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The project title “SAP Development Object Testing” is a study of the software testing in the company. The project report is about software testing that is an important part of any system development process. In the initial chapter review we see that for proper functioning of the organization. It defines the organization structure of the company.
SAP Development Object Testing
Sahibzada Ajit Singh Institute of Information Technology & Research
On partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree
Master of Business Administration (MBA) in Information Technology
Project Guide: Submitted By:
Miss Gurjeet Kaur Shivani Thakur
Internal Project Guide SASIIT&R, Mohali
University Roll No.95142267376
I truly acknowledge the cooperation & help by Mr. Shailesh Maloo, Chief Operating Officer,
Security Weaver. He has been a constant of guidance throughout the course of this project. I
would also like to thank Mr.Kapish for her help & guidance in the project. Respected guide Miss
Gurjeet Kaur, Lecturer, SAS Institute of Information & Technology for her undeterred guidance
for the completion of the report. I am also thankful to my friends & families whose silent support
led me to complete my project.
Lastly, I’ll like to thank all the employs of Security Weaver, Technology Park, Chandigarh,
whose cooperated with me to maximum extent & provide me the resource to complete this
SAS Institute of Information & Research
Punjab Technology University, Jalandhar
The project title “SAP Development Object Testing” is a study of the software testing in the
company. The project was undertaken on partial fulfillment of the software testing for the degree
Master of Business Administration (MBA) in Information Technology as per Punjab Technical
The project report is about software testing that is an important part of any system development
process. In the initial chapter review we see that for proper functioning of the organization. It
defines the organization structure of the company.
Finally, the conclusion to the report is given in 6. It was concluded that the software testing is
good in every company or organization.
I hereby declare that the project titled “SAP Development Object Testing is an original piece of
software testing work carried out by me under the guidance and supervision of Mr. Shailesh
Maloo Chief Operating Officer. The information has been collected from genuine & authentic
sources. The work has been submitted in partial fulfillment of MASTER IN BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION (MBA) of Punjab Technology University Jalandhar.
Table of Contents
Contents Page no
Acknowledgment ………………………………………………….... 3
Preface …………………………………………………………….... 4
Declaration ………………………………………………………….. 5
Contents ……………………………………………………………... 6-7
1. Introduction of Project……………………………………… 9
Back End……………………………………………………………... 12-17
2. Introduction of Company......................................................... 18
Introduction About the Organization………………………………. 19
Company Products…………………………………………………... 19-25
Company Services…………………………………………………… 26-27
Boards of Directors of the Company………………………………... 27
1.1 Introduction of
Introduction to project SAP Development Object Testing
In order to make it sure, that you provide your client a proper software solution, you go for
TESTING. You check out if there is any problem, any error in the system, which can make
software unusable by the client. You make software testers test the system and help in finding
out the bugs in the system to fix them on time. You find out the problems and fix them and again
try to find out all the potential problems. On the other hand, its a fact that, when one person starts
checking something which is made by some other person, there are 99% chances that
checker/observer will find some problem with the system (even if the problem is with some
spelling that by mistake has been written in wrong way.).
Even though it’s wrong in terms of human behavior, this thing has been used for the benefit of
software projects (or you may say, any type of project). When you develop something, you give
it to get checked (TEST) and to find out any problem, which never aroused while development
of the system. Because, after all, if you could minimize the problems with the system you
developed, it’s beneficial for yourself. Your client will be happy if your system works without
any problem and will generate more revenues for you.
1. Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error.
2. A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding an as yet undiscovered error.
3. A successful test is one that uncovers an as yet undiscovered error.
Testing should systematically uncover different classes of errors in a minimum amount of time
and with a minimum amount of effort. A secondary benefit of testing is that it demonstrates that
the software appears to be working as stated in the specifications. The data collected through
testing can also provide an indication of the software's reliability and quality. But, testing cannot
show the absence of defect -- it can only show that software defects are present.
What is front end?
A front-end application is one that directly interacts with people or users. Marketing researchers
often use a database as a front-end to a statistical analysis program. The researchers enter the
results of market questionnaires or surveys into a database. The data is then transferred to a
statistical analysis program to determine the potential for a new product or the effectiveness of
an advertising campaign.
Frontend is consists of following process:-
JAVA (Front end)
Java is a computer programming language. It enables programmers to write computer
instructions using English based commands, instead of having to write in numeric codes. It’s
known as a “high-level” language because it can be read and written easily by humans. Like
English, Java has a set of rules that determine how the instructions are written. These rules are
known as its “syntax”. Once a program has been written, the high-level instructions are
translated into numeric codes that computers can understand and execute.
Who Created Java?
In the early nineties, Java was created by a team led by James Gosling for Sun Microsystems. It
was originally designed for use on digital mobile devices, such as cell phones. However, when
Java 1.0 was released to the public in 1996, its main focus had shifted to use on the Internet. It
provided more interactivity with users by giving developers a way to produce animated
webpages .Over the years it has evolved as a successful language for use both on and off the
Internet. A decade later, it’s still an extremely popular language with over 6.5million developers
Why Choose Java?
Java was designed with a few key principles in mind:
• Easy to Use: The fundamentals of Java came from a programming language called c++.
Although a powerful language, it was felt to be too complex in its syntax, and inadequate for
all of Java's requirements. Java built on, and improved the ideas of c++, to provide a
programming language that was powerful and simple to use.
