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Instrumentation limited (sumeer training report)

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Instrumentation limited (sumeer training report)

  1. 1. SUMMER TRAININGSUMMER TRAINING REPORTREPORT Instrumentation limited, kotaInstrumentation limited, kota Presented by : Shruti Bhargava
  2. 2. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING CERTIFICATE Of Summer Training 2013-14 Certified that Shruti Bhargava student of IIIYear B.E (VI Semester) Electronics and Communication Engineering, Poornima Group of Institutions has submitted her presentation report after successfully completing the Summer Practical Training at “INSTRUMENTATION LIITED” as prescribed in the syllabus of Rajasthan Technical University for B.Tech. Degree course. The report has been found satisfactory and is approved for submission. Mr. Pawan Chauhan Mr. Bhawar Veer Singh Mr. Alok Kumar (HOD, Dept. of ECE) (PTS Coordinators, ECE) Dr. Rakesh Duggal (Campus Director, PGI)
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTACKNOWLEDGEMENT Before I get into thick of things, I want to cover my best regards and heart felt gratitude towards many individuals without whom it would be a very intricate to accomplish the task of compiling this report and information. First and foremost I extend my thanks and gratitude to the entire unit of “INSTRUMENTATION LIMITED, Kota” along with Mr. N.Panian(Engineer Trg. & OD deptt.), Mr. B.K Barua(Senior personal officer Trg. & OD deptt.) whose guidance and knowledge supported during my training session. I am highly indebted to Dr. Rakesh Duggal(Campus Director, PGI), Mr. Bhanwar Veer Singh (HOD, Dept. of ECE),Mr. Pawan Chauhan (Assistant Professor) and Mr. Alok Kumar(Assistant Proffessor)for providing me the desired platform and deliver the learning in effective and efficient manner.
  4. 4. CONTENTSCONTENTS o Introduction o Safety Department o Quality Assurance (QA) o Gas Analyzer o Railway Signaling Relay (RSR) o Card Assembly (PCB) o Telecom Technology o SBC
  5. 5. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION 1
  6. 6. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION 2
  7. 7. SAFETY DEPARTMENTSAFETY DEPARTMENT Any real or potential conditions produced by industries that can cause injury or death to personal or loss of product or property. Safety department provide all the measures to safeguard there employees and machinery and environment .  house keeping  wearing apparel  protective appliances  guarding of machinery  prevention of fire  wiring protection etc. 3
  8. 8. QUALITY ASSURANCEASSURANCE 4
  9. 9. QUALITY ASSURANCEQUALITY ASSURANCE QA and Testing are two of the most critical components to maintaining a competitive edge. Quality assurance & Testing of the product is an essential process that is undertaken for clients so that company can deliver them the kind of product that will match their standards of their brand name. IL understands the amount of labor and efforts goes behind manufacturing products. QA team leaves no stone unturned to assure 100% quality and accuracy. 5
  10. 10. QUALITY ASSURANCEQUALITY ASSURANCE One quality assurance evaluation of management and non-management work used is called "Plan Do Check Act" uses a continuous loop of activities to accomplish work and to improve jobs. The objective is to get the job done right and on time the first time and maybe better the next time. 6
  11. 11. VISITING SECTIONSVISITING SECTIONS I have visited following departments during my training period –  Analyzer products  Railway Signaling Relay  PCB center  tel-testing and serv.  SBC 7
  12. 12. GAS ANALYZERGAS ANALYZER Gas analyzer are the instruments used for continues measurement of percentage of a particular gas in a gas mixture. Some of the gas analyzers are listed below – S.NO TYPE OF ANALYZER GAS MEASURED 1 Paramagnetic O2 2 Thermal conductivity H2, SO2, CO2,Ar 3 Infrared CO, CO2, SO2, NH3 4 Zirconium probe type analyzer O2 8
  13. 13. GAS ANALYZERGAS ANALYZER The gas sampling system is used to make the process gas suitable for feeding to the analyzer. The sampling system consists of following components – • gas sampling probe • heating device • condensate removal & filtration device • sample gas cooler • diaphragm pump • pressure reducer • flow meter 9
