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"Study of amount of Casein present in different samples of Milk" [J P EDUCATION ACADEMY, GORAKHPUR]

Chemistry Project XII for C.B.S.E. Board Student

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"Study of amount of Casein present in different samples of Milk" [J P EDUCATION ACADEMY, GORAKHPUR]

  1. 1. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 1 J.P. EDUCATION ACADEMY Live to learn & learn to live Affiliated to C.B.S.E. Board – New Delhi (10+2) CHEMISTRY PROJECT TOPIC: “To Study the amount of Casein present in different samples of Milk” SUBMITTED BY: UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF: ADITYA PRATAP SINGH MISS DEEPIKA TIWARI CLASS XII – A PGT – CHEMISTRY Teacher’s Signature Examiner’s Signature Principal’s Signature
  2. 2. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 2 J.P. EDUCATION ACADEMY ENGLISH MEDIUM C.B.SE. BOARD CO–EDUCATION Affiliated to C.B.S.E. New Delhi (10+2) / Aff. No. 2131159 15–C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur–273015 Ph.: (0551) 3251415, Mob.: 9935402452, 9336212362 CERTIFICATE Student’s Name ADITYA PRATAP SINGH Std XII Division A Roll No This to certify that experiment written in the index has been performed by the student satisfactorily. Signature School Stamp Dated
  3. 3. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 3 Acknowledgement I express my heartiest and sincere thanks to Miss Deepika Tiwari (Subject Teacher), Priyamvada Srivastava (Principal) who provided me their valuable time and information. This project would not have been possible without their valuable support and guidance. Their continuous support, affectionate encouragement and patience have greatly eased my burden and made this project possible. It was a great opportunity for me to work with Chemistry Project, on the topic “To Study the amount of Casein present in different samples of Milk”. I am indebted to all for their valuable support and co-operation during the entire tenure of this project. Not to forget, all those who kept our spirits surging and helped me in delivering my best. Last but most important I thank ‘God Almighty’ who guided me and bestowed me with the wisdom and an opportunity to carry out the project. Regards Aditya Pratap Singh Class: XII–A
  4. 4. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 4 PREFACE The main objective of a science student is to get as much of practical knowledge as possible. Being an able to have a practical knowledge by a developing a project is a lifetime experience. As practical knowledge is as important as theoretical knowledge we are thankful of having a project. Through the development of the project I had a great experience of various strategies that can be apply in development of project. This project is the stepping a head in our carrier. I am pleased to present this project. Proper care had been taken in organizing this project so that it is to comprehend. Also, various scientific concepts have been implemented.
  5. 5. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 5 INDEX S.NO DATE TITLE PAGE NO. REMARKS SIGN 1. 14-12-2017 Introduction 6 – 7 2. 14-12-2017 Aim 8 3. 14-12-2017 Theory 9 4. 14-12-2017 Requirements 10 – 12 5. 14-12-2017 Procedure 13 6. 14-12-2017 Observations 14 7. 14-12-2017 Conclusion 15
  6. 6. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 6 INTRODUCTION Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals (including humans who breastfeed) before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrums, which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose. As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy farms produced about 730 million tones of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows. India is the world's largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products. The ever increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy products in the future. The United States, India, China and Brazil are the world's largest exporters of milk and milk products. China and Russia were the world's largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both countries became self-sufficient, contributing to a worldwide glut of milk. FIG. 1 Model of Casein Micelle
  7. 7. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 7 The major milk protein casein is found only in milk and now here in the world. The composition of casein is not constant and depends upon the source of milk. Average composition of milk from different sources is given below: Source of Milk Water (%) Mineral (%) Protein (%) Fats (%) Carbohydrates (%) Cow 87.1 0.7 3.4 3.9 4.9 Human 87.4 0.2 1.4 4.0 4.9 Goat 87.0 0.7 3.3 4.2 4.8 Sheep 82.6 0.9 5.5 6.5 4.5 Casein is a major protein constituent in milk and is a mixed phosphor-protein. Casein has isoelectric pH of about 4.7 and can be easily separated around this isoelectric pH. It readily dissolves in dilute acids and alkalies. Casein is present in milk as calcium Casein ate in the form of micelles. These micelles have negative charge and on adding acid to milk the negative charges are neutralized. Ca2+ −Caseinate + 2CH3COOH(aq) → Caesin + (CH3COOH)2Ca FIG. 2 Diagram showing the action of rennet on the Casein Micelle. The enzyme in rennet cleaves the Casein releasing a large peptide. The surface of the Micelle changes from being hydrophilic and negatively charged to hydrophobic and neutral. As a consequence, the Micelle aggregate to trap fat globules and microorganism in developing curd.
  8. 8. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 8 AIM “To Study the Amount of Casein present in different samples of Milk”
  9. 9. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 9 THEORY Natural milk is an opaque white fluid Secreted by the mammary glands of Female mammals. The main constituents of natural milk are Protein, Carbohydrate, Mineral Vitamins, Fats and Water and are a complete balanced diet. Fresh milk is sweetish in taste. However, when it is kept for long time at a temperature of 5 degree it become sour because of bacteria present in air. These bacteria convert lactose of milk into lactic acid which is sour in taste. In acidic condition casein of milk starts separating out as a precipitate. When the acidity in milk is sufficient and temperature is around 36 degree, it forms semi-solid mass, called curd. FIG. 3 Structure of Milk FIG. 4
  10. 10. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 10 REQUIREMENTS  Beakers [250 ml]  Filtration Flasks  Measuring Cylinder  Glass Rod  Spatula
  11. 11. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 11  China Dish  Dropper  Weight Machine  Different samples of milk  Acetic Acid [10%]
  12. 12. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 12  Saturated Ammonium Sulphate  Burner  Water [H2O]  Filter Paper
  13. 13. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 13 PROCEDURE A clean dry beaker has been taken, followed by putting 20 ml of cow’s milk into it and adding 20 ml of saturated ammonium sulphate solution slowly and with stirring. Fat along with Casein was precipitate out. The solution was filtered and transferred the precipitates in another beaker. Added about 30 ml of water to the precipitate. Only Casein dissolves in water forming milky solution leaving fat undissolved. The milky solution was heated to about 40° C and adds 10% acetic acid solution drop-wise, when casein got precipitated. Filtered the precipitate, washed with water and the precipitate was allowed to dry. Weighed the dry solid mass in a previously weighed watch glass. The experiment was repeated with other samples of milk. FIG. 5 Protein Chain with Peptide Bond NOTE: R = Amino Acid Group FIG. 6
  14. 14. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 14 OBSERVATIONS Sample No. Source Content of Proteins % of Casein 1. Cow Milk 0.60 3.00 2. Goat Milk 0.65 3.25 3. Buffalo Milk 0.85 4.20 4. Amul Milk 0.75 3.88
  15. 15. J P Education Academy, 15 – C, Nathmalpur, Green City Road, Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur – 273 015 | 15 CONCLUSION  Different samples of milk contain different percentage of Casein. FIG. 7

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