• Reliability: Java needed to reduce the likelihood of fatal errors from programmer
mistakes. With this in mind, object-oriented programming was introduced. Once data and its
manipulation were packaged together in one place, it increased Java’s robustness.
• Secure: As Java was originally targeting mobile devices that would be exchanging data
over networks, it was built to include a high level of security. Java is probably the most secure
programming language to date.
• Platform Independent: Programs needed to work regardless of the machine they were
being executed on. Java was written to be a portable language that doesn't care about the
operating system or the hardware of the computer.
A back-end application interacts with other programs or applications; it only indirectly interacts
with people or users. When people request information from a Web site on the Internet, the Web
site can interact with a database (the back end) that supplies the desired information.
SAP (Back end)
Systems Applications and Products in Data Processing. A company that develops software which
allows businesses to track customer and business interactions. SAP is well-known for
its Enterprise Resource Management (ERM) and data management programs. As the world's
leading provider of business software*, SAP delivers products and services that help accelerate
business innovation for our customers. We believe that doing so will unleash growth and create
significant new value – for our customers, SAP, and ultimately, entire industries and the
economy at large. Today, customers in more than 120 countries run SAP applications – from
distinct solutions addressing the needs of small businesses and midsize companies to suite
offerings for global organizations.
Founded in 1972, SAP has a rich history of innovation and growth as a true industry leader. SAP
currently has sales and development locations in more than 50 countries worldwide and is listed
on several exchanges, including the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and NYSE under the symbol
"SAP." In today's challenging business environment, best-run companies have clarity across all
aspects of their business, which allows them to act quickly with increased insight, efficiency, and
flexibility. By using SAP solutions, companies of all sizes – including small businesses and
midsize companies – can reduce costs, optimize performance, and gain the insight and agility
needed to close the gap between strategy and execution. To help our customers get the most out
of their IT investments so that they can maximize their business performance, our professionals
deliver the highest level of service and support.
MORE THAN 37 YEARS IN E-BUSINESS
SAP's story is one of a steady rise from a small, five-man operation headquartered in southwest
Germany's Rhine-Neckar region to one of the world's largest independent software providers and
an employer of more than 47,598 people in over 50 countries.
Read about SAP's exciting evolution and key milestones:
• 1972 – 1981: The First 10 Years – "The First 10 Years" chronicles the highlights of the
company's beginnings and subsequent development – from SAP's foundation, its first
software modules, and the SAP R/2 system to the company's first-year revenues, first
customers outside of Germany, and first trade-show appearance.
• 1982 – 1991: The SAP R/3 Era – Four servers with 64MB of memory. Employing 100
employees and signing its 1,000th customer. Reaching the DM100 million in revenues, and
expanding abroad. The development of the SAP R/3 product generation. These and other
landmark events are the subject of "The SAP R/3 Era."
• 1992 – 2001: The Age of E-Business – Reaching €6 billion, and employing more than
24,000 employees. Trade shows and conferences. Going public, and developing new
technologies and platforms. Learn more about SAP's meteoric rise in "The Age of E-
• 2002 to Today: SAP Today – SAP's story continues with the SAP Net Weaver platform,
whose technologies intertwine system landscapes and information flows, integrate
companies and their employee teams, and establish connections among markets across
virtually any perceived barrier. "SAP Today" describes the most recent technological and
entrepreneurial milestones in SAP's continuing development.
SAPSOLUTIONS: MAKINGYOUR BUSINESSABEST– RUN BUSINESS
Designed for global operations and supported with globalization services, with a clear and
fairlicensing model, SAP provides software solutions to optimize and innovate core businesses
World-class enterprise software, on-demand options, and preconfigured solutions designed for
small businesses and midsize companies – along with new Innovations 2010 capabilities –
deliver the business management software you need, as you need it, to address your business-
• Business intelligence
• Customer relationship
• Enterprise information
• Enterprise performance
• Enterprise resource
• Governance, risk, and
• Human capital management
• Product life-cycle
• Service and asset
• Supply chain management
• Supplier relationship
SAP solutions for small businesses and midsize companies
• SAP Business All-in-One
• SAP Business By Design
• SAP Business One
• SAP Business Objects
o SAP Business
o Free trials
• SAP Crystal solutions
On-demand solutions from SAP
• SAP Business Objects BI
• SAP Business By Design
• SAP Carbon Impact
• SAP CRM on-demand
• SAP E-Sourcing on-
• SAP Stream Work
Rapid deployment solution
• Rapid deployment of SAP Business
• Rapid deployment of SAP CRM
deployment of SAP
IT Service Desk
SIMPLE, AFFORDABLE, AND OPEN BI TOOLS FOR EVERYDAY USE
SAP Crystal solutions – an integrated, affordable, intuitive family of offerings for reporting, dash
boarding, presentation, and ad hoc analysis – can empower individuals in organizations of any
size to discover and share insight for optimal decision making. With insight into every aspect of
your business, you can monitor performance, identify opportunities for growth, and transform
how you run your business.
