Poultry are domestic birds specially bred for the
Production of poultry may be adapted to most areas
of the world.
In the Philippines a total of 3.9 kg. poultry meat is
consumed per person a year and 97 % of this consist
of chicken, while the rest consist of turkey, pigeon,
it has a rapid growth rate and a rapid generation
time, that is poultry can produce meat in 8 weeks
and eggs in 24 weeks.
*Classification of Poultry
*Chicken – available fresh or frozen when sold.
* Pullet- baby chicken, four to six weeks old and weighs at
most. 1lb. It suitable for roasting and grilling.
*Double Poussin (Broiler) – this chicken is
six to ten weeks old and weighs about 2 lbs.
*Roasting Chicken (Roaster) – is the most
popular size for a family. It is eight weeks old and weighs 3.4
* Broiler Fowl – is an older bird usually a laying hen, about
8 months old, weighing 6 lbs. Meaty but also fat, it is suitable for
stews or casseroles.
*Capon – a surgically unsexed male chicken (usually under 8
months of age) tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-
*Stag-a male chicken (usually under 10 months of age) with
coarse skin, a toughened and darkened flesh and considerably
hardened breast-bone cartilage.
*Cock or Roaster-mature male chicken with coarse skin, a
toughened and darkened meat and hardened breast bone tip.
*Ducks – ducks are marketed as ducklings or young ducks, ducks
does not serve as many people as a chicken of similar weigh does,
6lb duck is only enough for four people, duck is fatty bird that is
best for roasted.
*Broiler duckling or Fryer Duckling – is a young duck usually
under 8 weeks of age of either sex, with tender meat, a soft bill and a soft
*Roster Duckling – a young duck usually under 16 weeks of age of
either sex, it is tender-meated and has a bill that is not completely
hardened and a windpipe that is easily dented.
* Mature duck or old duck – usually over 6 months of either sex,
toughened flesh and a hardened bill and hardened windpipe.
*TURKEY – are not readily available in the market although they may
be classified into:
*Fryer-roaster – a young immature turkey (16 weeks of age 4.8 lbs.) of
either sex that has tender meat with soft pliable, smooth-textured skin and
flexible breastbone cartilage.
*Young hen – a young female turkey (5-7 months weighing 8-4 lbs.) it is
tender-meated with soft pliable, smooth textured skin and breastbone
cartilage somewhat less flexible than in fryer-roaster turkey.
*Young tom – a young male (5-7 months weighing 12 lbs. of over) is also
tender-meated with soft pliable, smooth textured skin and breastbone
cartilage that is somewhat less flexible than in fryer-roaster turkey.
*Yearling hen – a fully matured female turkey (under of 15 months of age)
that is reasonably tender-meated and with smooth-textured skin.
*Yearling tom – a fully matured male, under 15 months of age that is
reasonably tender-meated and with smooth-textured skin.
*Mature or old turkey - an old turkey male or female usually more than
15 months old with coarse skin and toughened skin.
*Squab – is a young immature pigeon of either sex, and is extra tender-
*Pigeon – is a mature one of either sex, with coarse skin and roughened flesh.
*Goose – it is a fatty with creamy –white flesh which is light brown
*It has a slightly gamey flavor. It is marketed young and usually
weigh 6-12 lbs. but again it serve less per pond than chicken.
*Gosling – is a young goose not more than six months old.
*COMPOSITION OF POULTRY MEAT
* Nutritive value of poultry is similar to the other meat-producing animals.
* The proteins supplied by poultry are complete and contain amino acids
essential in building body tissue.
* Poultry Meat is a very good source of:
*Niacin – concentration of niacin is high in the flesh of young
*Riboflavin and Thiamine – is rich in dark chicken meat.
*PRINCIPLES OF POULTRY SELECTION:
*It is important to known the characteristics of each form to insure
proper selection when purchasing poultry.
*in the Philippines, poultry is marketed in these forms:
* LIVE POULTRY – selecting live poultry, choose those that are
alert, healthy, well-feathered and well-formed, it should have a
good fat covering and free from broken bones, bruises, and
blisters. Sluggish looking birds should not be purchased.
*WHOLE POULTRY – similar qualities to those of live poultry
should considered except that this poultry is not alive. Most
poultry in this form are those that are hunted as game birds.
*DRESSED POULTRY – Most of the chickens in most markets are
in this form, these are slaughtered poultry with head, feet and
viscera intact, blood and feathers removed, good dressed poultry
have moderate fat covering, free from pin feathers, no missing
skin or parts. Those with slimy off odors and discoloration should
*DRAWN POULTRY – these are dressed poultry with the visceral
organs, feet and head removed, drawn poultry are usually
available in supermarkets, either chilled or frozen, freezing is
done in local poultry processing plants which insure quality
control, there are number of good brands of frozen drawn poultry
in the local markets, frozen poultry with freezer burns should
not be purchased.
*READY TO COOK POULTRY PARTS – wings, drumsticks, thighs,
backs, breast, legs, halves, quarters and internal organs such as
livers with hearts and gizzards are separately pack and sold in
*STEPS IN DRESSING POULTRY:
*SLAUGHTERING AND BLEEDING – proper handling prior to
slaughter is essential to prevent bruising and injury to the bird, live birds
are not fed 8 to 24 hours prior to slaughter to allow easier removal of
entrails, water may be given to the live animals, this practice improves
flavor and tenderness of the meat, slaughtering is done by slitting the
large or jugular vein in the animals throat, bleeding may take about 1 to 3
minutes to effect proper draining of its blood, in this case of large scale
slaughtering the live birds are shackled and electrically steamed.
*SCALDING – The bled birds are scaled by dipping in hot water at about
60˚ (140˚F) for 30 to 75 seconds, scalding is done to facilitate removal of
feathers. In commercial dressing of poultry big tanks with good temporary
control are used for scalding.
