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Operant conditiong

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Operant conditioning
Operant conditioning
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Operant conditiong

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This presentation will help you understand the concepts and principles used in Operant conditioning. This will also help you to understand the difference between classical and operant conditioning.

This presentation will help you understand the concepts and principles used in Operant conditioning. This will also help you to understand the difference between classical and operant conditioning.

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Operant conditiong

  1. 1. MADE BY SIMRAT
  2. 2. Operant conditioning involves learning through the consequences of behavior. The Operant Conditioning theory states that people are likely to emit responses that are rewarded and will not emit any responses that are neither followed by any reward nor punishment. Thus, an individual tries to establish an association between a particular behavior and consequence.
  3. 3. Based his theory in the simple fact that the study of observable behavior is much simpler than trying to study internal mental events. Skinner’s works concluded a study far less extreme than those of Watson (1913), and it deemed classical conditioning as too simplistic of a theory to be a complete explanation of complex human behavior. B.F. Skinner is famous for his pioneering research in the field of learning and behavior. He proposed the theory to study complex human behavior by studying the voluntary responses shown by an organism when placed in the certain environment. He named these behaviors or responses as operant. He is also called the father of Operant Conditioning Learning.
  4. 4. B.F. Skinner proposed his theory on operant conditioning by conducting various experiments on animals. He used a special box known as “Skinner Box” for his experiment on rats. As the first step to his experiment, he placed a hungry rat inside the Skinner box. The rat was initially inactive inside the box, but gradually as it began to adapt to the environment of the box, it began to explore around. Eventually, the rat discovered a lever, upon pressing which; food was released inside the box. After it filled its hunger, it started exploring the box again, and after a while it pressed the lever for the second time as it grew hungry again. This phenomenon continued for the third, fourth and the fifth time, and after a while, the hungry rat immediately pressed the lever once it was placed in the box. Then the conditioning was deemed to be complete. Here, the action of pressing the lever is an operant response/behavior, and the food released inside the chamber is the reward. The experiment is also known as INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING Learning as the response is instrumental in getting food. This experiment also deals with and explains the effects of positive reinforcement. Upon pressing the lever, the hungry rat was served with food, which filled its hunger; hence, it’s a positive reinforcement.
  5. 5. B.F. Skinner also conducted an experiment that explained negative reinforcement. Skinner placed a rat in a chamber in the similar manner, but instead of keeping it hungry, he subjected the chamber to an unpleasant electric current. The rat having experienced the discomfort started to desperately move around the box and accidentally knocked the lever. Pressing of the lever immediately seized the flow of unpleasant current. After a few times, the rat had smartened enough to go directly to the lever in order to prevent itself from the discomfort. The electric current reacted as the negative reinforcement, and the consequence of escaping the electric current made sure that the rat repeated the action again and again. Here too, the pressing of the lever is an operant response, and the complete stop of the electric current flow is its reward.
  6. 6. Types of Behaviors Skinner distinguished between two different types of behaviors Respondent behaviors are those that occur automatically and reflexively, such as pulling your hand back from a hot stove or jerking your leg when the doctor taps on your knee. You don't have to learn these behaviors, they simply occur automatically and involuntarily. Operant behaviors, on the other hand, are those under our conscious control. Some may occur spontaneously and others purposely, but it is the consequences of these actions that then influence whether or not they occur again in the future. Our actions on the environment and the consequences of that action make up an important part of the learning process. While classical conditioning could account for respondent behaviors, Skinner realized that it could not account for a great deal of learning. Instead, Skinner suggested that operant conditioning held far greater importance.
  7. 7. Skinner identified three types of responses, or operant, that can follow behavior. • Neutral operants: responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated. • Reinforcers: Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcers can be either positive or negative. • Punishers: Responses from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior.
  8. 8. Reinforcement is any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of reinforcers: 1.Positive reinforcers are favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior. In situations that reflect positive reinforcement, a response or behavior is strengthened by the addition of something, such as praise or a direct reward. For example, if you do a good job at work and your manager gives you a bonus. 2.Negative reinforcers involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant. For example, if your child starts to scream in the middle of the grocery store, but stops once you hand him a treat, you will be more likely to hand him a treat the next time he starts to scream. Your action led to the removal of the unpleasant condition (the child screaming), negatively reinforcing your behavior. In both of these cases of reinforcement, the behavior increases.