SAP Crystal solutions can help your business users, IT users, and developers do the following:
• Turn data into actionable reports using SAP Crystal Reports software
• Discover answers to business questions using SAP Crystal Interactive Analysis software
• Drive better decision making with interactive presentations using SAP Crystal
Presentation Design software
• Monitor business performance through real-time business dashboards using SAP Crystal
Dashboard Design software
• Rely on automatic delivery of personalized, secured dashboards and reports with SAP
Crystal Reports Server software
With SAP Crystal solutions, everyone in your organization can leverage a personalized view into
trusted, timely, information. As a result, they can make fast, smart decisions – and you gain a
Services by Business Concern
• Custom solutions
• Information technology
• Predictive analytics
• Risk management
Company Name:-Security Weaver
The company Security Weaver established in 2004. Security Weaver, a leading
provider of application controls management software for use with SAP and
Oracle applications, is opened its office in Chandigarh, India. Housed in the Rajiv
Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park, the new Security Weaver technology center
provides additional software product development and support capabilities
to respond to the high demand for the Company’s innovation SAP and Oracle
applications software. Company has six security products, which provide security
to an organization. Security Weaver also plans to add regional sales capabilities
based in Chandigarh to service the growing demand for automated compliance
solutions in India the Middle East and Asia Pacific.
1. Separations enforce
2. Emergency repair
3. Secure provisioning
4. Process auditor
5. Secure enterprise
6. License management
In today's regulatory environment there is a requirement to strictly manage the separation of
duties in SAP. Companies which fail to monitor and control access to SAP transactions are
exposed to significant risk of fraud and the potential for material misrepresentation of
Security Weaver's Separations Enforcer focuses on employee roles, positions and
transactions that are directly related to "function-based" potential SOD conflicts. The
Security Weaver SOD compliance solution for SAP enterprise software produces an accurate
analysis in a much shorter amount of time, and yields more accurate results than competing
first-generation solutions. The Security Weaver approach uses a highly detailed, multi-stage
process that leverages remarkably accurate, prioritized SOD information tables that are
developed using enterprise-specific financial knowledge to dissect each employee role at its
most fundamental level.
-Faster Compliance Verification -Security Weaver identifies potential functional conflicts
faster, allowing enterprises to meet their compliance verification requirements quickly.
-Lower Cost & Real-time Analysis and Reporting -Security Weaver's efficient "function-
based" design reduces from days to seconds the time required for performing role analysis
and reporting processes, thereby using fewer server resources and less manpower, and saving
significant operating costs.
-Simple and Powerful Design -Security Weaver is a comprehensive, efficient and
sophisticated next generation solution that is easy to implement and maintain, enabling any
member of an organization to use it without requiring expensive training, consulting, or
-Integrated Approach -All essential components necessary for compliance are integrated
into a single solution without the need to purchase additional, expensive add-ons.
Providing emergency access to the SAP system is a necessity, especially when critical software
modificationsnare needed after normal business hours. However, in gaining emergency access,
temporarily authorized users may also have the opportunity to access and/or modify sensitive
financial, personal or health-related information. Security Weaver's Emergency Repair (ER)
solves these security issues by providing an automated and secure means of ensuring that
emergency access to sensitive information can be fully controlled, documented, and audited.
Security Weaver Emergency RepairTM
(ER) is a security solution that enables emergency access
to an SAP enterprise system in an automated and intuitive fashion with little human intervention.
Once access is granted, ER generates highly detailed records and documentation on all user
activity, transactions, and accessed information. Security Weaver ER leverages existing SAP
interface designs, application components, utilities, and tools to more effectively enable
emergency access functionality.
• Emergency access tied directly to individual's ID
• All changes made with emergency access are tied with the user who has the access
• Detailed field-level changes of changes (if table logging is active)
• Email notifications during assignments of emergency access
• Reduce Administrator time from mundane tasks
To meet strict regulatory requirements, a laborious process of checks and balances must take
place--with the bulk of the effort falling squarely on the shoulders of the IT group and business
managers. Inefficient management of access control ultimately hinders employee productivity.
The wait for approvals and verifying access rights often means users are unable to utilize critical
systems for days. Worse, inappropriate user access goes unchecked, exposing the organization to
greater risks of fraud.
To meet these challenges, many organizations are turning to automated user provisioning for
SAP solutions. Secure Provisioning (SP) is the premier automated solution for user provisioning
within SAP. It makes adding, modifying or deleting users smooth and efficient while ensuring
that security and compliance rules are being adhered to. SP integrates tightly with the rest of our
Security Weaver suite, allowing SOD's to be analyzed prior to submitting a request for approval.
All parties who need to be involved, including end users needing access, multiple approvers, and
auditors/security administrators (for mitigating controls) are notified and kept involved via email
• Automate formerly manual user provisioning processes
• Provide accountability and traceability of all provisioned users
• Enable self-service functions, such as password changes and access requests
• Speed the time it takes to grant users access
Secure Enterprise extends the innovative design and unparalleled performance of Security
Weaver's SOD conflict management module, Separations Enforcer, by providing an integration
layer allowing organizations that run SAP to monitor SOD's across the enterprise. Secure
Enterprise is delivered with a configurable, function based SOD Matrix that can be easily
updated to provide a cross-platform SOD management framework for any system within your
enterprise landscape including other ERPs, legacy applications and in-house or proprietary
-Enterprise-wide SOD conflict management -Comprehensive assessment of segregation of
duties conflicts in any application environment.
-Faster Compliance Verification -Secure Enterprise identifies potential functional conflicts
faster, thus closing the GAP on continuous compliance across the enterprise and limiting the
time that your organization is exposed to compliance risk.
-Lower Cost & Real-time Analysis and Reporting -Efficient "function-based" design reduces
from days to seconds the time required for performing role analysis and reporting processes,
thereby using fewer server resources and less manpower, and saving significant operating costs
-Leverage Your Internal SAP Expertise -As with all Security Weaver products for SAP,
Secure Enterprise is build using SAP technology and provides a low-cost approach to enterprise-
wide application compliance automation.
