2. Where are you from?
Primordial ties (language, culture, place of
We tend to identify ourselves with a particular
We also tend to distinguish ourselves from the
rest of the population.
WHY DO WE DO THIS?
What benefits does this have for us?
Does it cause us to be seen different by the rest of
3. Social Hierarchies
Social hierarchies (e.g. Tutsi/Hutu in
Tutsi above Hutu
Hutu revolted and committed genocide
against the Tutsi
4. Cultural Conflict/Genocide
Ghosts of Rwanda
This video is just a few minutes of a
documentary on the Rwanda cultural
What are your feelings, perceptions about
5. Access to power, wealth and status
Globalization of culture
“She is an illegal ‘alien’ “ - ALIEN?
“African American” vs. “African”
Africans do not share an identity, or cultural ties
to “African Americans”.. Very different identity
6. Immigration/Migration and Refugees
Immigration is …………..
Migration is ……………..
All create “Identity Crises”
We see : transnational identities, political
identities and identities of struggle
Palestinian Christian, Africans etc.
Do you, or do you know people who would
identify with these?
7. Globalization and Culture
Culture is LEARNED, is SHARED (not
individual) behavior, and includes both
ABSTRACT (language, religion) and
MATERIAL elements (architecture,
Culture is the social glue that binds
Culture is dynamic, not static
8. Cultural Diversity
Cultural diversity refers to variation in
institutions, language, customs, beliefs,
traditions and values
Ethnic groups (USA, Canada)
13% of the USA is foreign born
20% of Canadians are
foreign born (2006 Census)
Assimilation refers to the merging of
different groups and their cultures into a
single common culture (e.g. melting pot
Integration refers to adoption of “certain”
ways of life from the “host society”
Different ethnic cultures do not simply
"blend in” – Aboriginals, Africans
Ethnic and racial differences should thrive
(as long they are not a threat to dominant
This happened in the 70s in the US
All gaining momentum in labour force.
Civil Rights Movement
Focus is on tolerance of diversity
Really? What do you think about this?
11. Pluralism - continued
Social Darwinism underlies pluralism
Survival of the fittest
Social groups compete for resources and
Stereotypes assuming strengths and
weaknesses of a particular group
East Indians – ambitious
Mexican Americans – family orientation
An expression of a need to belong
On the rise in North America
Product of globalization
Commercialization of MC (e.g. gay
market, Hispanic market, senior market)
Multiculturalism in Canada – perspective
14. Multiculturalism – Affinity Groups
The common thread of identity for culturally defined
These groups rival biological family,
neighbourhoods for importance/influence
Powerful, and rival unions, political parties, religious
Seen as the “nursery of human nature”
Often have emerged from subcultures
Examples: Meetup.com, reading/book clubs…..
What is a subculture?
A group, that is part of the dominant
culture, yet clearly differentiates
themselves from the dominant culture…
for many reasons, in many ways. They
exist within mainstream culture
Connotes subservient population
‘less than’ the dominant
16. Subcultures - Continued
Examples of Subcultures:
Many academics prefer the term:
Co-culture : connotes a standard of
unity/equality, rather than substandard
perception (SUB = inferior)
- this is more of a MC perspective
Countercultures – group that tends to react
against/resist the directives of the dominant
culture… most often to elicit some change/shift
in thinking in the dominant culture. Causes
the cultural pendulum to swing in the other
Example: cultural pendulum we talked about
18. Counterculture - continued
Countercultures: openly oppose the
Actively seek to change the dominant
Example: Black Panthers
In Oakland Bobby Seale and Huey P.
Newton founded the Black Panthers in
1966 with a ten-point platform for
addressing racial and economic inequality
19. Counterculture - continued
Example: Hippies – Opposition to social
norms, hair, clothes, etc. and politics – war
in Viet Nam
20. Identity Politics
Identity politics-refers to beliefs,
behaviour and action of culturally diverse
Power of culture- to transform society
Identity politics threaten the
“conventional nation-state” (minorities)
21. Mobilizing Agents
What is a mobilizing agent?
Who do you/we know in our current
culture that would be considered a
How can they effect change?
Do we need them? Why?
22. Multicultural Paradox
Refers to the interplay between:
Homogeneity- biological and social
similarities of a group
Heterogeneity – biological and social
differences of a group
Hinweis der Redaktion
Social hierarchy established by the Belgians under colonialism put the Tutsi above the Hutu
UN attempt to resolve issues recommended a government where Tutsi and Hutu would work together
the Hutu Racial extremists the Interahamwe systematically slaughtered the Tutsi people and non-racist Hutu's
We talk about Africans as if it were one country and one culture
Immigration is the act of people or animals moving and settling in a country or region to which they are not native. Immigration is made for many reasons, including temperature, breeding, economic, political, family re-unification, natural disaster, poverty or the wish to change one's surroundings voluntarily.
Migration is physical movement by humans from one area to another
Recent settlers of North America trace their origins to Europe,Africa, Asioa, and Latin America
Many groups claim a particular heritage that distinguishes them from other such groups and from a mainstream dominant culture
In 2011, Canada welcomed 156,077 economic immigrants and 56,419 family class immigrants.
Canada’s per-capita immigration rate remains one of the highest in the world
2006 census figures analyzed by Statistics Canada show that one in five people living in Canada are foreign-born, the highest proportion in 75 years.
ssimilation applies mostly to the White Anglo Saxon Protestants – WASPS
Aboriginals and enslaved Africans were not candidates for assimilation because they stand out in physical appearance compared to White Ethnics such as Greeks, Italians, etc.
Empasis is on moral relativism, a social ethic rooted in tolerance of diversity, rather than acceptance and appreciation of collective behaviour that may contradict or threaten a dominant culture