Chapter 2 Poultry

SSCT-Mainit Campus
8. Mar 2020

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Chapter 2 Poultry

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  2. Poultry are domestic birds specially bred for the table. Production of poultry may be adapted to most areas of the world. In the Philippines a total of 3.9 kg. poultry meat is consumed per person a year and 97 % of this consist of chicken, while the rest consist of turkey, pigeon, and duck.  it has a rapid growth rate and a rapid generation time, that is poultry can produce meat in 8 weeks and eggs in 24 weeks. *
  3. *Examples of Poultry *Chicken *Duck *Goose *Pigeon *Turkey
  4. *Classification of Poultry *Chicken – available fresh or frozen when sold. * Pullet- baby chicken, four to six weeks old and weighs at most. 1lb. It suitable for roasting and grilling. *Double Poussin (Broiler) – this chicken is six to ten weeks old and weighs about 2 lbs. *Roasting Chicken (Roaster) – is the most popular size for a family. It is eight weeks old and weighs 3.4 lbs.
  5. * Broiler Fowl – is an older bird usually a laying hen, about 8 months old, weighing 6 lbs. Meaty but also fat, it is suitable for stews or casseroles. *Capon – a surgically unsexed male chicken (usually under 8 months of age) tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth- textured skin. *Stag-a male chicken (usually under 10 months of age) with coarse skin, a toughened and darkened flesh and considerably hardened breast-bone cartilage. *Cock or Roaster-mature male chicken with coarse skin, a toughened and darkened meat and hardened breast bone tip.
  6. *Ducks – ducks are marketed as ducklings or young ducks, ducks does not serve as many people as a chicken of similar weigh does, 6lb duck is only enough for four people, duck is fatty bird that is best for roasted. *Broiler duckling or Fryer Duckling – is a young duck usually under 8 weeks of age of either sex, with tender meat, a soft bill and a soft windpipe. *Roster Duckling – a young duck usually under 16 weeks of age of either sex, it is tender-meated and has a bill that is not completely hardened and a windpipe that is easily dented. * Mature duck or old duck – usually over 6 months of either sex, toughened flesh and a hardened bill and hardened windpipe.
  7. *TURKEY – are not readily available in the market although they may be classified into: *Fryer-roaster – a young immature turkey (16 weeks of age 4.8 lbs.) of either sex that has tender meat with soft pliable, smooth-textured skin and flexible breastbone cartilage. *Young hen – a young female turkey (5-7 months weighing 8-4 lbs.) it is tender-meated with soft pliable, smooth textured skin and breastbone cartilage somewhat less flexible than in fryer-roaster turkey. *Young tom – a young male (5-7 months weighing 12 lbs. of over) is also tender-meated with soft pliable, smooth textured skin and breastbone cartilage that is somewhat less flexible than in fryer-roaster turkey. *Yearling hen – a fully matured female turkey (under of 15 months of age) that is reasonably tender-meated and with smooth-textured skin. *Yearling tom – a fully matured male, under 15 months of age that is reasonably tender-meated and with smooth-textured skin. *Mature or old turkey - an old turkey male or female usually more than 15 months old with coarse skin and toughened skin.
  8. Crab *PIGEONS: *Squab – is a young immature pigeon of either sex, and is extra tender- meated. *Pigeon – is a mature one of either sex, with coarse skin and roughened flesh. *Goose – it is a fatty with creamy –white flesh which is light brown when cooked. *It has a slightly gamey flavor. It is marketed young and usually weigh 6-12 lbs. but again it serve less per pond than chicken. *Gosling – is a young goose not more than six months old.
  9. Insects *COMPOSITION OF POULTRY MEAT * Nutritive value of poultry is similar to the other meat-producing animals. * The proteins supplied by poultry are complete and contain amino acids essential in building body tissue. * Poultry Meat is a very good source of: *Vitamin B *Thiamine *Riboflavin *Niacin *Niacin – concentration of niacin is high in the flesh of young chickens. *Riboflavin and Thiamine – is rich in dark chicken meat.