Security Weaver's new license management module (LM Module) is the only license
management tool available which offers compliant license management automation integrated
with automated user provisioning.
Security Weaver's license management module delivers role-based license management tools
that will allow your organization to optimize SAP and other complex licenses. With clear
visibility into the cost of assigning specific roles, management will be able to make informed
cost decisions on the fly as user access is assigned using Security Weaver's Secure Provisioning
(SP)TM application. Integration with Security Weaver's SOD tools Separations Enforcer
(SE)TM and Secure Enterprise (EN)TM will ensure that roles are both cost-effective and
Process Auditor provides organizations with an integrated approach to continuous compliance
monitoring in SAP by delivering out-of-the-box functionality for monitoring end-user activity.
The result, is a robust controls framework for your SAP environment that can help to identify
fraud, misuse or errors in transactional processes. Process Auditor delivers a complete
transactions control framework for Order to Cash (O2C), Purchase to Pay (P2P), Financial
Controls (FIC) and SAP System Settings. Additionally, Process Auditor's Custom Controls
Workbench (CCW) provides your organization with the ability to build ad-hoc or proprietary
controls for any SAP business process or custom transaction.
-Automated Alerts and Case Assignment ensures that exceptions are routed properly for
review by responsible parties.
-Best Practices Process Controls includes out-of-the-box rule sets in an intuitive design that
allows for immediate use.
-Configurable Monitoring Capability allows running of specific controls in "true-real-time" or
-Automated Reporting ranging from highly summarized to extremely detailed, and fully
Company tools provide true real time automation of SAP compliance tasks such
as management of segregation of the duties (SOD) conflicts, full automation of
the user provisioning process, control of emergency access, configurable process
controls along with providing robust reporting and workflow capabilities. Our
applications have been recognized as world-class in terms of performance,
scalability, ease of installation and ease of use. Organizations throughout the
world are using Security Weaver to provide a robust applications controls
framework in SAP while providing management, business, finance, IT and audit
with the tools and visibility they need to reduce of fraud and ensure compliance.
Overview of company services
Security Weaver offers comprehensive consulting services to assist you with all of your SAP
security support and development projects. Company staff of highly trained SAP security
consulting has vast experience assisting companies like yours in resolving highly complex SAP
Additionally, company offer risk assessments which provide you an overview of your current
exposure. Security Weaver delivers real-time capabilities for managing SOD conflicts through
the use of a predefined yet fully customizable SOD matrix. Security Weaver provides your
enterprise with a combination of robust reporting and advanced monitoring of access to sensitive
in SAP-A complete toolset.
• Risk evaluation
• Security redesign
• SOD analysis
• SOX compliance
• Traditional security
Board of Directors of the Company:-
Terry Hirsch (CEO)
Sumit Sangha (Founder)
Sandeep Gupta (Co-Founder)
System analysis is a process of gathering and interpreting facts,
diagnosing problems and the information to recommend improvements on the
system. It is a problem solving activity that requires intensive communication
between the system users and system developers. System analysis or study is an
important phase of any system development process. The system is studied to the
minutest detail and analyzed. The system analyst plays the role of the interrogator
and dwells deep into the working of the present system. The system is viewed as a
whole and the input to the system are identified. The outputs from the
traced to the various processes. System analysis is concerned with becoming
aware of the problem, identifying the relevant and decisional variables, analyzing
and synthesizing the various factors and determining an optimal or at least a
satisfactory solution or program of action.
A detailed study of the process must be made by various techniques like
interviews, questionnaires etc. The data collected by these sources must be
scrutinized to arrive to a conclusion. The conclusion is an understanding of how
the system functions. This system is called the existing system. Now the existing
system is subjected to close study and problem areas are identified. The designer
now functions as a problem solver and tries to sort out the difficulties that the
The solutions are given as proposals. The proposal is then weighed with the
existing system analytically and the best one is selected. The proposal is presented
to the user for an endorsement by the user. The proposal is reviewed on user
request and suitable changes are made. This is loop that ends as soon as the user is
satisfied with proposal.
Preliminary study is the process of gathering and interpreting facts, using the
information for further studies on the system. Preliminary study is problem
solving activity that requires intensive communication between the system users
and system developers. It does various feasibility studies. In these studies a rough
figure of the system activities can be obtained, from which the decision about the
strategies to be followed for effective system study and analysis can be taken.
In the existing system the changes cannot be made due to its rigidness but in proposed
system we can make changes by using this software.
• Lack of finding conflicts
• Don’t show any errors
• More rigidity
• Lack of security of data
The aim of proposed system is to develop a system of improved facilities and find all
conflicts. The proposed system can overcome all the limitations of the existing system.
The system provides:
• Proper find the conflicts
• Show error to user
• Ensure data accuracy
• SAP ERP concept
Feasibility study is made to see if the project on completion will serve the
purpose of the organization for the amount of work, effort and the time that spend
on it. Feasibility study lets the developer foresee the future of the project and the
usefulness. A feasibility study of a system proposal is according to its workability,
which is the impact on the organization, ability to meet their user needs and
effective use of resources. Thus when a new application is proposed it normally
goes through a feasibility study before it is approved for development.
The document provide the feasibility of the project that is being designed and
lists various areas that were considered very carefully during the feasibility study
of this project such as Technical, Economic and Operational feasibilities. The
following are its features:
1. TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY
The system must be evaluated from the technical point of view first. The
assessment of this feasibility must be based on an outline design of the system
requirement in the terms of input, output, programs and procedures. Having
identified an outline system, the investigation must go on to suggest the type of
equipment, required method developing the system, of running the system once it
has been designed.
