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ICT in Healthcare
Unit 1
Contents
● Introduction of ICT Technologies
● Future and Emerging Technologies
● Simulation Techniques
● Computer Aided Manufacturing Methods
Introduction of ICT Technologies
Introduction of ICT Technologies
● Information and communications technology (ICT) is
an extensional term for information technology (IT)
● Role of unified communications and the integration
of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless
signals) and computers
● And necessary enterprise software, middleware,
storage and audiovisual, that enable users to
access, store, transmit, understand and manipulate
information.
Defining the Role of ICT in the Healthcare Sector
● Giuseppe et al. (2017) have shown significant progress in Information and Communication
Technologies (ICTs), which is shaping the healthcare domain by providing new opportunities
and unveiling application scenarios.
● As a result, despite an increased population in the globalized sector, several benefits are
being procured in the overall health sector.
● The quality of medical services is enhanced through efficient modes of communication with
reduced costs of healthcare technologies.
● However, Giuseppe et al. (2017) have demonstrated the negligence of research and
scientific literature due to several contexts of the interaction of scientific communities with
different backgrounds, skills, and approaches.
● Thus, the imperativeness to recognize and encourage research in this field is an important
and critical requirement.
Ref
The use of ICT in healthcare can be categorized into 4 main streams such as;
● Health and Education: The virtual and digital arena has enabled people to easily access learning &
communication processes with others within a short span of time. This makes education accessible, available
and open to all. Health education creates awareness among the public about infectious diseases, health status,
prevention measures and various current diagnostic & therapeutic procedures. In this way, it gives freedom to
the people to choose the best hospitals and doctors for approaching various complicated treatments, ultimately
leading to a healthier population.
● Hospital Management System: The correct utilization of ICT helps the Hospital management systems lead
their organization efficiently. By helping the management to overcome complex challenges faced by the
Hospital, the utilization of ICT helps the management to improve patient safety and satisfaction. Moreover,
technological advancements have a strong foothold in providing data analysis on population health & statistics
and keeping a regularized track of government mandates on its functionings. Primarily, it enhances the
workplace efficiency by strengthening its operational structures.
● Health Research: ICT in healthcare research helps in the inquiry of establishing possible prevention measures
to eradicate and reduce the spread of diseases. By finding empirical evidence against new technology in
diagnosis procedures, it reduces the time and cost required in normal practice. This saves the lives of many
individuals by providing treatment in advance. The traditional healthcare systems can be eliminated through
ICT, and new models can be formed for effective quality care.
● Health Data Management: The fundamental use of ICT in hospitals is the electronic storage of medical data.
This helps to retrieve important information easily. The data can be transferred to the patient or the doctors
through ICT for consultation. The patient can have medical records in hand, which can be used anywhere.
Types of ICTs and their related utilization in Healthcare Facilities
Mair et al. (2020) suggested that by dividing e-health (i.e., “the use of emerging information and communications
technology, especially the Internet, to improve or enable health and healthcare”) into four domains:
● ICT in Management systems: The computer-based systems for acquiring, storing, transmitting, and displaying
patient administrative or health information from different sources that can support patient or clinical activities.
Management systems include ICTs such as electronic health records and personal (patients) health records.
● Communication systems of ICT: They are communication and telecommunication systems utilized to benefit
efficient communication, a kind of communication synchronously or asynchronously, between health
professionals or between doctors, nurses, caretakers and patients. Communication systems involve the specific
sharing of information between select individuals or groups about their distinct roles for diagnostic,
management, counselling, educational, or support purposes. There is a wide range of communication systems,
from e-mail and smartphones to telemedicine and telecare systems.
● Computerized decision support systems: These types of ICT systems refer to an automated
computer-based system that aims to support health professionals practising within clinical guidelines and care
pathways or providing the best evidence-based care. These systems are usually operated in real-time and
involve decision support that comes from artificial intelligence (for example, a software program) rather than a
person.
● Information systems. These systems are defined by the use of internet technology to attain access to different
information resources, such as health and lifestyle information. The information remains at a general level, and
it is not tailored to specific individual needs. Web-based resources and e-health portals for retrieving
information are applications of information systems.