  10. Trilobites *PRINCIPLES OF POULTRY SELECTION: *It is important to known the characteristics of each form to insure proper selection when purchasing poultry. *in the Philippines, poultry is marketed in these forms: * LIVE POULTRY – selecting live poultry, choose those that are alert, healthy, well-feathered and well-formed, it should have a good fat covering and free from broken bones, bruises, and blisters. Sluggish looking birds should not be purchased. *WHOLE POULTRY – similar qualities to those of live poultry should considered except that this poultry is not alive. Most poultry in this form are those that are hunted as game birds.
  11. *DRESSED POULTRY – Most of the chickens in most markets are in this form, these are slaughtered poultry with head, feet and viscera intact, blood and feathers removed, good dressed poultry have moderate fat covering, free from pin feathers, no missing skin or parts. Those with slimy off odors and discoloration should be avoided. *DRAWN POULTRY – these are dressed poultry with the visceral organs, feet and head removed, drawn poultry are usually available in supermarkets, either chilled or frozen, freezing is done in local poultry processing plants which insure quality control, there are number of good brands of frozen drawn poultry in the local markets, frozen poultry with freezer burns should not be purchased. *READY TO COOK POULTRY PARTS – wings, drumsticks, thighs, backs, breast, legs, halves, quarters and internal organs such as livers with hearts and gizzards are separately pack and sold in supermarkets,
  12. *STEPS IN DRESSING POULTRY: *SLAUGHTERING AND BLEEDING – proper handling prior to slaughter is essential to prevent bruising and injury to the bird, live birds are not fed 8 to 24 hours prior to slaughter to allow easier removal of entrails, water may be given to the live animals, this practice improves flavor and tenderness of the meat, slaughtering is done by slitting the large or jugular vein in the animals throat, bleeding may take about 1 to 3 minutes to effect proper draining of its blood, in this case of large scale slaughtering the live birds are shackled and electrically steamed. *SCALDING – The bled birds are scaled by dipping in hot water at about 60˚ (140˚F) for 30 to 75 seconds, scalding is done to facilitate removal of feathers. In commercial dressing of poultry big tanks with good temporary control are used for scalding. *DEFEATHERING – Feathers are removed by rubbing, the birds are now called dressed poultry, defeathering in commercial basis is done in machines with rubberized “ picking fingers”.
  13. *EVISCERATION – Slitting the abdominal part and pulling out the entrails in one piece is called evisceration, when this is accomplished the poultry is called drawned poultry, the head and feet are cut-off clean and the oil glands are removed, if pin feathers are present, they may be removed by singeing over on an open flame, internal organs are removed and cleaned. *Commercially, evisceration is done in cool rooms where the carcass are also inspected by an authorized veterinarian and then chilled quick-frozen and vacuum- packed prior to marketing.
