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Meat technology

  2. 2. MEAT  MEAT is an important food in the diet and is the foremost food of the people of the world  The extensive use of meat is deu to its PALATABILITY and HIGH NUTRITIVE VALUE.  The term meat is used to designate only those portions of the various animals use for food like
  3. 3. Muscle Fatty tissues Some glands such as Liver Heart and spleen
  4. 4. Zoological classes of animals from which meat is obtained are Mammalia - e.g Cattle, Carabaos, Sheep, Swine or Pigs and other similar four-footed animals. Aves – e.g Fowls and birds Pisces – e.g Fishes Reptilia – e.g Turtules Amphibia – e.g Frogs
  5. 5.  Mollusca – e.g Oysters and Clams  Crustacea – e.g Lobsters and Crabs
  6. 6. GRADING OF MEAT After the meat has been inspected by authorized VETERINARIAN and is declared WHOLESOME, HYGIENIC and FIT for human consumption, then it is graded
  7. 7. In 1970 the Breau of Standards ( Philippines) had meat grades standardized and prepared as. Excellent Superior Good and Unclassified
  9. 9. THE BASIS FOR GRADING OF MEAT Quality – includes tenderness, juiciness and palatability. Conformation – refers to the shape, forms or general outline of the side or the whole carcass. Finish – refers to the amount, quality and color of the fat within and around the muscle.
  10. 10. STRUCTRE OF MEAT A piece of meat usually consist of Lean Tissue Fatty Tissue Connective Tissue and Bone
  11. 11. LEAN TISSUE OR THE LEAN MEAT Consist of muscular tissue and lesser amount of connective tissues. Muscle fiber size has much to do with the grain or texture of the meat. Fine grain, smooth texture, smooth and soft surface indicates tender meat. Young animals have finer-grained flesh than mature animals.
  12. 12. CONNECTIVE TISSUES  The type and quantity of connective tissue in meat also affect tenderness.  Two types of connective tissue:  1. White collagen – it is change into gelatin and water by moist heat.  2. Yellow elastin – it is not change by cooking, to make it tender, it is broken up by grinding, pounding and cubing.
  13. 13. FATS Fats in meat occur in the adipose tissue as visible fat. Intramuscular fat- it is present in intermediate amounts between the muscle. Intracellular fat – minor amount inside the muscle cell. Marbling – in sufficient quantity and visible present of intracellular fat.
  14. 14.  Fats in meat are important because they contribute to tenderness, juiciness and flavor. The fat in meat gives the body energy and warmth.
  15. 15. BONE The bone is an essential part of the gross structure of the meat. Conditioning of the bone is an indication of the age of the animal. In young animals, the backbone is soft and has reddish tinge. In fully mature animals, the bones are hard and white.
  16. 16.  A high proportion of bone to meat increases the cost of meat.  The carcass with a high proportion of meat to bone is the more desirable.  The shape of the bone is an excellent guide for identifying various cuts of meat.
  17. 17. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MEAT  Meat is a very valuable food. It is rich source of high quality protein needed for building and repairing worn-out body tissue.  It contains rich supply amount of: 1. Phosphorous 2. Copper 3. Iron 4. Vitamin B 5. Thiamin 6. Riboflavin and 7. Niacin
  18. 18. MEAT VARIETY AND INTERNAL ORGANS Brain Sweet breads Liver Spleen and Intestines - are equally as nutritious as the lean meat. Liver is a good source of iron which is needed to make the blood red.
  19. 19. CLASSES OF MEAT  BEEF CARCASSES are classified on the the basis of age and sex. 1. Stear - a male cow, castrated when young. 2. Heiferr – a young female which has not borne a calf. 3. Cow – a female that has not borne a calf. 4. Stag – a male castrated after maturity and 5. Bull - a mature male not castrated.
  20. 20. CARABEEF – is carabao meat, it is widely eaten by Filipinos it is still sold and passed of as a beef. VEAL – meat from immature animals of the bovine species, best veal carcass usually from 4 to 8 weeks of age of either sex. PORK – meat of swine, good quality pork comes from young animals 7 to 12 months of age.
  21. 21.  LAMB AND MUTTON – are sheep carcasses classified according to the age of animals.  LAMB MEAT - taken from young animals one year or less of age.  MUTTON - is derived from those that have passed the lamb stage the flesh of all carcasses in the mutton class is darker in color, less tender and stronger-smelling than the lamb.  GOATS MEAT – quite popular in some parts of the Philippines particularly in the Ilocos Region, it is taken as “ Pulutan” with basi or Tuba by men who drink during their leisure hours or after work in the farm.  RABBITS MEAT – come from rabbits that should be 3 to 4 months old before they are slaughtered for food. At this age a large breed of rabbit weight about ½ to 2 kg. older stocks are heavier and make good material for roasted meat, in the Philippines rabbits are known as pets not certainly for eating.
