3. The conditionals are used to talk about real
or unreal situations, they are sometimes
Real Conditional describes real-life situations.
Unreal Conditional describes unreal,
4. General Structure
A conditional sentence is composed of 2 parts :
If clause + Main Clause
If it rains tomorrow, we will not come.
If-clause Main Clause
5. There are four basic conditionals
that we use in English.
There are some more conditionals
formed by mixing some of these four.
6. Example :
If you heat water to 100°C, it boils.
Present Tense Present Tense
If you pour oil into water, it floats.
Zero Conditional: Certainty
7. First Conditional:
A real possibility in the future
If I feel sick, I will not go to school.
Present Tense Future Tense
If it rains tomorrow, the match will be cancelled.
8. ANOTHER EXAMPLES
If I study hard, there is a good chance I will
get an A in this exam.
If you leave now, you can get the last train.
If you don’t leave now, you will have to walk
If Dave calls again, tell him I am out!
If we finish this today, we won’t have to do it
9. Your Turn!
Think what things you can say with the
word if, similar to the sentences on the
Try to write two sentences and share
with your friend, or read them out loud.
10. Exercise One
1. If you __________________ (not come),
you _________________ (miss ) the show.
do not come
2. John _________________ (buy)a car if he
___________ (get)a job.
3. Mary ______________(get) a toothache if
she______________(eat) too many sweets.
11. Second Conditional: Imaginary
Present or Unlikely Future
If he were a bird, he would fly across the harbour.
Past Tense Would + infinitive
If I had $200,000 now, I would buy a car.
12. ANOTHER EXAMPLES
If I saved all my money, I could buy that new
digital camera by the end of the month.
If I finished my work early today, I would be
home in time for the football.
I would beat the rush hour traffic if I left
Wouldn’t you be too upset if we didn’t see
the movie this weekend?
13. Have a go!
This is more difficult because it is
imagining rather than happening, by using
these words you are using your
imagination to look into the future by
changing something in the present
Try to write two things with if… then
Remember: If.. then would… (imaginary)
14. Third Conditional:
If I had had enough money, I would have bought the
Past Perfect Tense Would + Present Perfect Form
If I had come home earlier, I would not have missed
15. ANOTHER EXAMPLES
If I had know that, I wouldn’t have
bought the thing in the first place!
If you had done that yesterday, you
wouldn’t be moaning about it today.
If we had looked through this paperwork
last month, we could have cleared this
mess up by now, couldn’t we?
16. Try to think of some examples
This is much more difficult because it isn’t
only imaginary, it is imaginary in hindsight,
that is in the past, trying to change
something that it is too late to change,
normally with regret.
Try to think of one or two examples and
share with a friend, or read them out loud.
Remember: If I had… then I would have…
17. Exercise Two
1. If I ________________ (be) four years old, I
______________(learn) to play the piano.
2. If I ______________ (not fail) in the
examination, my mother________________
(buy) me a new computer.
had not failed
would have bought
3. We ______________________ (finish) if we
______________ (have) better preparation.
would have finished
18. if + past perfect, + would + base form
If you had taken the course, you
would know about it.
(The conditions were not met because the
person did not do the course and as a result
does not know about it now.)
if + past simple, + would have + past participle
If I could speak English, I wouldn't
have needed to get the letter translated.
(This means that I couldn't speak English then
when I needed the translator and still can't.)
20. Type 1 :
If you see John, ask him to come and see me.
Should you see John, ask him to come and see me.
SHOULD may replace
IF in type 1.
Type 2 :
If I were an aeroplane, I could fly in the sky.
Were I an aeroplane, I could fly in the sky.
COULD or MIGHT
may replace WOULD.
WERE may replace IF in an inversion.
21. Type 3 :
If I had come home earlier, I would not have missed
Had I come home earlier, I would not have missed the
HAD may replace IF in an
22. IF NOT - UNLESS
You'll be unhappy unless you break up with her.
You'll be unhappy if you do not break up with her.
I wouldn't ask her out unless you told me it was OK.
I wouldn't ask her out if you told me it was not OK."
They wouldn't have come over unless we'd invited them.
They wouldn't have come over if we had not invited them.
23. Whether and If :
Grammar and Spelling Tips
1. When both choices are given, we generally use
whether rather than if :
I don't know whether she's coming or
not. (It would be possible to use if here, but
2. Before an infinitive with to we use whether :
I don't know whether to accept their
offer or not. (If would not be used here.)
24. 3. We can use whether after a preposition :
It's a question of whether we can agree on everything.
(If would not be used here.)
4. Both whether and if can be used in indirect speech to
introduce a yes/no question:
Did they say whether/if they were going to be late?
5. After some verbs, we use whether :
I doubt whether they'll make it.
We discussed whether it was the correct decision.
25. WISH CLAUSE
I wish I were a king. (But I am not!)
I wish she had left last night. (But she didn’t!)
26. IF ONLY
If only I were you!
If only he were born in the USA! (He was not born in USA.)
If only she had left last night!(She did not leave last night.)
28. AS IF / AS THOUGH
They didn’t say anything, but it seems as if
they will come for dinner.
The problem was very easy, but it seemed
as if he could not solve it .
He orders me as if I were his slave.
29. EVEN IF
I will wear my red shirt even if you don’t
like the idea.
Even if you take a taxi, you will miss your
30. IN CASE / IN CASE OF
Take an umbrella in case it rains!
I'll buy two bottles of wine in case one is
In case of burglary, don't touch anything
and call the police immediately.
31. AS LONG AS
You can stay here as long as you keep
Provided/Providing (that) the bills are
paid, tenants will not be evicted.
32. WHAT IF
What if there are jellyfish? You won't want
to swim in the sea then.
What if you had slipped? You would have
fallen right down the cliff. There would have
been nothing to save you.
33. ASSUMING THAT
SUPPOSING/ SUPPOSE THAT
Assuming that the journey is likely to
take a full day, we may except him any
We would love to come and see you on
Saturday, supposing I don't have to work
34. BUT FOR
If it were not for the rain, we would go to Shatin. (Type 2)
But for the rain, we would go to Shatin.
If it had not been for the traffic jam, we would have
arrived on time. (Type 3)
But for the traffic jam, we would have arrived on time.
Remember to use sun cream with high
protection when you go down to the beach.
Otherwise, you will get sunburnt within half
He must be quite intelligent. Otherwise, he
wouldn't have got into university.
36. ONLY IF
Only if you really like Mozart, is it worth
Only if you enjoy walking on the ocean floor,
should you come to our summer camp.
We have talked about:
Types of conditionals with examples.
Omitting if from the sentence.
Mixed conditionals with examples.
Wish clause with examples.
The other conditionals.