Future and Emerging Technologies
1) Augmented Reality:
a) Augmented Reality is helping medical practitioners and researchers to train and get the most
out of this novel technology.
b) AR provides an immersion experience to see the real world and the virtual world in
combination.
c) It is one of the top benefits of ML in Healthcare 2020. This integration leads to a fantastic
bonus that is one of its kind.
d) In Future, we will see new mobile apps developed with the feature of AR.
Future and Emerging Technologies
2. Virtual Reality:
1. Virtual Reality is another technology that provides contemporary benefits
to surgeons and medical students.
2. VR can help doctors train themselves using extended reality solutions.
3. Companies like AppStudio can transform your institutions and healthcare
businesses by developing sophisticated VR solutions.
Future and Emerging Technologies
3. Artificial Intelligence :
1. We know that the future Healthcare trends depends on machine learning
and deep learning.
2. Artificial Intelligence is also a technology that is lifting healthcare trends
to new levels.
3. When coronavirus struck the world, artificial intelligence helped us.
4. Scientists are using AI algorithms to find Covid-19 vaccination.
5. In the coming years, we will be easily managing such pandemics with
complete control and strategy.
6. The Use of AI & ML in healthcare is already exceeding our expectations.
Future and Emerging Technologies
3) Support Networks:
1. These are online communities that support the patient in any pathology. And
also when they go through delicate situations.
2. This is the case of fertility treatments, people with mental problems, or those
who fight cancer. Applications for sharing medical knowledge between
patients & professionals are also included here.
3. Smart Hospital: The most innovative hospitals will be those that use 5G
technology to transmit data in real-time and perform remote operations.
4. Technologies such as wearables, augmented reality and robots are already in
the most advanced healthcare centers.
Future and Emerging Technologies
4) Robotic Process Automation (RPA)
1. As robotic process automation is applied in healthcare through artificial
intelligence. However, current trends in healthcare 2022 reduce paperwork
and reduce the burden on administrative functions. Also, machine learning is
changing the way to treat patients.
2. The ML technology will be used at maximum utilization in real clinical
scenarios.
3. RPA services provider states that RPA is the driving force behind imaging
diagnostics, reducing patient waiting times, enabling early and accurate
diagnosis. Also, it eases the burden on medical staff.
Simulation Techniques
● Simulation is a generic term that refers to an artificial representation of a real
world process to achieve educational goals through experiential learning.
● Simulation based medical education is defined as any educational activity that
utilizes simulation aides to replicate clinical scenarios.
● Simulation tools serve as an alternative to real patients.
Computer Simulation Training in Health Care Education
● Intra-oral radiography simulation:
The developed software was implemented as core technology in a prototype
radiology simulator.
A.)The user starts training by selecting the area to be examined. The
x-ray machine is positioned by the program
B.) The simulator presents a radiograph over the selected area. A
radiopaque object is visible in the radiograph.
C.) By moving the x-ray machine to a new position the user can
expose a second radiograph from a slightly different projection angle.
From the information in the two radiographs the depth position of the
radiopaque object relative to the teeth can be deduced.
D.) In the next step a blue sphere is visualised inside the mouth of the
patient. The task for the user is to position the blue sphere in the
position where the radiopaque object is thought to be situated from
analysis of the radiographs.
E, F.) The correct position is revealed by visualisation of a white
sphere which has been depicted in the radiographs as the radiopaque
object.
G.) In addition to visual feedback (E and F) text based feedback is
given
Cervical spine simulation
Methods
Haptic Simulation in Healthcare
SIMULATIONS IN SURGERY
● “See one, do one, teach one” is one way to paraphrase what has been the traditional teaching
method of surgical education in the operating rooms worldwide over a hundred years.
● This long standing dogma is being increasingly challenged by legal and ethical concerns for patient
safety.
● The cost of operating room time, and surgical complications surgical simulation and training offers an
opportunity to teach and practice laparoscopic skills outside of the operating room environment.
● Novel methods of developing these skill sets are necessary because it is becoming increasingly
clear that minimally invasive surgery requires a completely different skill set from the one used in
traditional.
● Open surgery three-dimensional operative field is transffered on two dimensional video screen small
intra abdominal space.
