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VIRTUAL REALITY &
AUGMENTED REALITY
CONTENTS…
 Virtual Reality (VR)
 How it is experienced
 How does it work
 Applications
 Augmented Reality (AR)
 Differences between VR and AR
 Types of Virtual Reality
 History of Virtual Reality
 Programming Language for VR
VIRTUAL REALITY (VR)
 Virtual = Not physically existing Reality = Evident thing
 It is an artificial computer generated environment
 Created with a software
 Seems like a real environment
 Creates artificial sensory experience of sight and hearing
HOW IT IS EXPERIENCED?
 VR is typically experienced through wearable hardware or headsets.
 Examples are Facebook’s Oculus, The HTC Vive, Samsung Gear VR or
the Microsoft Hololens
HOW DOES IT WORK?
 Virtual reality are often referred to as Head Mounted Display (HMD).
 Holding up Google Cardboard to place your Smartphone’s display in
front of your face can be enough to get you half immersed in a virtual
world.
 The goal of the hardware is to create virtual environment without
the boundaries we usually associate with TV or computer screens.
 So whichever way you look, the screen mounted to your face follows
you.
 Video is sent from the console or computer.
APPLICATIONS OF VR
 Education and training
 Retail
 Media
 Video games
 Urban design
VR IN EDUCATION & TRAINING
 Astronomy students can learn about the solar system and how it works
by physical engagement with the objects within. They can move
planets, see around stars and track the progress of a comet.
 This is useful for students who have a particular learning style, e.g.
creative or those who find it easier to learn using symbols, colors and
textures.
 One ideal learning scenario is medicine: virtual reality can be used to
develop surgery simulations three dimensional images of the human
body which the students can explore.
 Videos are commonly used as a medium to provide context and offer a
visual representation of storylines to audiences. Viewers will be drawn
deeper into the content and perhaps even experience the story from a
first-person perspective.
 Paramount Pictures launched their first VR movie theatre, where
audiences with any brand of VR headset can sign up to experience
movies in 3D within a virtual movie theatre. People can virtually walk
into a movie theatre and sit among a virtual audience, which consists of
other individuals watching the movie, whom they can chat with before
the movie begins.
VR IN MEDIA
VR IN GAMING
 A person can experience being in a three-dimensional environment and
interact with that environment during a game.
 One way of detecting a person’s presence in a game is bio-sensing.
These are small sensors which are attached to a data glove, suit or even
the body and record movements made by that person in a 3D space.
Those movements are interpreted by a computer and trigger a variety
of responses within that space.
 These movements are fed back to a computer which then analyses the
data and uses this to transform your actions into the appropriate
responses on the screen.
VR GAMES AVAILABLE…
 Second Life
 Active Worlds
 Blue Mars
 Empire of Sports
 NuVera Online
 Onverse
 PlayStation 3 Home
 Red Light Center
AUGMENTED REALITY (AR)
 Augment = Amplify/Boost Reality = Evident thing
 It is a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment
whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory
inputs.
 Inputs can be sound, video, graphics or GPS data.
 Unlike virtual reality, which creates a totally artificial environment,
augmented reality uses the existing environment and overlays new
information on top of it.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VR AND AR
TYPES OF VIRTUAL REALITY
 Non-immersive
 Fully immersive
 Collaborative
 Web Based
 Augmented Reality
FULLY IMMERSIVE
 For the complete VR experience, we need three things.
 First, a plausible, and richly detailed virtual world to explore.
 Second, a powerful computer that can detect what we're going and
adjust our experience accordingly, in real time.
 Third, hardware linked to the computer that fully immerses us in the
virtual world as we roam around.
 We need for the experience the VR, the head-mounted display with two
screens and stereo sound, and wear one or more sensory gloves.
NON-IMMERSIVE
 The Example for the Non-immersive Virtual Reality,
 Highly realistic Flight Simulator
 Architect build a detailed 3D model of a new building
 Most People are use this type of the Virtual Reality
 Computer archaeologists create engaging 3D reconstructions of long-
lost settlements that you can move around and explore
COLLABORATIVE
 Collaborative reality is usually in the form of virtual reality games and
they are not fully immersive.
 This virtual reality gives the viewer an interactive experience and so one
can even share their experience with other people in the virtual world.
WEB BASED
 Some Scientists have discovered ways to use virtual reality over the
internet using the Virtual Reality Markup Language (VRML).
 This gives people an opportunity to discover new and interesting things
the internet can offer. Also, people get to interact and have real
experiences with their friends on social media.
HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY
Sensorama
 It was invented in the 1957s.
 Morton Heilig invented a large booth-like machine
called the Sensorama.
 Which was intended to combine multiple technologies.
 Like, Fully 3D immersive world — complete with smell,
stereo sound, vibrations, and even atmospheric effects
like wind in the hair.
 A few years later, in 1960, he honed a version of this idea
into a patent for the world’s first head-mounted display,
promising stereoscopic 3D images, wide vision, and true
stereo sound.
HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY
The Sword of Damocles
 The first actual VR head-mounted display (HMD) was created in 1968 by
computer scientist Ivan Sutherland.
 Sutherland was one of the most important figures in the history of
computer graphics, having developed the revolutionary “Sketchpad”
software that paves the way for tools like Computer-Aided Design
(CAD).
 Sutherland’s HMD was a project he described as “the ultimate display.”
It connected to a stereoscopic display from a computer program
depicting simple virtual wireframe shapes, which changed perspective
as the user moved his or her head.
HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY
The Super Cockpit
 It was invented in the 1970-80s.
 A military engineer named Thomas Furness was busy developing an
ambitious flight simulator project which eventually grows into
something called the “Super Cockpit.”
 Super cockpit able to project computer-generated 3D maps, infrared
and radar imagery, as well as avionics data into a real-time 3D space.
 the Super Cockpit allows a trainee pilot to control an aircraft using
gestures, speech, and even eye movements.
HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY
The Aspen Movie Map
 Developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1978, with a
helping hand from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the
Aspen Movie Map was basically a virtual reality take on Google Street
View.
 Instead of the basic 3D graphics, it used photographs taken from a car
driving through Aspen, giving the user an interactive first-person
journey around the city.
 Running it required several Laserdisc players, a computer, and a touch
screen display..
HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY
Sega VR
 One of the first companies to attempt to launch a VR headset was
Sega.
 With development starting in 1991 and continuing for a couple years
after, Sega VR was an attempt to squeeze more life out of the
company’s 16-bit games console.
 “Sega VR will create the impression that you are exploring an alternate
reality,” a press release stated. “As your eyes shift focus from one
object to the next, the binocular parallax constantly changes to give
you the impression of a three-dimensional world.”
 But Sega VR are never released.
HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY
Enter the Oculus
 In 2010, 18-year-old entrepreneur Palmer Luckey created the first
prototype of the Oculus Rift.
 Boasting a 90-degree field of view that hadn’t been seen previously in
a consumer device
HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY
Hitting the mainstream
 Here in 2017, hundreds of companies are working on
their own VR headsets. These include market leaders
such as HTC, but also Google (with its enormously
popular Google Cardboard), Apple, Amazon, Sony,
Samsung, and others.
VR INPUT DEVICES
 Physical devices that convey information into the application and
support the interaction in the Virtual World.
MAPPING BETWEEN INPUT AND OUTPUT
INPUT DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS
 Size and shape, encumbrance
 Degrees of Freedom
 Integrated (mouse) vs. separable (Etch-a-sketch)
 Direct vs. indirect manipulation
 Relative vs. Absolute input
 Relative: measure difference between current and last input (mouse)
 Absolute: measure input relative to a constant point of reference (tablet)
 Rate control vs. position control
 Isometric vs. Isotonic
 Isometric: measure pressure or force with no actual movement
 Isotonic: measure deflection from a center point (e.g. mouse)
HAND INPUT DEVICES
 Devices that integrate hand input into VR
 World-Grounded input devices
 Devices fixed in real world (e.g. joystick)
 Non-Tracked handheld controllers
 Devices held in hand, but not tracked in 3D (e.g. xbox controller)
 Tracked handheld controllers
 Physical device with 6 DOF tracking inside (e.g. Vive controllers)
 Hand-Worn Devices
 Gloves, EMG bands, rings, or devices worn on hand/arm
 Bare Hand Input
 Using technology to recognize natural hand input
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE
 C++ Unreal Engine 4
 JAVA JAVA 3D Application
 Python Blender
 JavaScript WebVR Content
 C# Unity 3D
VARIOUS SOFTWARE FOR VR
 Unreal Engine 4
 Unity 3D
 Blender
 Open GL
 Lumberyard
 Iris VR
 Hyperlink Infosystem
 Cubicle Ninjas
 App Real-VR
 VR Scape
UNREAL ENGINE 4
 Full Editor in VR Mode
 Full C++ Source Code Included
 Blueprints: Create without Coding
 VFX & Particle Systems
 Film-Quality Post-Process Effects
 Built for VR, AR and XR
 Advanced AI
 Extensive Animation Toolset
UNITY 3D
 Rich & Extensible Editor
 All-in-one editor
 2D & 3D
 AI pathfinding tools
 VR & AR
 tool for the majority of XR creators
 Graphics Rendering
 Real-time rendering engine
 Native Graphics APIs
LUMBERYARD
 Twitch ChatPlay
 Twitch JoinIn
 Native C++, Source Included
 Modular Gems
 Real-time Gameplay Editing
SOFTWARE FOR AUGMENTED REALITY
 A Frame
 A Framework that adds HTML tags for most of the functionality in three.js and other JavaScript
features as a superset of this lower level underlying 3-D framework.