  14. 14. GAS ANALYZERGAS ANALYZER Zirconium's probe OZirconium's probe O22 analyzeranalyzer This analyzer work on the principle that a disc of zirconium oxide material acts as a solid electrolyte, when it is subjected to different partial pressure of O2 on it’s two side. The mv generated across the two sides of the ZrO2 disc is governed by Nernst equationNernst equation – EMF = KT log10 (P1/P2) + C 10
  15. 15. RAILWAY SIGNALING RELAYRAILWAY SIGNALING RELAY An relay is an electrical device that opens or closes several circuits in response to a current in another circuit. By energizing/de-energizing one relay, several other relay circuits can be controlled by contacts of that relay. In simple words a relay is an multi- switching device with multiple contact pairs. In RSR there are two contact pairs – i. Front contact pairs (normally open) ii. Back contact pair (normally close) 11
  16. 16. RAILWAY SIGNALING RELAYRAILWAY SIGNALING RELAY Type of relay based on there front and back connections – 1)A (12F 4B) 2)B (8F 8B) 3)C (12F 4B) 4)D (8F 8B) 5)E (2F 1B) 6)G (1F 2B) Internal resistance - minimum Contact pressure - >28gm Contact gap - >0.4mm 12
  17. 17. RAILWAY SIGNALING RELAYRAILWAY SIGNALING RELAY 13 I.L manufactures two type of relays – 1.LINE RELAY 2.TRACK RELAY LINE RELAYLINE RELAY This relay is used for classification of line. There are two signals red and green. a.Red signal indicates hat the line is busy. b.Green light indicates that the line is clear. TRACK RELAYTRACK RELAY This type of relay is used for changing track at railway station.
  18. 18. RAILWAY SIGNALING RELAYRAILWAY SIGNALING RELAY Track Circuit - Block Occupied 14
  19. 19. RAILWAY SIGNALING RELAYRAILWAY SIGNALING RELAY When a train enters the block (above), the leading wheels short circuits the current, which causes the relay to de-energies and drop the contact so that the signal lamp supply circuit now activates the red signal lamp. The system is "fail-safe", or "vital" as it is sometimes called, because any break in the circuit will cause a danger signal to be displayed. The figure is a simplified description of the track circuit. The reality is somewhat more complex. A block section is normally separated electrically from its neighboring sections by insulated joints in the rails. However, more recent installations use electronics to allow joint less track circuits. Also, some areas have additional circuits which allow the signals to be manually held at red from a signal box or control centre, even if the section is clear. These are known as semi-automatic signals. Even more complexity is required at junctions. 15
  20. 20. CARD ASSEMBLY (PCB centre)CARD ASSEMBLY (PCB centre) In this process components are mounted through drilled hole on the PCB. Type of card assembly – 1.Through hole (TH) 2.Surface mount technology (SMT) 16
  21. 21. CARD ASSEMBLYCARD ASSEMBLY Through hole (TH)Through hole (TH) In this process components are mounted through drilled hole on PCB. In this process wave-soldering machine is used for soldering components through hole. 17
  22. 22. CARD ASSEMBLYCARD ASSEMBLY WAVE SOLDERING MACHINEWAVE SOLDERING MACHINE  WWave soldering is a large scale soldering process by which electronic components are soldered to a printed circuit board (PCB) to form an electronic assembly.  The name is derived from the use of waves of molten solder to attach metal components to the PCB.  The process uses a tank to hold a molten solder, the components are inserted into or placed on the PCB. ADVANTAGEADVANTAGE • much faster • create high quality product than manual soldering of components. 18
  23. 23. 19
  24. 24. SURFACE MOUNT TECHNOLOGYSURFACE MOUNT TECHNOLOGY (SMT)(SMT) Surface mount technology (SMT) on an electronics assembly technique where electronic components are mounted to surface of printed circuit board without holes drilled through the board for insertion of component leads. ADVANTAGEADVANTAGE • very efficientvery efficient • fast technologyfast technology • save the cost of placing the component and time about 30%save the cost of placing the component and time about 30% more faster than the work power.more faster than the work power. 20
  25. 25. Equipments used in SMTEquipments used in SMT  Screen printer –Screen printer – To print the solder paste/glue on the board. The places on the PCB where we want to fix the component is made shining by putting this paste. 21
  26. 26. Equipments used in SMTEquipments used in SMT 22  pick and mountpick and mount machine –machine – In this the components are picked up and placed at appropriate location. There are different nozzles as per the component. It’s speed of placing is around 20,000 components per hour..
