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  1. Animation
  2. What is ANIMATION? • Definition: – A collection of static images joined together and shown consecutively so that they appear to move. • Animation is about storytelling by bringing things to life (making them move).
  3. Cell VS Computer(Digital)
  4. What is Cell Animation? • Animators drew on semi-transparent sheets of vellum, or acetate cells (cellulose acetate) - they could see through the frame they were drawing to the previous frames.
  5. What is Computer /Digital Animation • Electronically generated movement of anything on your computer screen. • Three different levels of digital animation: – Basic – Intermediate – Advanced
  6. What is Digital Animation • Basic – At the most fundamental level, animation consists of simple transitions (wipes and dissolves between PowerPoint slides, for example) and path animations (moving text and logos).
  7. What is Digital Animation • Intermediate – The next level up is cel animation (the method used in cartoons) and special effects, which include all manner of distortions and color effects applied to a graphic, photo or movie.
  8. What is Digital Animation • Advanced – The most sophisticated level of digital animation is 3D animation. Movies such as "Toy Story" and "A Bug's Life" are the most prominent examples of what can be achieved through the latest computer technology. – Ambitious designers can take advantage of these same tools to manufacture some dazzling 3D creations of their own.
  9. Creating Animation • 2 step process for creating animations – Step 1: Planning – Step 2: Implementation • Step 1: Planning – Decide on the problem to be solved – Design a solution – storyboard – Determine the characters and objects to appear on
  10. Story Board Example
  11. Creating Animation • Step 2: Implementation – Start production – Post-production – Test playback and review – Amendments – Delivery or packaging
  12. • Understanding the 12 Fundamental principles of traditional animation techniques is essential to producing good computer animation.
  13. 1. Squash and Stretch • Teaches basic mechanics of animation. • Defines rigidity of material. • Important in facial animation.
  14. Squash and Stretch Cont. • Can relieve the disturbing effect of strobing.
  15. 2. Timing and Motion • Gives meaning to movement. • Proper timing is critical to making ideas readable. Examples: 1. Timing: tiny characters move quicker than larger ones. 2. Motion: can define weights of objects.
  16. Heavy vs. Light Objects QuickTime™ and a Video decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a Video decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  17. 3. Anticipation Preparation for an action Example: Goofy prepares to hit a baseball.
  18. 4. Staging A clear presentation of an idea. Some Techniques: 1. Use motion in a still scene or use of static movement in a busy scene. 2. Use of silhouettes (to the side)
  19. 5. Follow Through and Overlapping Action 1. Follow Through Termination part of an action. 2. Overlapping Action Starting a second action before the first has completed. Example: after throwing a ball Example: Luxo Jr.’s hop with overlapping action on chord.
  20. 6. Straight Ahead Action and Pose-to-Pose Action 1. Straight Ahead Animator start from first drawing in the scene and draw all subsequent frames until the end of scene. 2. Pose-to-Pose Animator plans actions, draws a sequence of poses, in between frames etc.
  21. 7. Slow in and Out Spacing of inbetween frames to achieve subtlety of timing and movement. 1. 3d keyframe comp. Systems uses spline interpolation to control the path of an object. 2. Has tendency to overshoot at extremes (small # of frames).
  22. 8. Arcs • Visual path of action for natural movement. • Makes animation much smoother and less stiff than a straight line.
  23. 9. Exaggeration • Accentuating the essence of an idea via the design and the action. • Needs to be used carefully. Example: Luxo Jr. made smaller to give idea of a child.
  24. 10. Secondary Action • Action that results directly from another action. • Used to increase the complexity and interest of a scene. Example: Body movement is the primary action, facial expression is the secondary action
  25. 11. Solid Drawing – The basic principles of drawing form, weight, volume solidity and the illusion of three dimension apply to animation as it does to academic drawing. – Transform these into color and movement giving the characters the illusion of three-and four-dimensional life. Three dimensional is movement in space.
  26. 12. Appeal • Refers to what an audience would like to see. • Character cannot be too simple (boring) or too complex. Examples: Avoid mirror symmetry, assymmetry is interesting.
  27. Design of animation sequence • Storyboard layout. • Object Definitions • Key Frame Seq. • Generation of in-between frame
  28. H/W and S/w • Adobe photoshop • GIF animator • 3D studio • Macromedia Flash • SGI -unic • PC • Macintosh
  29. Authoring Principles for Animations for Presentations 1. Use parameterization at all levels of the system. 2. Treat animations as models - animations are treated as parameterized models that have a single parameter: time. 3. Build slides hierarchically
  30. Animation Principles for Presentations. 1. Make all movement meaningful 2. Avoid instantaneous changes 3. Reinforce structure with transitions 4. Create a large virtual canvas 5. Smoothly expand and compress detail 6. Manage complexity through overlays – Do one thing at a time. – Reinforce animation with narration. – Distinguish dynamics from transitions.
  31. Types of animation system 1. Scripting System - LISP, ASAS(Actor cript Animation Lang) 2. Procedural Animation. 3. Representational Animation - Morphing 4. Stochastic Animation - Fileworks/Waterfall 5. Behavioral animation

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. Squash and stretch, timing/motion, anticipation, staging, follow through/overlapping action, straight ahead action/pose-to-pose action, slow in and out, arcs, exaggeration, secondary action, and appeal.
  2. Drastic stretches = more pliable Volume remains constant.
  3. Tiny characters have less inertia and would move quicker than a large character.
  4. Here, we have an example of how motion can affect our perception of a weight of an object.
  5. Important that only one idea is seen by the audience at a time. Too much leads to main idea being “upstaged” or overlooked.
  6. Series of overlapping actions.
  7. Used when scene requires more thought and poses and timing are important.
  8. Early on, animation was drawing fairly even. But when poses of pose-to-pose animation became more expressive, animators wanted them to see them.
  9. Obvious method but it. Does not mean distorting shapes or objects or making an action more violent or unrealistic. If one part exaggerated it runs the risk of standing out too much. If everything is exaggerated it runs the risk of unrealism.
  10. Such as two arms doing the exact same thing.
  11. Allows creation of a set of behaviors that restrict how parts of a diagram can move and change. Both animations and models are objects that map a set of input parameters onto a set of output graphical primitives. Advantage: we can construct animations in smaller logical units and combine them to make slides. Want the ability to nest models within each other to any degree of depth: Models and animations can be much more abstract in presentations, and often makes sense for them to be included in one another. Imagine a block diagram of a system, each block may contain a thumbnail animation to suggest to the audience the task performed inside the box. Small animations will also contain their own models as well.
  12. Squash and stretch and exaggeration : Found it distracting when the goal is to inform. That is people in the audience are more interested in the animation than the presenter himself. Such as cross-fading - getting information on and off the screen. Sudden cuts create uncertainty and tension. Using subtle transitions to increase impact of showy effects when they are used. Use panning and zooming to increase area. Figure that slides off the same slide remains more “visible” than one that simply blinks out of existence. Use the screen as a magnifying glass for examining figures of a variety of scales.