 Apertus VR
 It is an embeddable, open-source (MIT), framework-independent, platform-independent,
network-topology-independent, distributed AR / VR / MR engine; written in C++; with JavaScript
and HTTP Rest API (in Node.js).
 AR Tool Kit
 an open source C-library to create augmented reality applications; was ported to many different
languages and platforms like Android, Flash or Silverlight; very widely used in augmented reality
related projects.
 JAVACV
 A Java and Android interface to OpenCV.
 Goblin XNA
 a platform for researching 3D user interfaces, including mobile augmented reality and
virtual reality, emphasizing games
 Atomic Authoring tool
DISPLAY
 Head Mounted Display
 Device paired to a headset such as a harness or helmet.
 Eye Glasses
 Eye wear that employs cameras to intercept the real world
view and re-display it's augmented view through the eye
pieces 10.
 Contact Lances
 Contain the elements for display embedded into the lens
including integrated circuitry, LEDs and an antenna for
wireless communication.
 Under development
DISPLAY
 Virtual Retina Display
 a personal display device under development
 a display is scanned directly onto the retina of a viewer's eye.
 Handheld
 a small display that fits in a user's hand
 Portable
 Ubiquitous
 Physical constraints of the user having to hold the device
 Distorting effect
DISPLAY
 Spatial
 makes use of digital projectors to display graphical information.
 user is not required to carry equipment or wear the display over their eyes.
 can be used by multiple people at the same time without each having to
wear a head-mounted display.
Vr & ar 1
Vr & ar 1

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Vr & ar 1

  • 2. CONTENTS…  Virtual Reality (VR)  How it is experienced  How does it work  Applications  Augmented Reality (AR)  Differences between VR and AR  Types of Virtual Reality  History of Virtual Reality  Programming Language for VR
  • 3. VIRTUAL REALITY (VR)  Virtual = Not physically existing Reality = Evident thing  It is an artificial computer generated environment  Created with a software  Seems like a real environment  Creates artificial sensory experience of sight and hearing
  • 4. HOW IT IS EXPERIENCED?  VR is typically experienced through wearable hardware or headsets.  Examples are Facebook’s Oculus, The HTC Vive, Samsung Gear VR or the Microsoft Hololens
  • 5.
  • 6. HOW DOES IT WORK?  Virtual reality are often referred to as Head Mounted Display (HMD).  Holding up Google Cardboard to place your Smartphone’s display in front of your face can be enough to get you half immersed in a virtual world.  The goal of the hardware is to create virtual environment without the boundaries we usually associate with TV or computer screens.  So whichever way you look, the screen mounted to your face follows you.  Video is sent from the console or computer.
  • 7.
  • 8. APPLICATIONS OF VR  Education and training  Retail  Media  Video games  Urban design
  • 9. VR IN EDUCATION & TRAINING  Astronomy students can learn about the solar system and how it works by physical engagement with the objects within. They can move planets, see around stars and track the progress of a comet.  This is useful for students who have a particular learning style, e.g. creative or those who find it easier to learn using symbols, colors and textures.  One ideal learning scenario is medicine: virtual reality can be used to develop surgery simulations three dimensional images of the human body which the students can explore.
  • 10.
