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  1. 1. CAPACITY BUILDING NEEDSCAPACITY BUILDING NEEDS FOR LANDSCAPEFOR LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTED WETLANDSCONSTRUCTED WETLANDS Presented ByPresented By Ho Sinn-ChyeHo Sinn-Chye Ministry of Science, TechnologyMinistry of Science, Technology and the Environmentand the Environment
  2. 2. Natural WetlandsNatural Wetlands • water capacitors, buffers and connectors • nutrient regulators. • life support habitats • cradles of biodiversity They perform many vital functions as: • stabilizers of local climatic conditions
  3. 3. Natural WetlandsNatural Wetlands Interrelationship between … EcosystemEcosystem ProcessesProcesses EcosystemEcosystem StructureStructure Wetland FunctionsWetland Functions Wetland ValuesWetland Values
  4. 4. Commercial Harvest Value Commercial Production Value On-Site Recreational Use Value Culture, Art and Entertainment Value Existence Value Ecosystem Stabilization Value Ecosystem Restoration Value Ecological Monitoring Value Educational Use Value Scientific Discovery Value Wetland Biodiversity ValuesWetland Biodiversity Values Harvestable Resources Ecological Services Information Resources Intellectual & Aesthetic Resources RESOURCES
  5. 5. Constructed WetlandsConstructed Wetlands “…“… a designed and man-madea designed and man-made complex of saturated substrates,complex of saturated substrates, emergent and submergent vegetation,emergent and submergent vegetation, animal life, and water that simulatesanimal life, and water that simulates natural wetlands for human use andnatural wetlands for human use and benefits.” (Hammer 1989)benefits.” (Hammer 1989)
  6. 6. • RESTORED WETLAND Types of Constructed WetlandsTypes of Constructed Wetlands • Those under rehabilitation (Hydrology has been fixed by dredging or use of water gates, bunds, canals, etc.)
  7. 7. • RESTORED WETLAND Types of Constructed WetlandsTypes of Constructed Wetlands • CONSTRUCTED WETLAND • Built where none existed before (usually for wastewater and road runoff treatment)
  8. 8. • RESTORED WETLAND • CONSTRUCTED WETLAND • CREATED WETLAND • Built where none existed before (usually as added habitats for wildlife) Types of Constructed WetlandsTypes of Constructed Wetlands
  9. 9. Constructed WetlandsConstructed Wetlands Constructed wetlands emulate nature by … • mechanically filtering, • chemically transforming, and • biologically consuming … potential pollutants in the wastewater stream.
  10. 10. Functions of Constructed WetlandsFunctions of Constructed Wetlands • Hydrological and hydraulic modifications • Treatment of livestock and municipal wastewater • Shoreline stabilization and erosion control • Water quality improvement • Open wilderness and aesthetics • Life supporting wildlife and plant habitats • Treatment of highway runoff and urban storm water
  11. 11. Benefits of Constructed WetlandsBenefits of Constructed Wetlands • Reduction of operation and maintenance costs relative to conventional water treatment plants; • Cost-effective treatment of non-point- source of pollution; • Reduction of flood hazards and erosion; • Opportunities for enhancement of wildlife habitats, biodiversity revitalization, academic research, public education, and community recreation amenities.
  12. 12. Single-use (i.e. water treatment) constructed wetland system Multiple-use landscape constructed wetland system Constructed Wetlands SystemsConstructed Wetlands Systems (e.g. Putrajaya Wetland)(A common model)
  13. 13. Constructed Wetlands SystemsConstructed Wetlands Systems To comprehend the constructed wetland treatment process, the workings of natural wetlands must be understood.
  14. 14. Important Considerations • Types of system designs • Mechanisms of treatment • Plant propagation and planting • Operational requirements • Performance monitoring and enhancement • Management plan Constructed Wetlands SystemsConstructed Wetlands Systems
  15. 15. Key issues with constructed wetlandsKey issues with constructed wetlands for water quality improvementfor water quality improvement 1) A need for integrated wetland and water resource management capacity building. 2) A need for formal guidelines for controlling use of natural wetlands for water treatment purposes. 3) A need to educate planners, developers, managers, engineers, regulators and the public on the multiple roles and values of constructed wetlands.
  16. 16. 5) A need for database of long-term monitoring data for constructed wetland design and sizing for optimum efficiency. 6) A need for a standard water quality, plant and wildlife monitoring protocol that can be used across Malaysia as a template. 4) A need for constructed wetland design and construction manuals relevant to the warm climate of Malaysia. Key issues with constructed wetlandsKey issues with constructed wetlands for water quality improvementfor water quality improvement
  17. 17. Disciplines of constructed wetlandsDisciplines of constructed wetlands • Biology & Ecology • Environmental Science • Hydrology • Engineering • Economics • Landscape architecture • Geology • Others
  18. 18. CAPACITY BUILDINGCAPACITY BUILDING “Development of the ability in a nation’s people and institutions to understand, absorb, apply, modify, and further develop the knowledge and technologies available for the implementation and achievement of its goal.” Source: The UN Conference on Technology Transfer and Capacity Building, 23-27 June, 2003, Trondheim, Norway.
  19. 19. CAPACITY BUILDINGCAPACITY BUILDING • It is the development of an organization’s core skills and capabilities, such as leadership, management, finance and fund raising, programmes and evaluation, in order to build the organization’s effectiveness and sustainability. • Capacity building seeks to improve the performance of all the elements that form an organization.
