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Leadership - Concepts & Theories

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Leadership in Organizations
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Leadership - Concepts & Theories

  1. 1. LEADERSHIP Concept and Theories BY :- SHRUTI MISHRA
  2. 2. Contents oIntroduction oFour Factors & Principles of leadership oLaize faire & Paternalistic oDemocratic & Authoritarian oManagerial Grid 21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  3. 3. Definition Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. 21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  4. 4. What is leadership? There are many ways of looking at leadership and interpretations about what it means. oLeadership means different things to different people. oLeadership is often taken to represent: oGetting others to follow oThe use of authority in decision-making oA personal characteristic oAn ability to achieve effective performance in others Shivam21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  5. 5. Four Factors of Leadership 1. LEADER 2. FOLLOWER 3. SITUATION 4. COMMUNICATION Jyoti21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  6. 6. Principles of Leadership 1.Know yourself and seek self- improvement 2.Be technically proficient 3.Make sound and timely decisions 4.Set the example 5.Know your people and look out for their well-beingTrain as a team 6. Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers 7. Keep your workers informed 8. Use the full capabilities of your organization 9. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions 10. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished 21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA Jyoti
  7. 7. Leadership styles Leaders exercise their authority in different ways. In doing so, they are said to exhibit a “leadership style” Leadership styles are essentially about: The way that the functions of leadership are carried out The way that a leader behaves Features of Leadership Shikha21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  8. 8. Types of Leadership There has been substantial research into the types and effectiveness of various leadership styles, with the four most common generally accepted to be: 1. Authoritarian 2. Democratic 3. Paternalistic 4. Laissez-Faire 21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  9. 9. Authoritarian or Autocratic Autocratic leaders hold onto as much power and decision-making as possible Focus of power is with the manager Communication is top-down & one-way Formal systems of command & control Minimal consultation Use of rewards & penalties Very little delegation McGregor Theory X approach Most likely to be used when subordinates are unskilled, not trusted and their ideas are not valued Shilpa21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  10. 10. Democratic or Participative Focus of power is more with the group as a whole Leadership functions are shared within the group Employees have greater involvement in decision-making – but potentially this slows- down decision-making Emphasis on delegation & consultation – but the leader still has the final say Perhaps the most popular leadership style because of the positive emotional connotations of acting democratically A potential trade-off between speed of decision-making and better motivation & morale? Likely to be most effective when used with skilled, free-thinking & experienced subordinates Shilpa21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  11. 11. Paternalistic Leader decides what is best for employees Links with Mayo – addressing employee needs Akin to a parent/child relationship – where the leader is seen as a “father- figure” Still little delegation A softer form of authoritarian leadership, which often results in better employee motivation and lower staff turnover Typical paternalistic leader explains the specific reason as to why he has taken certain actions Sakshi21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  12. 12. Laissez-faire (free- rein) or Delegative Laissez-faire means to “leave alone” Leader has little input into day-to-day decision-making Conscious decision to delegate power Managers / employees have freedom to do what they think is best Often criticised for resulting in poor role definition for managers Effective when staff are ready and willing to take on responsibility, they are motivated, and can be trusted to do their jobs Importantly, laissez-faire is not the same as abdication Sakshi21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  13. 13. Traditional views v/s Modern Views THE TRADITIONAL VIEW SEES LEADERSHIP AS ABOUT: Command & Control Decision-making MORE MODERN VIEW HAS LEADERSHIP HAVING A WIDER ROLE, INCLUDING Inspiration Creating a vision Building effective teams 21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  14. 14. Management v/s Leadership Leadership drives the interpersonal aspects of the organization, such as moral and team spirit. Management deals with the conceptual issues of the organization, such as planning, budgeting, and organizing. 21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  15. 15. Continuum Leadership Behaviour Management Control Employee Control Autocratic Style Paternalistic Style Participative Style Delegative Style Free Reign Style Shruti21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  16. 16. Managerial Grid Robert Blake and Jane Mouton High Country Club (1, 9) strong on people skills, weak on tasks Team Leader (9,9) strong on tasks, strong on people skills 9 8 7 6 5 Improvised (1,1) weak on tasks, weak on people skills Authotarian (9,1) strong on tasks, weak on people skills 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 High Shruti21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  17. 17. Team Leader 21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  18. 18. Task Manager 21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  19. 19. Middle of the road Manager 21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  20. 20. Impoverished Manager 21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  21. 21. Country Club Manager 21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  22. 22. As a generalisation, in most business sectors there has been a gradual shift away from autocratic leadership. Possible reasons for this include: Changes in society’s values Better educated workforce Focus on need for soft HR skills Changing workplace organisation Greater workplace legislation Pressure for greater employee involvement 21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  23. 23. Bibliography http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadmodels.html#grid 21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA
  24. 24. THANKYOU 21-10-2017 SHRUTI MISHRA

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Principles of Leadership
    To help you be, know, and do, follow these eleven principles of leadership (U.S. Army, 1983). The rest of the chapters in this Leadership guide expand on these principles and provide tools for implementing them:
    Know yourself and seek self-improvement - In order to know yourself, you have to understand your be, know, and do, attributes. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through self-study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others.
    Be technically proficient - As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees' tasks.
    Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions - Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, as they often tend to do sooner or later — do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge.
    Make sound and timely decisions - Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools.
    Set the example - Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. “We must become the change we want to see.” - Mahatma Gandhi
    Know your people and look out for their well-being - Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers.
    Keep your workers informed - Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other key people.
    Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers - Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities.
    Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished - Communication is the key to this responsibility.
    Train as a team - Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not really teams... they are just a group of people doing their jobs.
    Use the full capabilities of your organization - By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.