  • 11.  Videos are commonly used as a medium to provide context and offer a visual representation of storylines to audiences. Viewers will be drawn deeper into the content and perhaps even experience the story from a first-person perspective.  Paramount Pictures launched their first VR movie theatre, where audiences with any brand of VR headset can sign up to experience movies in 3D within a virtual movie theatre. People can virtually walk into a movie theatre and sit among a virtual audience, which consists of other individuals watching the movie, whom they can chat with before the movie begins. VR IN MEDIA
  • 12. VR IN GAMING  A person can experience being in a three-dimensional environment and interact with that environment during a game.  One way of detecting a person’s presence in a game is bio-sensing. These are small sensors which are attached to a data glove, suit or even the body and record movements made by that person in a 3D space. Those movements are interpreted by a computer and trigger a variety of responses within that space.  These movements are fed back to a computer which then analyses the data and uses this to transform your actions into the appropriate responses on the screen.
  • 13.
  • 14. VR GAMES AVAILABLE…  Second Life  Active Worlds  Blue Mars  Empire of Sports  NuVera Online  Onverse  PlayStation 3 Home  Red Light Center
  • 15. AUGMENTED REALITY (AR)  Augment = Amplify/Boost Reality = Evident thing  It is a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory inputs.  Inputs can be sound, video, graphics or GPS data.  Unlike virtual reality, which creates a totally artificial environment, augmented reality uses the existing environment and overlays new information on top of it.
  • 16.
  • 18. TYPES OF VIRTUAL REALITY  Non-immersive  Fully immersive  Collaborative  Web Based  Augmented Reality
  • 19. FULLY IMMERSIVE  For the complete VR experience, we need three things.  First, a plausible, and richly detailed virtual world to explore.  Second, a powerful computer that can detect what we're going and adjust our experience accordingly, in real time.  Third, hardware linked to the computer that fully immerses us in the virtual world as we roam around.  We need for the experience the VR, the head-mounted display with two screens and stereo sound, and wear one or more sensory gloves.
  • 20. NON-IMMERSIVE  The Example for the Non-immersive Virtual Reality,  Highly realistic Flight Simulator  Architect build a detailed 3D model of a new building  Most People are use this type of the Virtual Reality  Computer archaeologists create engaging 3D reconstructions of long- lost settlements that you can move around and explore
  • 21. COLLABORATIVE  Collaborative reality is usually in the form of virtual reality games and they are not fully immersive.  This virtual reality gives the viewer an interactive experience and so one can even share their experience with other people in the virtual world.
  • 22. WEB BASED  Some Scientists have discovered ways to use virtual reality over the internet using the Virtual Reality Markup Language (VRML).  This gives people an opportunity to discover new and interesting things the internet can offer. Also, people get to interact and have real experiences with their friends on social media.
  • 23. HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY Sensorama  It was invented in the 1957s.  Morton Heilig invented a large booth-like machine called the Sensorama.  Which was intended to combine multiple technologies.  Like, Fully 3D immersive world — complete with smell, stereo sound, vibrations, and even atmospheric effects like wind in the hair.  A few years later, in 1960, he honed a version of this idea into a patent for the world’s first head-mounted display, promising stereoscopic 3D images, wide vision, and true stereo sound.
  • 24. HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY The Sword of Damocles  The first actual VR head-mounted display (HMD) was created in 1968 by computer scientist Ivan Sutherland.  Sutherland was one of the most important figures in the history of computer graphics, having developed the revolutionary “Sketchpad” software that paves the way for tools like Computer-Aided Design (CAD).  Sutherland’s HMD was a project he described as “the ultimate display.” It connected to a stereoscopic display from a computer program depicting simple virtual wireframe shapes, which changed perspective as the user moved his or her head.
  • 25. HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY The Super Cockpit  It was invented in the 1970-80s.  A military engineer named Thomas Furness was busy developing an ambitious flight simulator project which eventually grows into something called the “Super Cockpit.”  Super cockpit able to project computer-generated 3D maps, infrared and radar imagery, as well as avionics data into a real-time 3D space.  the Super Cockpit allows a trainee pilot to control an aircraft using gestures, speech, and even eye movements.
  • 26.
  • 27. HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY The Aspen Movie Map  Developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1978, with a helping hand from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Aspen Movie Map was basically a virtual reality take on Google Street View.  Instead of the basic 3D graphics, it used photographs taken from a car driving through Aspen, giving the user an interactive first-person journey around the city.  Running it required several Laserdisc players, a computer, and a touch screen display..
  • 28. HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY Sega VR  One of the first companies to attempt to launch a VR headset was Sega.  With development starting in 1991 and continuing for a couple years after, Sega VR was an attempt to squeeze more life out of the company’s 16-bit games console.  “Sega VR will create the impression that you are exploring an alternate reality,” a press release stated. “As your eyes shift focus from one object to the next, the binocular parallax constantly changes to give you the impression of a three-dimensional world.”  But Sega VR are never released.