  14.  Turkey carcass and its cuts a/b leg (a=thigh, b= drumstick), c1/c2 breast meat (c1=breast, c2=filet), d=wing. Turkey meat, which has darker and brighter muscle components deriving from the same carcass is well suited for processed meat products. In some developed countries there are sizeable turkey meat industries, with outlets for processed turkey meat products, such as bologna/frankfurters/ham sausage type sausages, and cooked turkey hams. Such products are similar to the equivalent ones fabricated with beef and pork, but they are usually leaner. * A widely practiced approach is to classify turkey carcasses in two grades. Grade A is top quality with no defects on the meat surface and general appearance. Entire frozen carcasses as retail goods belong to this category. Grade B is the lower category and this meat is usually taken for further processing. When producing turkey cuts, those cuts not needed or suitable for fresh meat sales, can also go into further processing. In developing countries, the production of chicken meat is by far more important than the production of turkey meat. Chicken meat can be produced industrially around population centers and it is in high demand, particularly where pork is not consumed for socio-cultural or religious reasons. *The most popular processed products from chicken meat are chicken frankfurters, hotdogs, chicken ham sand the various breaded and fried products of the chicken nugget type
  15. Small-scale method *In small-scale operations more attention is usually paid to obtaining intact parts for individual sales. Conveyor systems are in most cases not available and therefore chicken carcasses are usually cut-up on a cutting board or table. Many different cutting styles have been developed. The following is one example. *First the chicken carcass is positioned on the cutting board with the breast muscle facing downwards. Then a deep cut is made just above the legs following the leg line (Fig. 81). The two carcass parts are pulled apart and the legs are separated with a knife by splitting the backbone. Next the wings are cut off through the lower wing joint (Fig. 82). If the breast and filets muscles are wanted separately, they are now removed from the upper carcass part and trimmed
  16. Grading of chicken meat for large operations  *Chicken manufacturing-meat for larger processing operations is usually categorized in four different grades.  The four grades of chicken meat are either used for pure chicken meat products or for mixed products.  In Halal products made from red meat (beef, mutton), the fat portion may partially or fully be chicken skin.  Also in customary mixed red meat products (like frankfurter, bologna, breakfast sausages, luncheon meat, etc.) normally made of lean pork and beef or lean pork only, and pork fat, part of the lean pork may be substituted by lean chicken meat.  This is usually done for cost-cutting reasons i.e. when cheaper chicken meat is available), but also to satisfy the growing demand for lower fat meat products. The four grades are described next page
  17. GRADE Chicken 1 (CH1) Chicken white muscle meat with visible fat, connective tissue and skin removed.  For this grade mainly breast and filet meat is used.  As meat of this grade is used for reconstituted chicken hams and chicken sausages with visible coarse meat parts, all fat and skin must be removed from the lean meat. GRADE Chicken 2 (CH2) Chicken muscle meat with adhering subcutaneous and intramuscular fat  Deboned and skinless meat from all chicken cuts (breast, legs, wings) can be used.  This meat is usually ground or chopped during further processing.  Smaller quantities of subcutaneous and intermuscular fat are usually not removed and incorporated in the final product.
  18.  GRADE Chicken 3 (CH3) Chicken skin/fat  Chicken skin is removed from the carcass or individual cuts and collected separately.  Chicken skin has a high fat content and is ground prior to being added to processed meat products.  Chicken fat serves as the fat portion in all-chicken processed meat products such as chicken frankfurters or chicken bologna.  It can also be used as fat in lean beef or mutton products, such as Halal frankfurters etc.  Chicken skin is added to meat products for the same purpose as pork fat in pork/beef products, namely to contribute to product flavour and softer product texture.
  19.  GRADE Chicken 4 (CH4) Mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDM)  This grade is manufactured in industrial chicken plants by mechanically separating remaining muscle tissue from the chicken carcasses after removing legs and wings and the breast muscles including skin.  Chicken necks are also used for MDM.  MDM contains muscle meat, connective tissue and some fat remaining on the bones after removing the meat cuts.  MDM is a typical industrial product and not produced in small operations.  However, it is available on the meat market and can be purchased by smaller producers as frozen blocks for further processing.
  20. Grade Chicken 1 (CH1) Breast meat Grade Chicken 2 (CH2) Chicken muscle meat with adhering subcutaneous and intermuscular fat Grade Chicken 3 (CH3) Chicken skin, ground (below: from close range) Grade Chicken 4 (CH4) Frozen chicken MDM in plastic bags (below: from close range) Grading scheme for chicken meat (industrial scale)
  21.  Grading of chicken meat for small operations  In small-scale operations, more emphasis is given to sales of fresh chicken parts.  Therefore usually only three grades of processing meat are obtained.  GRADE 1: Trimmed lean breast and filet muscle meat (light colour) Grade Chicken 1 (small- scale)(Breast and filet muscle)
  22.  GRADE 2: Leg meat (darker colour) and trimmings from carcass Grade Chicken 2 (small-scale)(Leg meat and trimmings)
  23.  GRADE 3: Skin/fat Grade Chicken 3 (small-scale)(Skin / fat)
  24. Eelworm
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