• Stress is a physical response which helps our body to prepare or to respond to any kind of pressure or
threat or to face danger. It is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
Or it can be said that it is our body's natural defense against predators and danger. Thus, stress is a
method of a body to react to a challenge or any harmful situations -- whether they’re real or perceived.
• And hence the stress response, which is our body’s way to protect our self by giving us extra
strength to defend ourselves. The stress response is also called the fight-or-flight-response. It's an
automatic response that prepares us to deal with danger. Example: to show sabre-tooth tiger to show
• The situations and pressures that cause stress are known as stressors.
1. On the basis of age-
• 2. On the basis of duration of stress-
• Acute (If stress generates for short time interval)
• Chronic (If stress proceeds for long term)
• But chronic stress can cause both physical and
• mental harm.)
4. • 3. Onthebasisof lifestyle-
• Routine stress (related to the pressures of work, family, and other
• daily responsibilities)
• Stress Sudden stress (brought about by a sudden negative change, such as losing a
• job, divorce, or illness)
• Traumatic stress (which happenswhen anyone is in danger of being
• seriously hurt or killed. Example-a major accident, war, assault, or a natural
disaster. This type of stress can cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
• 4. Onthebasisofitsimpact-
• Negative stress (It has negative impact, example-
• Positive stress (Which has positive impact or result, example anything
• that puts high demands, can be stressful but results in
• positive events such as getting married, buying a house)
5. • 5. On the basis of factors-
• External factor induced stress (when the stress is caused by any
• external factor. Example-traffic, job
• Internal stress/ self-generated stress (it happens when someone
• worry excessively about
• something that
• may or may not happen, or
• have irritational life)
• Positive stress- Positive stress comes from adverse experiences that are short- lived and may lead to
valuable lessons. Examples-being punished or going to the doctor to get immunizations, the first day
of a school, a family wedding or making new friends. This type of stress causes minor physiological
and hormonal changes to the young child. The changes include an increase in heart rate and a change
in hormone cortisol levels.
• TolerableStress- It comes from adverse experiences that are more intense in nature but short-lived and
can usually be overcome. Examples- family disruptions, accidents or a death of a loved one. It is
important though to realize that such stressors are only tolerable when managed the correct way.
Tolerable stress can turn into positive stress.
7. • ToxicStress- Toxic Stress can occur when experiences are long in duration and intensity.
Prolonged stress leads to adverse effects such as permanent emotional or developmental
damage. If the sufficient support is not available, the results of this type of stress can lead to
permanent changes in brain development. Examples of toxic stress are abuse, neglect,
• Different situations can trigger stress for different people. Everyone reacts differently to
stressful situations. What is stressful to one person may not be stressful to another.
Example: For some people, just thinking about something, or several small things, can cause
• Both negative and positive stressors can lead to stress. The intensity and duration of stress
change depending on the circumstances and emotional condition of the person suffering
9. Commonmajorlife eventsthatcantriggerstress include:
• Job issues or retirement
• Lack of time or money
• Mobility or movement
• Family problems
• Moving home
• Heavy drinking
• Insufficient sleep
• Relationships, break-up, marriage, and divorce
• Mental & sexual abuse
• Abortion or miscarriage
• Driving in heavy traffic or fear of an accident
• Fear of crime or problems with neighbors
• Pregnancy and becoming a parent
• Excessive noise, overcrowding, and pollution
• Uncertainty or waiting for an important outcome
• Major life changes
• Work or school
• Relationship difficulties
• Financial problems
• Being too busy
• Children and family
• Pessimism (a tendency to see the worst aspect of things)
• Inability to accept uncertainty
• Rigid thinking
• lack of flexibility
• Negative self-talk
• Unrealistic expectations / perfectionism
• All-or-nothing attitude
12. Top10stressfullife events
According to the widely validated Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, these are the top ten stressful
life events for adults that can contribute to illness:
• Death of a spouse
• Marriage separation
• Death of a close family member
• Injury or illness
• Job loss
• Marriage reconciliation
13. • Note- Finally, what causes stress depends on our perception of it. Something that's stressful
to one, may not faze for someone else; they may even enjoy it. For example, Ones morning
may become anxious and tense because of worrying that traffic will make him late. Others,
however, may find the trip relaxing because they enjoy listening to music while they drive.
• At the time of stress (example- in case of threat), our nervous system responds by releasing a
stress hormone, including adrenaline and cortisol, which rouse the body for emergency
action. The heart pounds faster, muscles tighten, blood pressure rises, breath quickens, and
the senses become sharper. These physical changes increase our strength and stamina, speed
ups our reaction time, and enhances our focus—thus, prepares one to either fight or flee
from the danger.
• Stress can affect all aspects of our life, including your emotions, behaviors, thinking ability, and
physical health. But, because people handle stress differently, symptoms of stress can vary.