  • 29. HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY Enter the Oculus  In 2010, 18-year-old entrepreneur Palmer Luckey created the first prototype of the Oculus Rift.  Boasting a 90-degree field of view that hadn’t been seen previously in a consumer device
  • 30. HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY Hitting the mainstream  Here in 2017, hundreds of companies are working on their own VR headsets. These include market leaders such as HTC, but also Google (with its enormously popular Google Cardboard), Apple, Amazon, Sony, Samsung, and others.
  • 31. VR INPUT DEVICES  Physical devices that convey information into the application and support the interaction in the Virtual World.
  • 32. MAPPING BETWEEN INPUT AND OUTPUT
  • 33. INPUT DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS  Size and shape, encumbrance  Degrees of Freedom  Integrated (mouse) vs. separable (Etch-a-sketch)  Direct vs. indirect manipulation  Relative vs. Absolute input  Relative: measure difference between current and last input (mouse)  Absolute: measure input relative to a constant point of reference (tablet)  Rate control vs. position control  Isometric vs. Isotonic  Isometric: measure pressure or force with no actual movement  Isotonic: measure deflection from a center point (e.g. mouse)
  • 34. HAND INPUT DEVICES  Devices that integrate hand input into VR  World-Grounded input devices  Devices fixed in real world (e.g. joystick)  Non-Tracked handheld controllers  Devices held in hand, but not tracked in 3D (e.g. xbox controller)  Tracked handheld controllers  Physical device with 6 DOF tracking inside (e.g. Vive controllers)  Hand-Worn Devices  Gloves, EMG bands, rings, or devices worn on hand/arm  Bare Hand Input  Using technology to recognize natural hand input
  • 35. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE  C++ Unreal Engine 4  JAVA JAVA 3D Application  Python Blender  JavaScript WebVR Content  C# Unity 3D
  • 36. VARIOUS SOFTWARE FOR VR  Unreal Engine 4  Unity 3D  Blender  Open GL  Lumberyard  Iris VR  Hyperlink Infosystem  Cubicle Ninjas  App Real-VR  VR Scape
  • 37. UNREAL ENGINE 4  Full Editor in VR Mode  Full C++ Source Code Included  Blueprints: Create without Coding  VFX & Particle Systems  Film-Quality Post-Process Effects  Built for VR, AR and XR  Advanced AI  Extensive Animation Toolset
  • 38. UNITY 3D  Rich & Extensible Editor  All-in-one editor  2D & 3D  AI pathfinding tools  VR & AR  tool for the majority of XR creators  Graphics Rendering  Real-time rendering engine  Native Graphics APIs
  • 39. LUMBERYARD  Twitch ChatPlay  Twitch JoinIn  Native C++, Source Included  Modular Gems  Real-time Gameplay Editing
  • 40. SOFTWARE FOR AUGMENTED REALITY  A Frame  A Framework that adds HTML tags for most of the functionality in three.js and other JavaScript features as a superset of this lower level underlying 3-D framework.  Apertus VR  It is an embeddable, open-source (MIT), framework-independent, platform-independent, network-topology-independent, distributed AR / VR / MR engine; written in C++; with JavaScript and HTTP Rest API (in Node.js).  AR Tool Kit  an open source C-library to create augmented reality applications; was ported to many different languages and platforms like Android, Flash or Silverlight; very widely used in augmented reality related projects.  JAVACV  A Java and Android interface to OpenCV.  Goblin XNA  a platform for researching 3D user interfaces, including mobile augmented reality and virtual reality, emphasizing games  Atomic Authoring tool
  • 41. DISPLAY  Head Mounted Display  Device paired to a headset such as a harness or helmet.  Eye Glasses  Eye wear that employs cameras to intercept the real world view and re-display it's augmented view through the eye pieces 10.  Contact Lances  Contain the elements for display embedded into the lens including integrated circuitry, LEDs and an antenna for wireless communication.  Under development
  • 42. DISPLAY  Virtual Retina Display  a personal display device under development  a display is scanned directly onto the retina of a viewer's eye.  Handheld  a small display that fits in a user's hand  Portable  Ubiquitous  Physical constraints of the user having to hold the device  Distorting effect
  • 43. DISPLAY  Spatial  makes use of digital projectors to display graphical information.  user is not required to carry equipment or wear the display over their eyes.  can be used by multiple people at the same time without each having to wear a head-mounted display.