  20. 20. CAPACITY BUILDINGCAPACITY BUILDING It includes investment in: • Training (knowledge & skill development) • Personnel skilled in key disciplines • Property and equipment (infrastructure) • Best management plans & practices • Research and development • Information and communication strategies and support systems • Private and public sector relationships
  21. 21. Capacity Building ComponentsCapacity Building Components • Organizational capacity • Human capacity • Information access, assessment and monitoring capacity
  22. 22. Professional GroupsProfessional Groups (few examples)(few examples) • Soil scientists • Wetland ecologists & biologists • Environmental planners & engineers • Wildlife managers • Landscape architects • Aquatic resource managers • Water engineers & hydrologists • Public health officers
  23. 23. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFERTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER “Transfer of systematic knowledge, skills and innovations for the development and use of products, application of processes or rendering of services.” Source: The UN Conference on Technology Transfer and Capacity Building, 23-27 June, 2003, Trondheim, Norway. Note: To achieve success in technology transfer, the process of capacity building has to occur as a key prerequisite.
  24. 24. Three Important QuestionsThree Important Questions • What additional skills are needed to enable all stakeholders to participate fully in the study, development and sustainable use of constructed wetlands? • What kinds of capacity are needed to address complex constructed wetland problems? • What technical guidance and regulatory mechanism are needed for constructed wetlands in Malaysia?
  25. 25. The process of capacity building forThe process of capacity building for technology transfertechnology transfer Technology Sector Prerequisites Stimuli Mechanisms Capacity Outcomes Technology Transfer
  26. 26. Technology SectorTechnology Sector (few examples)(few examples) • Water industry • Bio-remediation (phyto-remediation) • Landscape architecture • Wildlife and plant conservation • Horticulture and aquaculture • Civil and environmental engineering • Hydro-informatics and remote sensing
  27. 27. Expected Capacity OutcomesExpected Capacity Outcomes 2) Understand the landscape perspective of wetlands within broader ecosystems. 1) Understand the physical, chemical and biological characteristics and dynamics of wetlands and their functions. 3) Understand the concept of wetland functional (hydrological, biogeochemical, ecological) analysis and be familiar with different assessment methodologies.
  28. 28. 5) Have an understanding of wetland management issues and BMPs. 4) Have a working knowledge of wetland classification methods, sampling methodologies and wetland information sources. 6) Be able to write a wetland delineation report, complete with a wetland rating and functional assessment. Expected Capacity OutcomesExpected Capacity Outcomes
  29. 29. 9) Be able to prepare a restoration plan. 7) Be familiar with local, state and federal environmental laws for wetland regulation and management. 8) Be able to identify common wetlands by field characteristics. Expected Capacity OutcomesExpected Capacity Outcomes 10) Other capacity needs.
  30. 30. • Specialist knowledge • Process know-how and skills • Knowledge of methods Technical Expertise RequiredTechnical Expertise Required The goal is to maximize the ecological benefits of constructed wetlands established as part of a sustainable landscape.
  31. 31. 3) Habitat restoration and rehabilitation. 1) Wetland and waterway management. 2) Ecological landscape and horticultural design. 4) Biodiversity survey and development of survey techniques and performance indicators. 5) Invasive species management and specialist studies. Technical Expertise RequiredTechnical Expertise Required
  32. 32. 7) Ecological fire management. 6) Applied research and threatened species recovery plans. 8) EIA and environmental management plans. 9) Environmental policy. 10) Community and stakeholder consultation. Technical Expertise RequiredTechnical Expertise Required
  33. 33. PrerequisitesPrerequisites • Commitment of stakeholders • Institutional leadership • Awareness of significance of wetland health and biodiversity conservation • Availability of infrastructure • Sustainable funding • Support from universities and NGOs • Others
  34. 34. StimuliStimuli • Demand for services from the system • Wetland based ecotourism potential • Nation’s obligations to Ramsar and CBD • Access to donor funding • Need for effective management solutions • Research and training opportunities • Others
  35. 35. MechanismsMechanisms • Synergistic partnership • Effective communication • Institutional strengthening • Hands-on learning • Seed & long-term funding • Key appointments and empowerment • Publications & awareness programmes • Others
  36. 36. Transferable TechnologiesTransferable Technologies 2) Technologies for rehabilitation and restoration of degraded ecosystems. 1) Technologies for monitoring ecosystems and habitats and species. 3) Technologies for the ex-situ recovery and rehabilitation of threatened species and for their reintroduction into newly created habitats.
  37. 37. 7) Technologies to support programmes for scientific and technical education. 6) Technologies for protecting and encouraging traditional use of biological resources. 8) Technologies to promote and encourage understanding of the importance of biological diversity. Transferable Technologies (contd.)Transferable Technologies (contd.)
  38. 38. Transferable Technologies (contd.)Transferable Technologies (contd.) 10) Biotechnology for new propagation and culture techniques,. 9) Technologies for impact assessment and risk management of pollutants and hazardous substances.
  39. 39. Anticipated OutputsAnticipated Outputs (few examples)(few examples) • Best management practice standards • Biodiversity conservation priorities • Public awareness and education (CEPA) • Created and/or restored wetland habitats • Water balance, recycling and reuse • Low-cost water treatment facility • Computer literacy (GIS, databases, etc.) • Others
  40. 40. A Shared MissionA Shared Mission To contribute to the education and training of professionals and to build the capacity of sector organizations, knowledge centers and other institutions active in the field of constructed wetland management of both the system’s environment and infrastructure.