Technical issues raised during the investigation are:
Does the existing technology sufficient for the suggested one?
Can the system expand if developed?
The project should be developed such that the necessary functions and
performance are achieved within the constraints. The project is developed within
latest technology. Through the technology may become obsolete after some
period of time, due to the fact that never version of same software supports older
versions, the system may still be used. So there are minimal constraints involved
with this project. The system has been developed using Java the project is
technically feasible for development.
2. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY
The developing system must be justified by cost and benefit. Criteria to ensure
that effort is concentrated on project, which will give best, return at the earliest.
One of the factors, which affect the development of a new system, is the cost it
The following are some of the important financial questions asked during
The costs conduct a full system investigation.
The cost of the hardware and software.
The benefits in the form of reduced costs or fewer costly errors.
Since the system is developed as part of project work, there is no manual cost
to spend for the proposed system. Also all the resources are already available, it
give an indication of the system is economically possible for development.
3. BEHAVIORAL FEASIBILITY
This includes the following questions:
• Is there sufficient support for the users?
• Will the proposed system cause harm?
The project would be beneficial because it satisfies the objectives when
developed and installed. All behavioral aspects are considered carefully and
conclude that the project is behaviorally feasible.
SYSTEM REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATIONS
Need for SRS:
Basic purpose of SRS is to bridge the common gap between the client and the developer. SRS is
the medium through which the client and the user needs are specified. Indeed SRS forms the
basis of the software development.
Another important purpose of developing an SRS is helping the clients understand their own
needs. In order to satisfy the clients which is the basic quality objective of software development,
the client has to be made aware of various potentials and helps in visualizing and conceptualizing
the needs and requirements of his organization.
• The application should be reliable.
• Possible errors during data updating & deletion the system should be able to handle them
either by maintaining its state or giving meaningful error messages.
• Since the nature of the information is confidential , only authorized personnel should be able
to get in to the application to update or make changes.
• The application should be available to the user most of the time.
• The application availability depends on the availability of the Oracle database.
• The software should be easily maintainable.
• The generated problems should be solvable most of the time.
The project should provide with enough data validation and error messages so that the user
can be able to understand while using the project. Possible scenarios include user
trying to insert incomplete system details without a system above it, incomplete updating,
incorrect data in the fields etc.
Each and every software system has always some problem constraints with them. These
constraints described have to be checked during the evaluation of the system. Mainly there are
two types of performance specifications
Static and dynamic
Static performance specifications are those that do not impose any constraints on the execution
characteristics of the system for example number of simultaneous users to be supported and the
number of files and the size that the system has to process.
Dynamic performance specifications put constraints on the execution behavior of the system.
These constraints include the response time, throughput etc.
A few of the indispensable performance specifications are:
Response time and processing time:
Response time is the time from the submission of the request until the first response is produced.
This measure called the response time, is the amount of time it takes start responding, but not the
time that it takes to output that response.
Through the use of careful programming, it is achieved that the system has a quick response
time. Being a large database to handle the progress bar control is used to establish the quick
Throughput is the measure of work. It is the number of processes that are completed per unit
time. For long processes this can be one process per hour and for short transactions throughput
can be ten processes per record.
The developed system should be a reliable tone. The results that it will give must conform to the
standards set prior to the development of the application.
System should be developed in such a way that it will be able to cope with all sorts of problems
like invalid inputs and should warn the user to take appropriate action.
With the passage of time need for modification of the existing system arises. So the system
should be flexible enough having scope for desirable changes.
Finally, the system is going to be in the hands of the users since it is developed for them, if it
falls to satisfy them then its going to be worth nothing. Thus this point will always be verified
when moving from one phase to the next one.
The application should be scalable to meet the increased size of database in future.
Presently full information regarding several computers is available in Intranet Mailing System.
Assuming the branches can increase in future, it can be safely assumed that the Databases are
scalable to the requirements at least for the next 10 years.
ADVANTAGES OF SRS
1) An SRS establishes the basis for agreement between the client and the developer on what
the software will do. Through SRS the client clearly describes what it expects from the
developer and the developer clearly understands what capabilities to build in the
2) An SRS provides a reference for validation of the final product that is the SRS helps the
client determine if the software meets the requirements. Without a proper SRS there is no
way a client can determine if the software being delivered is what was ordered.
3) There can be many errors made during the requirements phase. An error in the SRS may
result in an error in the final product. If we want a high quality final software that has few
errors we must begin with quality SRS. So a high quality SRS is a prerequisite to a high
4) The quality of SRS has also an impact on cost and schedule of the project. The cost of
fixing an error increases exponentially as time progresses i.e. a requirement error if
detected and removed after the system being developed can cost upto 100 times more
than removing it during requirement phase itself. So, clearly we can have a tremendous
reduction in the project cost by reducing the errors in the SRS.
5) A high quality SRS reduces the development cost, so the quality of the SRS impacts
customer and developer satisfaction, system validation, quality of the final software and
the software development cost.
Processor : Intel(R) Pentium(R) Dual CPU E180@2.00GHz
RAM : 256GB
Hard disk : 16GB
Monitor : 15’4”
Keyboard : 104 Keys
Mouse : 2 buttons/ 3 buttons
Operating System : Windows 2000/XP
Front end : JAVA
Back end : SAP
System Design is the process of developing specifications for a candidate system that meet the
criteria established in the system analysis. The plan of the project provides a review of the
different modules in which the project is divided. The modules are designed and tested
individually and then merged together to form an integrated project.