*DEFEATHERING – Feathers are removed by rubbing, the birds are now
called dressed poultry, defeathering in commercial basis is done in
machines with rubberized “ picking fingers”.
*EVISCERATION – Slitting the abdominal part and
pulling out the entrails in one piece is called evisceration,
when this is accomplished the poultry is called drawned
poultry, the head and feet are cut-off clean and the oil
glands are removed, if pin feathers are present, they may
be removed by singeing over on an open flame, internal
organs are removed and cleaned.
*Commercially, evisceration is done in cool rooms where
the carcass are also inspected by an authorized
veterinarian and then chilled quick-frozen and vacuum-
packed prior to marketing.
Turkey carcass and its cuts a/b leg (a=thigh, b= drumstick), c1/c2
breast meat (c1=breast, c2=filet), d=wing.
Turkey meat, which has darker and brighter muscle components deriving
from the same carcass is well suited for processed meat products. In some
developed countries there are sizeable turkey meat industries, with outlets
for processed turkey meat products, such as bologna/frankfurters/ham
sausage type sausages, and cooked turkey hams. Such products are similar
to the equivalent ones fabricated with beef and pork, but they are usually
* A widely practiced approach is to classify turkey carcasses in two grades. Grade A is top
quality with no defects on the meat surface and general appearance. Entire frozen carcasses as
retail goods belong to this category. Grade B is the lower category and this meat is usually
taken for further processing. When producing turkey cuts, those cuts not needed or suitable for
fresh meat sales, can also go into further processing.
In developing countries, the production of chicken meat is by far more important than the
production of turkey meat. Chicken meat can be produced industrially around population
centers and it is in high demand, particularly where pork is not consumed for socio-cultural or
*The most popular processed products from chicken meat are chicken
frankfurters, hotdogs, chicken ham sand the various breaded and fried products of the chicken
*In small-scale operations more attention is usually paid to
obtaining intact parts for individual sales. Conveyor systems are
in most cases not available and therefore chicken carcasses are
usually cut-up on a cutting board or table. Many different
cutting styles have been developed. The following is one
*First the chicken carcass is positioned on the cutting board with
the breast muscle facing downwards. Then a deep cut is made
just above the legs following the leg line (Fig. 81). The two
carcass parts are pulled apart and the legs are separated with a
knife by splitting the backbone. Next the wings are cut off
through the lower wing joint (Fig. 82). If the breast and filets
muscles are wanted separately, they are now removed from the
upper carcass part and trimmed
Grading of chicken meat for large operations
*Chicken manufacturing-meat for larger processing operations is usually categorized
in four different grades.
The four grades of chicken meat are either used for pure chicken meat products or
for mixed products.
In Halal products made from red meat (beef, mutton), the fat portion may partially
or fully be chicken skin.
Also in customary mixed red meat products (like frankfurter, bologna, breakfast
sausages, luncheon meat, etc.) normally made of lean pork and beef or lean pork
only, and pork fat, part of the lean pork may be substituted by lean chicken meat.
This is usually done for cost-cutting reasons i.e. when cheaper chicken meat is
available), but also to satisfy the growing demand for lower fat meat products.
The four grades are described next page
GRADE Chicken 1 (CH1) Chicken white muscle meat with
visible fat, connective tissue and skin removed.
For this grade mainly breast and filet meat is used.
As meat of this grade is used for reconstituted chicken hams and
chicken sausages with visible coarse meat parts, all fat and skin must
be removed from the lean meat.
GRADE Chicken 2 (CH2) Chicken muscle meat with adhering
subcutaneous and intramuscular fat
Deboned and skinless meat from all chicken cuts (breast, legs, wings)
can be used.
This meat is usually ground or chopped during further processing.
Smaller quantities of subcutaneous and intermuscular fat are usually not
removed and incorporated in the final product.
GRADE Chicken 3 (CH3) Chicken skin/fat
Chicken skin is removed from the carcass or
individual cuts and collected separately.
Chicken skin has a high fat content and is ground
prior to being added to processed meat products.
Chicken fat serves as the fat portion in all-chicken
processed meat products such as chicken
frankfurters or chicken bologna.
It can also be used as fat in lean beef or mutton
products, such as Halal frankfurters etc.
Chicken skin is added to meat products for the same
purpose as pork fat in pork/beef products, namely
to contribute to product flavour and softer product
GRADE Chicken 4 (CH4) Mechanically deboned
chicken meat (MDM)
This grade is manufactured in industrial chicken
plants by mechanically separating remaining muscle
tissue from the chicken carcasses after removing
legs and wings and the breast muscles including skin.
Chicken necks are also used for MDM.
MDM contains muscle meat, connective tissue and
some fat remaining on the bones after removing the
MDM is a typical industrial product and not produced
in small operations.
However, it is available on the meat market and can
be purchased by smaller producers as frozen blocks
for further processing.
Grade Chicken 1 (CH1)
Grade Chicken 2 (CH2)
Chicken muscle meat with adhering subcutaneous and
Grade Chicken 3 (CH3) Chicken skin, ground
(below: from close range)
Grade Chicken 4 (CH4) Frozen chicken MDM in
plastic bags (below: from close range)
Grading scheme for chicken meat (industrial scale)
Grading of chicken meat for small
In small-scale operations, more emphasis is given to sales of
fresh chicken parts.
Therefore usually only three grades of processing meat are
GRADE 1: Trimmed lean breast and filet muscle meat (light colour)
Grade Chicken 1 (small-
scale)(Breast and filet
GRADE 2: Leg meat (darker colour) and trimmings from
Grade Chicken 2 (small-scale)(Leg meat and trimmings)