● It is a difficult camera angles and the fulcrum effect the trainee needs to develop an understanding of
the spatial relationship and the related hand manoeuvres required to manipulate instruments and
tissue in a two-dimensional video rendering of a three-dimensional operation field.
SIMULATIONS IN SURGERY
Currently available training and evaluation devices for laparoscopic surgery
● Box trainers
● Animal models
● Virtual reality simulators
● Augmented reality simulators
Screen Based Simulation
● Computer programs
● Desktop
● Laerdal Microsim
● www.Anesoft.com
● ACLS
● Critical Care
● Anesthesia
● Sedation
● Neonatal
Computer Aided Manufacturing Methods
Manufacturing changes
● Manufacturing industry affect all facet of our daily life
● Companies constantly seek ways to optimize process and decrease
cost – Manufacturing changes
● 1990’s – quality was the driving force
● 2000’s – safety
● Today – environmental sustainability
● All lead to internal change in manufacturing industries
● Automation ‐ old
● Automation – new – machine size and operability cost decrease
Top trends in manufacturing technology
● Green manufacturing will replace existing methodologies
● Linear economy to circular economy
● Companies will turn to low‐cost marketing and funding solutions
● Customization Will Replace Traditional Inventory Management.
Today’s new Termination
1. Flexible Manufacturing System
2. Variable Mission Manufacturing
3. Computerized Manufacturing System
Computerized Manufacturing System
● Computer Numerical Control (CNC)
● Direct Numerical Control (DNC)
● Computer Process Control
● Computer Integrated Production Management
● Automated Inspection Methods
● Industrial Robots etc.
e.g.-> 3-D Bioprinting
● Three-dimensional (3-D) printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is an
rapidly developing approach for fabricating objects via computer-aided design
and/or computer-aided manufacturing in a layer-by-layer approach.
● 3-D printing of mixed synthetic and biological materials (including cells and
extracellular matrix) as components (i.e., bioprinting) can pattern and assemble cells
and biomaterials with defined organization and architectural arrangements.
● This technique shows promise to replicate the structural heterogeneity, anisotropy
and anatomical shape of the heart valve, including the valve sinuses and coronary
ostia, two structures critical for achieving optimal valve hemodynamics.
● Research to date has shown technical feasibility of VIC and SMC-seeded 3-D
printed heart valve-like components.

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Unit 1 (1).pdf

  • 2. Contents ● Introduction of ICT Technologies ● Future and Emerging Technologies ● Simulation Techniques ● Computer Aided Manufacturing Methods
  • 3. Introduction of ICT Technologies
  • 4. Introduction of ICT Technologies ● Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) ● Role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals) and computers ● And necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage and audiovisual, that enable users to access, store, transmit, understand and manipulate information.
  • 5. Defining the Role of ICT in the Healthcare Sector ● Giuseppe et al. (2017) have shown significant progress in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), which is shaping the healthcare domain by providing new opportunities and unveiling application scenarios. ● As a result, despite an increased population in the globalized sector, several benefits are being procured in the overall health sector. ● The quality of medical services is enhanced through efficient modes of communication with reduced costs of healthcare technologies. ● However, Giuseppe et al. (2017) have demonstrated the negligence of research and scientific literature due to several contexts of the interaction of scientific communities with different backgrounds, skills, and approaches. ● Thus, the imperativeness to recognize and encourage research in this field is an important and critical requirement. Ref
  • 6. The use of ICT in healthcare can be categorized into 4 main streams such as; ● Health and Education: The virtual and digital arena has enabled people to easily access learning & communication processes with others within a short span of time. This makes education accessible, available and open to all. Health education creates awareness among the public about infectious diseases, health status, prevention measures and various current diagnostic & therapeutic procedures. In this way, it gives freedom to the people to choose the best hospitals and doctors for approaching various complicated treatments, ultimately leading to a healthier population. ● Hospital Management System: The correct utilization of ICT helps the Hospital management systems lead their organization efficiently. By helping the management to overcome complex challenges faced by the Hospital, the utilization of ICT helps the management to improve patient safety and satisfaction. Moreover, technological advancements have a strong foothold in providing data analysis on population health & statistics and keeping a regularized track of government mandates on its functionings. Primarily, it enhances the workplace efficiency by strengthening its operational structures. ● Health Research: ICT in healthcare research helps in the inquiry of establishing possible prevention measures to eradicate and reduce the spread of diseases. By finding empirical evidence against new technology in diagnosis procedures, it reduces the time and cost required in normal practice. This saves the lives of many individuals by providing treatment in advance. The traditional healthcare systems can be eliminated through ICT, and new models can be formed for effective quality care. ● Health Data Management: The fundamental use of ICT in hospitals is the electronic storage of medical data. This helps to retrieve important information easily. The data can be transferred to the patient or the doctors through ICT for consultation. The patient can have medical records in hand, which can be used anywhere.