  27. 27. Equipments used in SMTEquipments used in SMT 23  re-flow oven –re-flow oven – In this oven solder is melted through hot air which grips the particular component, also there is a blower which cools the PCB when it is very hot.
  28. 28. Flow Chart For Card AssemblyFlow Chart For Card Assembly 24
  29. 29. TELECOM TECHNOLOGYTELECOM TECHNOLOGY 25
  30. 30. TELECOM TECHNOLOGYTELECOM TECHNOLOGY Information technology and communication are being the most promising area of business. IL therefore tied-up with Center for Development of Telemetric(C-DOT), a Telecom Technology Center of Govt. of India for its switching process. 26 IL has been pioneer in manufacturing and servicing of Telecom Switching equipment’s since1988. Beginning with 128 P RAX catering to needs of Rural Areas, it has gradually evolved through medium size exchange(256 P RAX, 512 P SBM-RAX) to current large size switches(Main Automatic Exchange-XL) appropriate for Urban and Metro(Central Office) application.
  31. 31. HARDWARE ARCHITECTUREHARDWARE ARCHITECTURE BASE MODULE – It interfaces the external world to switch. The interface may be subscriber lines, analog or digital trunks from remote modules & line concentrators. Each BM can interface up to 2024 terminals One BM contain –  4 TUs (terminal units)  1 BPU (base processor unit)  1 TSU (time switching unit) 27
  32. 32. HARDWARE ARCHITECTUREHARDWARE ARCHITECTURE BM hardware is spread over following type of units- 1. Analogue Terminal Unit – Analogue TU is used for interfacing analogue lines & trunks & providing special circuits. 2. Digital Terminal Unit - Digital TU is used for interfacing digital trunks. 3. Base Processor Unit –BPU used for control message communication and call processing functions. 4. Time Switch Unit - TSU used for voice and message switching and provision of service circuits. 28
  33. 33. SN Exchange Configuration Termination capacity Application 1. SBM-L 1BM+2LMs 1500 Lines + 128 Trunks or 450 Trunks only Medium size rural switch. 2. MAX-L 16 BMs-L 20,000 Lines + 3,000 Trunks or 7200 Trunks only Large size urban/Metropolitan switch 3. SBM-XL 1BM+2LMs 1500 Lines + 128 Medium size rural switch. 4. MAX-XL 32BMs-L 40000 Lines + 6000 Trunks or 14500 Trunks only Very Large capacity switch for Metropolitan area 5. RSU 1BM-XL+2LMs 2000 Lines Remotely located switch. EXCHANGE CONFIGURATION ANDEXCHANGE CONFIGURATION AND THEIR TRAFFIC CAPACITIESTHEIR TRAFFIC CAPACITIES 29
  34. 34. SWITCH BOARD CABINETSSWITCH BOARD CABINETS (SBC)(SBC) 30
  35. 35. SWITCH BOARD CABINETSSWITCH BOARD CABINETS (SBC)(SBC) In one corner of the coach the switch board cabinet is provided. The outside is covered by high pressure laminated walls and doors into which large glass panes are integrated. After opening the switch board cabinet doors all electrical control equipment located centrally here can easily be accessed. The equipment is fixed to different layers which can be opened one after the other. The air conditioning system comprises 2 roof-mounted compact units located one at each coach end. The 2 units are controlled by one microprocessor located in the switchboard cabinet to ensure a proper functioning of both units together. The operating voltage of the unit is 3 phase, 415 V, 50 Hz. Each unit has 2 refrigerant circuits with hermetic refrigerant compressors, condensers with Cu pipes and Al fins, evaporators and condenser fans. 31
  36. 36. REFERANCESREFERANCES 32 http://www.ilkota.in/html/prdh2.htm http://www.ilkota.in/html/prdh4.htm http://www.ilkota.in/html/profile.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_assurance http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface-mount_technology http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relay http://www.cdot.co.in/solution_products/main_automatic_exchanges.htm http://www.cdot.co.in/solution_products/rural_automatic_exchanges.htm http://www.irfca.org/~mrinal/alstomcoaches.html http://www.flexsin.com/software-web-development/quality-assurance-testing.php http://www.scribd.com/doc/100005324/Report-on-Instrumentation-Limited http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-instrumentation-limited-kota-raj http://www.eiconnect.com/pcbprocessflow.aspx#top http://www.technologystudent.com/pcb/pcbflow2.htm http://bsnltraningreport.blogspot.in/

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