  9. 9. Punishment in Operant Conditioning Punishment is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of punishment: 1.Positive punishment, sometimes referred to as punishment by application, presents an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows. Slapping for misbehavior is an example of punishment by application. 2.Negative punishment, also known as punishment by removal, occurs when a favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs. Taking away a child's video game following misbehavior is an example of negative punishment. In both of these cases of punishment, the behavior decreases.
  10. 10. Note: It is not always easy to distinguish between punishment and negative reinforcement. There are many problems with using punishment, such as: •Punished behavior is not forgotten, it's suppressed - behavior returns when punishment is no longer present. •Causes increased aggression - shows that aggression is a way to cope with problems. •Creates fear that can generalize to undesirable behaviors, e.g., fear of school. •Does not necessarily guide toward desired behavior - reinforcement tells you what to do, punishment only tells you what not to do.
  11. 11. Reinforcement Schedules Reinforcement is not necessarily a straightforward process and there are a number of factors that can influence how quickly and how well new things are learned. Skinner found that when and how often behaviors were reinforced played a role in the speed and strength of acquisition. In other words, the timing and frequency of reinforcement influenced how new behaviors were learned and how old behaviors were modified. Skinner identified several different schedules of reinforcement that impact the operant conditioning process: 1.Continuous reinforcement involves delivery a reinforcement every time a response occurs. Learning tends to occur relatively quickly, yet the response rate is quite low. Extinction also occurs very quickly once reinforcement is halted. 2.Fixed-ratio schedules are a type of partial reinforcement. Responses are reinforced only after a specific number of responses have occurred. This typically leads to a fairly steady response rate.
  12. 12. 1.Fixed-interval schedules are another form of partial reinforcement. Reinforcement occurs only after a certain interval of time has elapsed. Response rates remain fairly steady and start to increase as the reinforcement time draws near, but slow immediately after the reinforcement has been delivered. 2.Variable-ratio schedules are also a type of partial reinforcement that involve reinforcing behavior after a varied number of responses. This leads to both a high response rate and slow extinction rates. 3.Variable-interval schedules are the final form of partial reinforcement Skinner described. This schedule involves delivering reinforcement after a variable amount of time has elapsed. This also tends to lead to a fast response rate and slow extinction rate.
  13. 13. What is the difference between operant conditioning and classical conditioning? In operant conditioning, a voluntary response is then followed by a reinforcing stimulus. In this way, the voluntary response (e.g. studying for an exam) is more likely to be done by the individual. In contrast, classical conditioning is when a stimulus automatically triggers an involuntary response.
  14. 14. Shaping Behavior Modification Token Economy
  15. 15. Behavior Modification Behavior modification is a set of therapies / techniques based on operant conditioning (Skinner, 1938, 1953). The main principle comprises changing environmental events that are related to a person's behavior. For example, the reinforcement of desired behaviors and ignoring or punishing undesired ones. This is not as simple as it sounds — always reinforcing desired behavior, for example, is basically bribery. There are different types of positive reinforcements. Primary reinforcement is when a reward strengths a behavior by itself. Secondary reinforcement is when something strengthens a behavior because it leads to a primary reinforce . Examples of behavior modification therapy include token economy and behavior shaping.
  16. 16. Token Economy Token economy is a system in which targeted behaviors are reinforced with tokens (secondary reinforcers) and later exchanged for rewards (primary reinforcers). Tokens can be in the form of fake money, buttons, poker chips, stickers, etc. While the rewards can range anywhere from snacks to privileges or activities. For example, teachers use token economy at primary school by giving young children stickers to reward good behavior. Token economy has been found to be very effective in managing psychiatric patients. However, the patients can become over reliant on the tokens, making it difficult for them to adjust to society once they leave prison, hospital, etc. Staff implementing a token economy programme have a lot of power. It is important that staff do not favor or ignore certain individuals if the programme is to work. Therefore, staff need to be trained to give tokens fairly and consistently even when there are shift changes such as in prisons or in a psychiatric hospital.
  17. 17. Behavior Shaping A further important contribution made by Skinner (1951) is the notion of behavior shaping through successive approximation. Skinner argues that the principles of operant conditioning can be used to produce extremely complex behavior if rewards and punishments are delivered in such a way as to encourage move an organism closer and closer to the desired behavior each time. To do this, the conditions (or contingencies) required to receive the reward should shift each time the organism moves a step closer to the desired behavior. According to Skinner, most animal and human behavior (including language) can be explained as a product of this type of successive approximation.

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