  • 7. Types of ICTs and their related utilization in Healthcare Facilities Mair et al. (2020) suggested that by dividing e-health (i.e., “the use of emerging information and communications technology, especially the Internet, to improve or enable health and healthcare”) into four domains: ● ICT in Management systems: The computer-based systems for acquiring, storing, transmitting, and displaying patient administrative or health information from different sources that can support patient or clinical activities. Management systems include ICTs such as electronic health records and personal (patients) health records. ● Communication systems of ICT: They are communication and telecommunication systems utilized to benefit efficient communication, a kind of communication synchronously or asynchronously, between health professionals or between doctors, nurses, caretakers and patients. Communication systems involve the specific sharing of information between select individuals or groups about their distinct roles for diagnostic, management, counselling, educational, or support purposes. There is a wide range of communication systems, from e-mail and smartphones to telemedicine and telecare systems. ● Computerized decision support systems: These types of ICT systems refer to an automated computer-based system that aims to support health professionals practising within clinical guidelines and care pathways or providing the best evidence-based care. These systems are usually operated in real-time and involve decision support that comes from artificial intelligence (for example, a software program) rather than a person. ● Information systems. These systems are defined by the use of internet technology to attain access to different information resources, such as health and lifestyle information. The information remains at a general level, and it is not tailored to specific individual needs. Web-based resources and e-health portals for retrieving information are applications of information systems.
  • 8. Future and Emerging Technologies 1) Augmented Reality: a) Augmented Reality is helping medical practitioners and researchers to train and get the most out of this novel technology. b) AR provides an immersion experience to see the real world and the virtual world in combination. c) It is one of the top benefits of ML in Healthcare 2020. This integration leads to a fantastic bonus that is one of its kind. d) In Future, we will see new mobile apps developed with the feature of AR.
  • 9. Future and Emerging Technologies 2. Virtual Reality: 1. Virtual Reality is another technology that provides contemporary benefits to surgeons and medical students. 2. VR can help doctors train themselves using extended reality solutions. 3. Companies like AppStudio can transform your institutions and healthcare businesses by developing sophisticated VR solutions.
  • 10. Future and Emerging Technologies 3. Artificial Intelligence : 1. We know that the future Healthcare trends depends on machine learning and deep learning. 2. Artificial Intelligence is also a technology that is lifting healthcare trends to new levels. 3. When coronavirus struck the world, artificial intelligence helped us. 4. Scientists are using AI algorithms to find Covid-19 vaccination. 5. In the coming years, we will be easily managing such pandemics with complete control and strategy. 6. The Use of AI & ML in healthcare is already exceeding our expectations.
  • 11. Future and Emerging Technologies 3) Support Networks: 1. These are online communities that support the patient in any pathology. And also when they go through delicate situations. 2. This is the case of fertility treatments, people with mental problems, or those who fight cancer. Applications for sharing medical knowledge between patients & professionals are also included here. 3. Smart Hospital: The most innovative hospitals will be those that use 5G technology to transmit data in real-time and perform remote operations. 4. Technologies such as wearables, augmented reality and robots are already in the most advanced healthcare centers.
  • 12. Future and Emerging Technologies 4) Robotic Process Automation (RPA) 1. As robotic process automation is applied in healthcare through artificial intelligence. However, current trends in healthcare 2022 reduce paperwork and reduce the burden on administrative functions. Also, machine learning is changing the way to treat patients. 2. The ML technology will be used at maximum utilization in real clinical scenarios. 3. RPA services provider states that RPA is the driving force behind imaging diagnostics, reducing patient waiting times, enabling early and accurate diagnosis. Also, it eases the burden on medical staff.
