixing his bike He had been having his bike
He should fix his bike
It’s wort fixing his bike
He should have his bike fixed.
It’s worth having his bike fixed
• We use direct speech to quote someone’s exact words. We
enclose their words in inverted commas.
• “I live in Highfield Road” ,Eve said. Or Eve said “I live in
• We use reported speech to report the exact meaning of
what someone said,but not in the exact words. We do not
use inverted commas. Personal pronouns, possessive
adjectives and possessive pronouns change according to
the meaning of the sentence. Eve said that she lives in
• We can report someone’s words a long time after they
were said (out-of-date-reporting) or a short time after they
were said (up-to-date-reporting)
• Say: can be used both in diregt and reported speech.it is used with a
personal object. When it is used with a personal object it is always
followd by to (said to him). In reported speech say is not followed by
an object pronoun, but it can be followed by that.
• Direct: “im tired” she said OR “im tired,”she said to me.
• reported: she said (that) she was tired.
• Tell: can be used both in direct and reported speech. It is always
followed by personal object(told him)
• Direct: “I come from Newcastle Gary told me
• Reported: Gary told me that he comes from Newcastle
• Ask: is used in direct questions and requests
• Direct: “where are you going “ he asked me.
• “hurry up” she said.
• Reported: he asked me where I was going.
• she asked us to hurry up
Say Hello,good morning/afternoon etc,something/nothing, so a prayer,
a few words, etc
Tell The truth, a lie, a story, a secret, a joke the time , the difference, one
from another, somebody one’s name, somebody the way, somebody
so, someone’s fortune, etc
Ask A question,a favor, the price, after somebody , the time, around , for
Direct speech Reported speech
“I walk to work everyday”
He said (that)he walked to work everyday.
“I am going to the cinema”
He said(that)he was going to the cinema.
“I have finished my homework”
He said (that) he had finished his
“I bought their new CD”
He said (that) he bought/had bought their
Past simple or past perfect
“I was playing football at 12 o’clock”
He said that he was playing /had been
playing football at 12o’clock
Past continuous or past perfect
“I will go and buy some bread”
He said that he would go and buy some
• The past perfect and past perfect continuous do
not change in reported speech.
• Some words and time expressions change
according to the meaning of the sentence.
• Here-there, come-go
• Today, tonight -that day that night
• Yesterday- the day before,the previous day
• Now- then,at that/the
• Two days ago- two days before,
This week- that week
Tomorrow- the next/following month
next month- the month after,the following month
• Some modal verbs also change, as follows:
• Can(ability)-could,can(future reference)-
could/would be able to
• Must(obligation)-must/had to
• Needn’t- needn’t/didn’t need to/didn’t have to
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