The main objective of the system design is to make the system user-friendly.
System design involves the various stages:-
1. Data entry
2. Data correction
3. Data deletion
5. Sorting and indexing
6. Report generation
System design is the creative act of invention, developing new inputs, a database, offline files,
procedures and output for processing business to meet an organization objective. System design
builds information gathered during the system analysis.
Characteristics Of A Well Defined System:-
In design, an efficient and effective system is of great importance to consider the human factor
and equipment that these will require to use. System analyst must evaluate the capabilities and
limitations of the personal and corresponding factors of the equipment itself.
The characteristics associated with the effective system operations:-
2. Decision Making Ability
Abstraction means one to concentration on a problem at some level of generalization without
regard to irrelevant low level details.
Refinement means a process of elaboration. It causes to elaborate on the original statement,
providing more and more detail as each successive refinement occurs.
Comparison between Abstraction and Refinement
Abstraction and refinement are complementary concepts. Abstraction enables a designer to
specify procedure and data and yet suppress low-level details. Refinement helps the designer to
reveal low-level details as design progresses. Both concepts aid the designer in creating a
complete design model as the design progresses.
Modularity means dividing the software into separately named and addressable components,
often called modules. The advantage of modularity is to integrate the modules to satisfy problem
The Software Procedure focuses on the processing details of each module individually.
Procedure provides a precise specification of processing, including sequence of events, exact
decision points, repetitive operations, and even data organization and structure.
Data structure is a representation of the logical relationship among individual elements of data.
The design of modules enables the information (procedure and data) to be inaccessible to other
modules. This helps in implementing information hiding.
Coupling is a measure of interconnection among modules in a software structure. Coupling
depends on the interface complexity between modules, the point at which entry or reference is
made to a module, and the data pass across the interface.
The representative diagram for design model is as shown below
The data design transforms the information domain model created during analysis into the data
structures. The data objects and relationships defined in the object modeling (i.e. class diagram)
and the detailed data depicted in the data dictionary provide the basis for the data design activity.
From the information available in the data dictionary,
the developer needs to normalize the real world data into consistent information. In order to
convert into consistent information I applied the following database normalization principles.
I am considering the relation “Employee” in my project. Let X (i.e. Mechid) and Y (i.e. Name)
are the two attributes of the relation “Employee”. Then “Employee” satisfies the functional
dependency, X points to Y if a given set of values for each attribute in X uniquely determines
each of the values of the attributes in Y. Then Y is said to be functionally dependent on X.
The architectural design defines the relationship between major structural elements of the
software, the “design patterns” used to achieve the requirements that have been defined for the
system, and the constraints that affect the way in which architectural design patterns are applied.
The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the
system, comprise software components, the externally visible properties of those components,
and the relationship among them. There are various architectural styles exist and the same is
Data – centered Architecture
Data flow architecture
Call and return architecture
Object Oriented architecture
Of the above architectural styles, Data-centered architecture is applicable to my project. In this
style data store (i.e. database) at the center of this architecture and is accessed
frequently by other components that update, add, delete, modify data within the store. Client
software accesses a central repository. That is, the client software accesses the data independent
of any changes to the data or the actions of other client software. The advantage of data-centered
architecture is it promotes interoperability. Existing components can be changed and new client
components easily added to the architecture. without concern about other clients. Client
components independently execute processes.
User interface design creates an effective communication medium between a human and a
computer. I followed the following golden rules while designing user interface
Place the user in control
1) Define interaction modes in a way that does not force a user into unnecessary or undesired
2) Provide for flexible interaction.
3) Allow user interaction to be interruptible and undoable.
4) Hide technical internals from the user.
5) Design for direct interaction with objects that appear on the screen.
Reduce the user’s memory load
1) Reduce demand on short-term memory.
2) Define shortcuts, which are intuitive.
3) The visual layout of the interface should be based on a real world metaphor.
4) Establish meaningful defaults.
5) Disclose information in a progressive fashion.
Make the interface consistent
1) Allow the user to put the current task into a meaningful context.
2) Maintain consistency across a family of applications.
3) If past interactive models have created user expectations, do not make changes unless
there is a compelling reason to do so.
Component Level Design
Component level design (i.e. procedural design) occurs after data, architectural and interface
design have been established. Component level design establishes the algorithmic detail
required to manipulate data structures, effect communication between software components via
interfaces, and implement the processing algorithms allocated to each component. Component
level design depicts the software at a level of abstraction very close to code. In order to
accomplish this, I use the following design notations to represent component level design in
graphical and tabular formats. Example case studies are given below.
The starting point of the design process is the proper knowledge of system requirements, which
will normally be converted in terms of output. Output of the IMS is two types.
These outputs are mainly generated for various indications as to how the system operates. These
types of outputs are not implemented in this project CODE EFFICIENCY
When we produce large programs, it often happens that extra code is left in the project. This
extra code can be unused subs and functions, old variables, unnecessary constants, even Types
and Enums. Extra code takes up disk space, slows down the program and it also makes it harder
Since this code is not needed, it is also called dead code. The opposite of dead code is live code.
You can trace the dead code and then remove.
One needs to detect questionable programming practices and code.
Problem categories: Problems fall into in to 4 categories:
Optimization. These problems adversely affect the speed and size of the resulting program.