  • 13. Simulation Techniques ● Simulation is a generic term that refers to an artificial representation of a real world process to achieve educational goals through experiential learning. ● Simulation based medical education is defined as any educational activity that utilizes simulation aides to replicate clinical scenarios. ● Simulation tools serve as an alternative to real patients.
  • 14. Computer Simulation Training in Health Care Education ● Intra-oral radiography simulation: The developed software was implemented as core technology in a prototype radiology simulator.
  • 15. A.)The user starts training by selecting the area to be examined. The x-ray machine is positioned by the program B.) The simulator presents a radiograph over the selected area. A radiopaque object is visible in the radiograph. C.) By moving the x-ray machine to a new position the user can expose a second radiograph from a slightly different projection angle. From the information in the two radiographs the depth position of the radiopaque object relative to the teeth can be deduced. D.) In the next step a blue sphere is visualised inside the mouth of the patient. The task for the user is to position the blue sphere in the position where the radiopaque object is thought to be situated from analysis of the radiographs. E, F.) The correct position is revealed by visualisation of a white sphere which has been depicted in the radiographs as the radiopaque object. G.) In addition to visual feedback (E and F) text based feedback is given
  • 18. Haptic Simulation in Healthcare
  • 19. SIMULATIONS IN SURGERY ● “See one, do one, teach one” is one way to paraphrase what has been the traditional teaching method of surgical education in the operating rooms worldwide over a hundred years. ● This long standing dogma is being increasingly challenged by legal and ethical concerns for patient safety. ● The cost of operating room time, and surgical complications surgical simulation and training offers an opportunity to teach and practice laparoscopic skills outside of the operating room environment. ● Novel methods of developing these skill sets are necessary because it is becoming increasingly clear that minimally invasive surgery requires a completely different skill set from the one used in traditional. ● Open surgery three-dimensional operative field is transffered on two dimensional video screen small intra abdominal space. ● It is a difficult camera angles and the fulcrum effect the trainee needs to develop an understanding of the spatial relationship and the related hand manoeuvres required to manipulate instruments and tissue in a two-dimensional video rendering of a three-dimensional operation field.
  • 20. SIMULATIONS IN SURGERY Currently available training and evaluation devices for laparoscopic surgery ● Box trainers ● Animal models ● Virtual reality simulators ● Augmented reality simulators
  • 21. Screen Based Simulation ● Computer programs ● Desktop ● Laerdal Microsim ● www.Anesoft.com ● ACLS ● Critical Care ● Anesthesia ● Sedation ● Neonatal
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  • 28. Manufacturing changes ● Manufacturing industry affect all facet of our daily life ● Companies constantly seek ways to optimize process and decrease cost – Manufacturing changes ● 1990’s – quality was the driving force ● 2000’s – safety ● Today – environmental sustainability ● All lead to internal change in manufacturing industries ● Automation ‐ old ● Automation – new – machine size and operability cost decrease
  • 29. Top trends in manufacturing technology ● Green manufacturing will replace existing methodologies ● Linear economy to circular economy ● Companies will turn to low‐cost marketing and funding solutions ● Customization Will Replace Traditional Inventory Management.
  • 30. Today’s new Termination 1. Flexible Manufacturing System 2. Variable Mission Manufacturing 3. Computerized Manufacturing System
  • 31. Computerized Manufacturing System ● Computer Numerical Control (CNC) ● Direct Numerical Control (DNC) ● Computer Process Control ● Computer Integrated Production Management ● Automated Inspection Methods ● Industrial Robots etc.
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  • 33. e.g.-> 3-D Bioprinting ● Three-dimensional (3-D) printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is an rapidly developing approach for fabricating objects via computer-aided design and/or computer-aided manufacturing in a layer-by-layer approach. ● 3-D printing of mixed synthetic and biological materials (including cells and extracellular matrix) as components (i.e., bioprinting) can pattern and assemble cells and biomaterials with defined organization and architectural arrangements. ● This technique shows promise to replicate the structural heterogeneity, anisotropy and anatomical shape of the heart valve, including the valve sinuses and coronary ostia, two structures critical for achieving optimal valve hemodynamics. ● Research to date has shown technical feasibility of VIC and SMC-seeded 3-D printed heart valve-like components.