  22. 22. MARKET FORMS OF MEAT Fresh Meat – not undergone chilling, freezing, or any processing treatment. Chilled Meat – has been cooled to a temperature range of 1 to 3˚C (34˚ to 36˚F) within 24 hours after slaughter. Chilled meat has been chilled and then frozen.
  23. 23. Cured Meat – preserved meat acted upon by curing agents such as: Salt Sodium nitrate Sugar Spices Vinegar without refrigeration.
  24. 24.  Examples of cured meat: Sausage Hot dog Longganisa Tocino Bacon Corned beef Tapa
  25. 25.  Canned Meat – is cooked and required only to be reheated. Example: Corned beef, Adobo, Liver spread and other meat recipes.  Dried Meat – also known as dehydrated meat, dried meat is also cured, e.g Tapa
  26. 26. MEAT CUTS  Slaughter animal is called CARCASS  WHOLESALE cuts cut into larger pieces called.  RETAIL cuts – commonly found in the market, classified as  Tender cuts  Less tender cuts  Tough cuts  Varity cuts
  27. 27. Tender cuts – contains lean meat and a little collagen, these are the least exercised parts of the animal and are the most expensive. The most tender muscle in both beef and pork is the psoas. Tender cuts of beef are: whole loin or kadera yields Loin end, short loin, sirloin and the tender loin. Tender cuts of pork are: Loin or Lomo which sliced is called pork chops, other tender cuts of pork includes ham and side bacon or belly.
  28. 28. LESS TENDER CUTS There are more developed connective tissues in less tender cuts than the tender cuts. Considerable portions are present in the shoulder and neck of the animals. Moist heat method of cookery is necessary to gelatinize the connective tissue. In pork carcass the shoulder, boston butt, picnic and neck bones are the less tender cuts. In beef carcass the round, rump and chuck are the less tender cuts.
  29. 29. TOUGH CUTS Tough cuts are usually those muscles which get more exercise while the animal is alive. Usually located in the lower part of the animal. Muscle that are exercised a lot contains higher quantities of connective tissues. Really hard-working muscles such as shoulder (or chuck) and neck. Beef tough cuts are the shank, flank, plate, brisket and neck. There are no tough cuts in the pork carcass.
  30. 30.  Variety cuts are the animal glands and other internal organs.  Example of variety cuts are:  Liver  Kidney  Tripes  Sweetbreads  Brains  Lungs  Tongue  Tail  Blood  skin VARIETY CUTS
  31. 31.  variety meat should be cooked until well-done to minimize the danger of transmitting the organism found in them.
  33. 33. The chuck or paypay contains the square-cuts shoulder and the top five ribs, the arm, the blade bone, and the neckbones. The brisket or punta y pecho has layers of lean and fat and pieces of breast bone. The ribs or costillas includes 6 to 12 ribs and the blade bones. The plate or tadyang is a fatty cut whose meat is ground for hamburger. The short loin solomillo consist of the backbone and sometimes the last rib. This is cut that yields the beef steak.
  34. 34. The flank or kamto is lean and tough it contains a high percentage of fat. The loin end or tagilirang hulihan lies between the rump and the short loin and yields serloin steaks, pin bones, wedge bones and flat bones. The rump or tapadera is the rear part behind the upper sirloin. The round or pierna costa is oval shaped with a small round bone and a high proportion of lean and fat roast cut. The sirloin tip or kadera is from the bottom and round and the lower sirloin. The foreshank or kenchi or pata is very bony piece that contains a high percentage of cartilage and connective tissues.
  35. 35. PORK CUTS  Jowl or kalamnan – is the loose flesh about the lower jaw or throat with a high percentage of fat.  Boston Butt or paypay is ct from the upper shoulder has a compact shape and is easy to slice.  The loin or lomo is a long cut that extends along the backbone of the animal. This may be cut into smaller loin roasts known locally as costillas.
  36. 36. The picnic or kasim is cut from the lower portion of the shoulder of the animal that has more bone in proportion to lean meat. The bacon side or liyempo is cut from the belly portion of the long carcass, usually cured and sold in slices or slabs. The ham or pigi is composed of the butt or shank end. It contains a higher proportion of lean to bone.
  37. 37. The spare ribs or Buto sa tadyang is taken from the belly portion of the animal, it contains a large proportion of bones. The shanks (foreshank and hind shank) or pata are the pig’s legs, considered by the Filipinos as a delicacy, they contain a high

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