1. Physical symptoms:
• Pain in the back or chest
• Cramps or muscle spasms
• Erectile dysfunction and loss of libido
• Heart disease
• High blood pressure
• Lower immunity against diseases
• Muscular aches
16. • Nervous twitches
• Pins and needles
• Sleeping difficulties
• Aches and pains
• Diarrhea or constipation
• Nausea, dizziness
• Chest pain, rapid heart rate
• Loss of sex drive
• Frequent colds or flu
• Stomach upset
17. • 2. Emotionalreactions/symptoms:
• Concentration issues
• A feeling of insecurity
• Nail biting
• Depression or general unhappiness
• Anxiety and agitation
• Moodiness, irritability, or anger
• Feeling overwhelmed
• Loneliness and isolation
• Other mental or emotional health problems
18. • 3. Behavioralsymptoms:
• Food cravings and eating too much or too little
• Sudden angry outbursts
• Drug and alcohol abuse
• Higher tobacco consumption
• Social withdrawal
• Frequent crying
• Relationship problems
• Eating more or less
• Sleeping too much or too little
• Withdrawing from others
• Procrastinating or neglecting responsibilities
• Using alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs to relax
• Nervous habits (e.g. nail biting, pacing)
19. • 4. Cognitive symptoms:
• Memory problems
• Inability to concentrate
• Poor judgment
• Seeing only the negative
• Anxious or racing thoughts
• Constant worrying
• Depression and anxiety
• Pain of any kind
• Sleep problems
• Autoimmune diseases
• Digestive problems
• Skin conditions, such as eczema
• Heart disease
• Weight problems
• Reproductive issues
• Thinking and memory problems
• Normally, diagnosis of stress is done by asking the patient about is symptoms and life
• Diagnosis is complex. It depends on many factors example: Questionnaires, biochemical
measures, and physiological techniques have been used, but these may not be objective or
• The most direct way to diagnose stress and its effects on a person is through a
comprehensive, stress-oriented, face-to-face interview.
Object/Goals- The following objects should take into account for the management of stress or the goals
should be achieved in order to treat the person or patient-
• The stressed person should get relief as soon as possible.
• It should try to give relief by natural methods.
• The stress of a person should be initially removed by home remedies or by his own.
• But if the stress becomes depression, then treatment should start without any delay.
• If treatment is required, then, the treatment should start with very few no of medicines whose
therapeutic effect should be high and its dose should be minimal.
• The prescribed medicine should have minimal side effect & adverse effect since all medicines have
their own side effects.
Treatment includes self-help, stress management, and medication & it includes-
1. Exercise: Exercise benefits a person's mental and physical state in order to become stress-free.
2. Massagetherapy:Massage is one of the best ways to help relax.
3. Breathingandrelaxation: Meditation and yoga can also help. Breathing and relaxation techniques can slow
down the system and help ones to relax. Breathing is also a central part of mindfulness meditation.
4. Reducingintakeof alcohol,drugs,andcaffeine: These substances don’t help to prevent stress, but makes the
situation more worse. Thus, they should be cut out or reduced.
5. Nutrition: A healthy, balanced diet with plenty of fruit and vegetables helps to maintain the immune system
at times of stress. A poor diet leads to ill health and additional stress.
6. Prioritizing: Spending a little time to organize his to-do list to see what is most important. Then focus of
what one have completed or accomplished for the day, rather than what one has yet to finish.
7. Time: The stressed person should set aside some time each day just for himself. One can used to organize his
life, relax, and pursue your own interests.
24. 8. Talking: Talking to family, friends, work colleagues, and your boss about your thoughts and worries
help "let off steam." One may be comforted to find that you are "not the only one." One may even find
there is an easy solution that he had not thought of.
9. Acknowledgingthe signs: A person can be so anxious about the problem that is causing the stress
that they do not notice the effects on their body.Noticing symptoms is the first step to taking action.
People who experience work stress due to long hours may need to "take a step back." It may be time
to review their own working practice or to talk to a supervisor about reducing the load.
10. Findyour own destressor: Most people have something that helps them relax, such as reading a book,
going for a walk, listening to music, or spending time with a friend or a pet. Joining a choir or a gym
helps some people.
11. Establishingsupport networks: The APA encourages people to develop networks of social support, for
example, by talking to neighbors and others in the local community, or joining a club, charity, or
religious organization. Online social networking also helps, as long as it does not replace face-to-face
contact. It allows to stay in touch with friends and family who are far away, and this can reduce
• If the stress affects daily life, one should seek professional help. A doctor or psychiatric
specialist can often help, example, through stress management training.
• Stress management helps:
• To remove or change the source of stress
• To alter the way one view a stressful event
• To lower the impact that stress might have on our body
• To learn alternative ways of coping
• Stress management therapy pursues one or more of these approaches.
• Techniques for stress management can be gained from self-help books, online resources, or by
attending a stress management course. A counselor or psychotherapist can put you in touch with
personal development courses, or individual or groups therapy sessions.
• Therapies that may help you relax include aromatherapy or reflexology.
• Some insurance providers cover this type of treatment, but not all. Check first.
• Doctors usually prescribe medications for coping with stress, unless the patient has an
underlying illness, such as depression or a type of anxiety.
• In that case, the doctor treats a mental illness and not the stress.
• In such cases, an antidepressant may be prescribed. However, there is a risk that the
medication will only mask the stress, rather than helps to deal and cope with it.
Antidepressants can also have adverse effects.
• Developing some coping strategies before stress hits can help to manage new situations and
maintains physical and mental health.
27. • Noradrenaline and specific serotoninergic antidepressants (NASSAs)
• Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
• Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)