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Hassan fathy

Hassan fathy

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ARCHITECT HASSAN FATHY
AN ARCHITECTURE FOR PEOPLE
DESIGN ELEMENTS OF HASSAN FATHY
GOURNA MOSQUE
ABD AL-RAHMAN NASSIF HOUSE

ARCHITECT HASSAN FATHY
AN ARCHITECTURE FOR PEOPLE
DESIGN ELEMENTS OF HASSAN FATHY
GOURNA MOSQUE
ABD AL-RAHMAN NASSIF HOUSE

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Hassan fathy

  1. 1. Hassan Fathy Egyptian Architect (1900 – 1989)
  2. 2. Introduction  The master builder, Hassan Fathy (1900- 1989) was one of the first architects to break with modern architecture and to found a new approach based on a conception of interpreting forms and masses from the past.  He was unique in believing that this language could exist alongside that of an aggressively modern one that cut all ties with the past he Designed 160 separate projects from modest country retreats to fully planned communities, markets, schools, theatres, places for worship and for recreation.
  3. 3. Architectural Perspectives  Ancient design methods and materials  Utilizing a knowledge of rural Egyptian economic situation  Space design suitable to surrounding environ- ment  Low cost construction without using R.C.C and steel  Training locals to build ones own house
  4. 4. SIX MAJOR PRINCIPLES THAT FORM THE CRUX OF FATHY'S WORK : • The belief in the primacy of human values in architecture • The importance of a universal rather than a limited approach • The use of appropriate technology • The need for socially oriented, cooperative construction techniques • The essential role of tradition • The re-establishment of cultural pride through the art of building
  5. 5. Design Elements Mud brick (Adobe) walls Thick walls Wind-catcher and Qanat Decorative screens Building orientation and placement of windows Domes and Vaulted roofs Courtyard
  6. 6. Adobe Walls
  7. 7. Thick Walls
  8. 8. Wind-Catcher And qanat
  9. 9. Screened Walls And Placement Of Windows
  10. 10. Domes And Vaulted Roofs
  11. 11. Courtyard
  12. 12. ROLE AS AN ARCHITECT: • As an architect, he was influenced the most by the monumental architecture in the Pharaonic period also, strongly influenced intellectually by the concept of the vernacular arch. of the Nubians. • Hassan Fathy’s main purpose was housing the poor in developing nations by applying the concept he was strongly influenced by which is the vernacular architecture of the Nubians which opened up his mind to discover the true essence of the heritage and being inspired by the ancestor’s work.
  13. 13. • His goal was to combine between a comfy descent housing & being poor, because after all, home is where the person should feel comfy at ease serene and cool no matter what was the temperature and the circumstances outside. “ Matchbox houses" were too hot in the summer and too cold in winter. Nubian craftsmen were masters at constructing domed and vaulted roofs of . mud work which they also used for the walls.
  14. 14. • Hassan Fathy developed his own ideas, inculcating traditional Arab styles like the malkhaf (wind catcher), the shukshaykha (lantern dome) and the mashrabeya (wooden lattice screens) which could be combined with the mud- brick construction • He designed complete communities including utilities and services, country retreats, and special projects and homes. • Hassan Fathy had already worked for decades in his beloved Egypt before he designed and built for the homeless community of Gourna, Upper Egypt, which attracted international acclaim.
  15. 15. • One would enter a home made out of local natural resources with dome shaped ceilings and no electrical air-conditioning, to find a sudden descent of peace and calm within a cool atmosphere.
  16. 16. GOURNA MOSQUE The elevation
  17. 17. Plan And Sectional elevation Guma Mosque, Gourna
  18. 18. Screens in Window
  19. 19. Vaulted roof at Gourna Theatre
  20. 20. Ventilation system
  21. 21. ABD AL-RAHMAN NASSIF HOUSE Location: Saudi Arabia Date: 1973 Building type: residential  The house was built with stone block recovered from the demolition of the traditional tower houses in the old city, which the client unsuccessfully tried to save.  Rather than using the familiar dome over the majlishere, he felt that an octagonal shukshieka would be more regionally appropriate, and the use of this particular element carries over into a larger house designed in tabuk.  The importance of the Nassif house comes mainly from its early idealistic and innovative attempt to revive Jeddah’s lost heritage at the time when it was invaded by the modern office blocks and shopping malls which necessitated the demolition of many of its historic buildings
  22. 22. >The house consists of two storey with a double-height reception hall, ten different rooms, service areas, internal courtyard with fountain and open courtyard with garden pavilion on the first floor. >The house featured Arabic Islamic elements including domes, mashrabiyyahs (wooden lattice work), thick walls, enclosed patios and fountains of marble . >Nassif house evoked the value of tradition at a time when the influence of the International Style was widespread because of the oil boom of that period. >It also drew the attention of the people to their architectural heritage and stimulated the realization that Jeddah was the only remaining example of Red Sea architecture in Saudi Arabia.
  23. 23. Old Nassif House, Jeddah  Entrance from the courtyard Inner courtyard with pavilion
  24. 24. Overall Understanding  Mud brick – Low heat radiation, low cost, availability  Thick wall – high insulation  Small windows not facing the sun.  Windcatcher – Air circulation, a pressure gradient used to get away with the hot air.  Qanat – Used with windcatcher to cool the interior air by deep cut canal in the floor filled with water.  Screens – Restrict glare of light  No use of R.C.C and Steel for high heat radiation  Courtyard with partial greenery to screen dust and sand in the prevailing wind.
  25. 25. Design Phillosophy  Low cost construction  Usage of local materials and vernacular architecture  Training of local people in construction to reduce labor cost  Against western techniques and ‘Matcbox houses’  Design development with energy conservation technique, Study of temperature and wind patterns.  Passive cooling

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