Style. These problems are related to the programming style. They don't necessarily lead to
problems in the short run, but they often lead to confusion and further errors in the future.
Metrics is a sub-category of Style. You can set target values for different metrics and monitor to
find out if some part of your program exceeds the limits.
Functionality. These problems affect the run-time functionality of the program. The reason is
often that somebody forgot to do something!
One can create quick check filters and strict filters for giving code a final polish. The filters are:
Dead code Check deadness only
Disable checking Disable all problem checking
Functionality Report problems affecting functionality only
Optimizations Report problems related to optimization only
Strict Report all problems
Style Report problems related to style issues only
DATA FLOW DIAGRAM:-
A Data Flow Diagram (DFD) is a diagram that describes the flow of data and the processes that
change or transform data throughout a system. It’s a structured analysis and design tool that can
be used for flowcharting in place of, or in association with, information oriented and process
oriented system flowcharts. When analysts prepare the Data Flow Diagram, they specify the user
needs at a level of detail that virtually determines the information flow into and out of the system
and the required data resources. This network is constructed by using a set of symbols that do not
imply a physical implementation. The Data Flow Diagram reviews the current physical system,
prepares input and output specification, specifies the implementation plan etc.
Four basic symbols are used to construct data flow diagrams. They are symbols that represent
data source, data flows, and data transformations and data storage. The points at which data are
transformed are represented by enclosed figures, usually circles, which are called nodes.
Data Flow Diagram Symbols:-
_ Source or Destination of data
_ Data Flow
Level 1 Login Detail of Administrator
Level 2 New User Request
Level 3 Role AcceptReject
Req. Last Name
Req. First Name
Req. User Id
Supervisor First Name
Accept / Reject
We have five security products, and we have to do unit testing of one security product (Secure
Provisioning). We are doing testing for better output and fulfill customer requirements. If there
should be any error so we can find it in testing. Firstly we choose the product and log in SAP
Here, we have security product Secure Provisioning. There are some sub tabs in this product and
we will do the unit testing. We take some sub tabs and test them.
Firstly, we have a screen on desktop. We will log in SAP logon 710.
After log in on SAP logon 710, there will be SAP R/3 named screen come in the front of us.
Here enter the user name and password then press enter.
Then SAP Easy Access named screen come in the front of us. There are a green color tick sign
on the screen click on that and you will have a new screen on your desktop.
Here, you will have a Secure Provisioning screen come in front of you. Then fill particular code
in the blank white box and press enter.
Modular and subsystem programming code will be accomplished during this stage. Unit testing
and module testing are done in this stage by the developers. This stage is intermingled with the
next in that individual modules will need testing before integration to the main project. Coding,
in computer terms, is the process of writing, assembling, and compiling computer code. Code is
simply the instructions for hardware and software. HTML is a kind of computer code or
language that you can use to create your own web pages.
Types of Coding:-
Code data to more efficiently represent the information.
Reduces “size” of data
Analog – encoding analog source data into a binary formal
Digital – reduce the “size” of digital source
Code data for transmition over a noisy communication channel
Increases “size” of data
Digital – add redundancy to identify and correct errors
Analog – represent digital values by analog signal
“Information Theory” was development by Claude Shannon
It is the process used to help identify the correctness, completeness, security, and quality of
developed computer software. Testing is a process of technical investigation, performed on
behalf of stakeholders, that is intended to reveal quality-related information about the product
with respect to the context in which it is intended to operate. This includes, but is not limited to,
the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding errors. Quality is not
an absolute; it is value to some person. With that in mind, testing can never completely establish
the correctness of arbitrary computer software; testing furnishes a criticism or comparison that
compares the state and behaviour of the product against a specification. An important point is
that software testing should be distinguished from the separate discipline of Software Quality
Assurance (SQA), which encompasses all business process areas, not just testing.
The development process involves various types of testing. Each test type addresses a specific
testing requirement. The most common types of testing involved in the development process
• Unit Test.
• System Test
• Integration Test
• Functional Test
• Performance Test
• Beta Test
• Acceptance Test
The first test in the development process is the unit test. The source code is normally divided into
modules, which in turn are divided into smaller units called units. These units have specific
behavior. The test done on these units of code is called unit test. Unit test depends upon the
language on which the project is developed. Unit tests ensure that each unique path of the project
performs accurately to the documented specifications and contains clearly defined inputs and
Several modules constitute a project. If the project is long-term project, several developers write
the modules. Once all the modules are integrated, several errors may arise. The testing done at
this stage is called system test.
System testing ensures that the entire integrated software system meets requirements. It tests a
configuration to ensure known and predictable results. System testing is based on process
descriptions and flows, emphasizing pre-driven process links and integration points.
Testing a specific hardware/software installation. This is typically performed on a COTS
(commercial off the shelf) system or any other system comprised of disparent parts where
custom configurations and/or unique installations are the norm.
Functional test can be defined as testing two or more modules together with the intent of finding
defects, demonstrating that defects are not present, verifying that the module performs its
intended functions as stated in the specification and establishing confidence that a program does
what it is supposed to do.
Testing the system with the intent of confirming readiness of the product and
Ad Hoc Testing
Testing without a formal test plan or outside of a test plan. With some projects this type
of testing is carried out as an adjunct to formal testing. If carried out by a skilled tester, it can
often find problems that are not caught in regular testing. Sometimes, if testing occurs very late
in the development cycle, this will be the only kind of testing that can be performed. Sometimes
ad hoc testing is referred to as exploratory testing.
Testing after code is mostly complete or contains most of the functionality and prior to users
being involved. Sometimes a select group of users are involved. More often this testing will be
performed in-house or by an outside testing firm in close cooperation with
the software engineering department.
A crucial phase in the system life cycle is the successful implementation of the new system
designed. Implementation includes all those activities that take place to convert from the old
system to the new one. The new system may be completely new, replacing an existing manual
or automated system or it may be major modification to an existing system. In either case,
proper implementation becomes necessary so that reliable system based on the requirements
of the organization can be provided.
It is the process of converting old computerized software with the newly developed software
and making it operational without affecting functioning of the other software in the computer
Types of Implementation:
There are basically three types of implementation.
Fresh implementation: -
Implementation of a totally new computerized Software.
Replacement implementation: -
Implementation of new computerized software, By replacing the old computerized software.
Implementation of a modified computerized Software by replacing old computerized
• Training of personnel
• Conversion procedures
• Post-implementation review or evaluation
Training of personnel: The high quality training is an essential step in systems
implementation. Hence to provide the training to personnel they have been provided user
manuals. They are asked to read it carefully and same thing try practically on computer. If
they don’t understand any thing, can ask without any hesitation. They are asked to enter the
data, which is more frequently entered, and print the reports are frequently printed. Users are
told about those situations, which he must understand and he should able to handle it.
Conversion method: The direct conversion method is applied. This method converts from
old to the new system abruptly. The old system is used till a planned conversion day. The
organization relies fully on the new system.
Evaluation or post implantation review : After the system is implemented and conversion is
complete, a review is conducted to determine whether system is meeting expectations and
where improvements are needed. A post implementation review measures the systems
performance against pre-determined requirements. It determines how well the system
continues to meet performance specifications. It also provides information to determine
whether major re-design or modification is required. In evaluation system is checked against
the pre-determined requirements. All the requirements have been fully attained. Where there
was any mistake that had handled through system life cycle. Problem is solved and checked
against the original facts.
For review a team is planned. The Team shall prepare a formal plan around the objectives of
the review. An overall plan covers the following areas:
Administrator Plan: Review area objectives, operating costs, actual operating performance
Personnel Requirements Plan: Review performance objectives and training performance to
Hardware Plan: Review performance specifications
Documentation Review Plan: Review the system development efforts.
i. Administrative Plan
(a) User Objective: This is an extremely crucial area since it may be possible that
over a period of time the system does not meet the initial objectives of the user
or objectives get changed as a result of changes in the overall objectives of the
organization. The results of the evaluation are documented for future reference.
(b) Operating costs and benefits: Under the administration plan, current budget
designed manipulate costs and savings of the system will closely reviewed.
ii. Personnel Requirement Plan
(a) Personnel old performance objectives will be compared with current
(b) Training performance through testing, conducting interviews and other data
iii. Hardware Plan
(a) The hardware of the new system will also review. But as we are using existing
hardware which full fill the requirement of project. Hence the cost of hardware
is not increased.
iv. Documentation Review Plan:
The reason for review plan is to evaluate the accuracy and completeness of the documentation
compiled to date and to its conformity with documentation standards established earlier.
The last part of system development life cycle is system maintenance, which is actually the
implementation of the post-implementation plan. Hence Programmers/ Analyst spends
sufficient time for maintaining programs.
Hence maintenance will cover a wide range of activities including correcting coding and
design errors, updating documentation and test data and upgrading user support. Many
activities classified as maintenance actually fall under enhancements. Hence in maintenance
of system enhancement also takes place. Therefore in maintenance addition, modification, re-
developing of code will take place to support changes in specification.
Maintenance is the enigma of system development. It holds the software industry captive,
typing up programming resources. Analysts and programmers spend far more time
maintaining programs than they do writing them.
It basically includes the following activity:
• Correcting design errors
• Correcting coding errors
• Updating, documentation and test data
• Adding, modifying or redeveloping the code
• Regular acceptance and validation testing
Maintenance can be classified as corrective, adaptive, or perfective. Corrective maintenance
means repairing processing or performance failures or making changes because of previously
uncorrected problems or false assumptions. Adaptive maintenance means changing the
program function. Perfective maintenance means
enhancing the performance or modifying the programs to respond to the user’s additional or
changing needs. Of these types, more time and money are spent on perfective than on
corrective and adaptive maintenance together
Maintenance covers a wide range of activities, including correcting coding and design errors,
updating documentation and test data, and upgrading user support. Many activities classified
as maintenance are actually enhancements. Maintenance means restoring something to its
original condition. Unlike hardware, however, software does not wear out; it is corrected.
The conclusion is drawn from the study of the company regarding the Software Testing carried
out there. The Software Testing at Security Weaver designed to attract to their customers.
Company provides to their customer’s security products for their organization security.
Testing is not only used to locate defects and correct them. It is also used in validation,
verification process, and reliability measurement. Complete testing is infeasible. Complexity is
the root of the problem. At some point, software testing has to be stopped and product has to be
shipped. The stopping time can be decided by the trade-off of time and budget. Or if the
reliability estimate of the software product meets requirement.
To conclude, I, d like to compliment the team at Security Weaver for the wonderful job done by
them & provide the right software to their customers.
Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach by Roger S.Pressman
Software Engineering by Pankaj Jalote
Software Testing Principles and Practice by Srinivsan Desikan, Gopalaswamy