• What is web accessibility?
• Why web accessibility?
• Disability Statistics
• Types of Disabilities
• WCAG 2.0
• Accessibility Principles
• Essential Component of Web
• Implementation Cycle
• Accessibility Checker
“The power of the Web is in its universality.
Access by everyone regardless of disability is an
Tim Berners-Lee, W3C Director and inventor of the
World Wide Web
SOURCE : http://speakerdata.s3.amazonaws.com/photo/image/775120/sir-tim-berners-lee.jpg
What is WEB ACCESSIBILITY?
• Web Accessibility is about Universality, its about
development of information systems flexible enough to
accommodate the needs of maximum no. of users as
with different environments
To elderly people
• Web accessibility specifically means that people with
disabilities can use the Web.
• It means that people with disabilities can perceive,
understand, navigate, and interact with the Web.
SOURCE : http://www.web-solutions4you.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/accessibility-300x300.png
Why WEB ACCESSIBILITY ?
• Equal Accessibility=Equal Opportunity.
• The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
recognizes access to information and communications
technologies, including the Web, as a BASIC HUMAN RIGHT.
• Accessibility supports social inclusion.
• There is also a strong business case for accessibility.
• It’s a LAW.
It’s a LAW
COUNTRY STANDARD LEGISLATION
Guidelines for Indian
(based on WCAG 2 A)
Section 508 (subset of
WCAG 1 with a few
Section 508 of
RGAA 3 (based on
Law No 2005-102, Article 47
CANADA WCAG 2 AA Human Rights Act 1977
BITV 2 (based on
Equalization Law (BGG)
IRELAND WCAG 2 AA The Disability Act 2005
NEW ZEALAND WCAG 2 AA
Human Rights Amendment
WCAG 2 AA Equality Act 2010
Currently around 10 per cent of the total world's
population, or roughly 650 million people, live with a
According to the new figures released by the Census
Bureau in America
19.9 million (8.2%) have difficulty lifting or grasping.
15.2 million (6.3%) have a cognitive, mental, or
8.1 million (3.3%) have a vision impairment.
7.6 million (3.1%) have a hearing impairment.
Types of Disabilities
• There are 5 types of disabilities that can affect
the way people use and interact with
Visual Barriers(Blindness, color
• Images(still or animated)
• Video and visual elements
• Inconsistent navigation or content
• Lack of adequate color contrast
• Certain color combinations
• Small Headings
• Text embedded in images
Web Accessibility for Visually
such as “braille
ALT texts for
SOURCE : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/Refreshable_Braille_display.jpg
Sound Barriers(deafness, hard
to hearing) can include:
• Video or audio
• Lack of transcript or captioning
• Auditory stimulus that does not
provide an alternative
• Closed Captioning
Web accessibility for auditory
•Transcript (or full text) for
•Captioning(or subtitle) for
•Avoid flashing or flickering
•SOURCE : https://encrypted-
Motor Disability includes..
• Inability to use a mouse
• Slow response time
• Limited motor control
• Assistive Technologies
• Mouth stick
• Head wand
• Single-switch access
• Sip and puff switch
• Oversized trackball mouse
• Adaptive keyboard
• Eye tracking
• Voice recognition software
• Other assistive technologies
For motor disability..
Users may not be able to use the mouse. Make sure that all functions are available
from the keyboard (try tabbing from link
Users may not be able to control the
mouse or the keyboard well.
Make sure that your pages are error-
tolerant (e.g. ask "are you sure you want
to delete this file?"), do not create small
links or moving links.
Users may be using voice-activated
Make sure that all functions are available
from the keyboard.
Users may become fatigued when using
"puff-and-sip" or similar adaptive
Provide a method for skipping over long
lists of links or other lengthy content.
• Seizures can be caused by strobing, flickering,
or flashing effects.
• Present in different Science-fiction style Flash
objects, horror movie previews etc.
• In general, if the content flashes more than
three times per second, is notably large, has
bright contrast in the flashes, it may cause a
seizure and should be avoided.
• Of note is that SECTION 508 of WCAG
prohibits flickering effects with a frequency
greater than 2 Hz (flickers per second).
Cognitive disability includes..
• Difficulty in navigations
• Complicated System to memorize and use
• Ineffective Error Recovery
• System is presented with inappropriate graphics, missing
alternative texts, lengthy and complex content
Word prediction aids
Reading/Writing comprehension aids
•Clear and specific
•Avoid flashing to
•Avoid change of
For Cognitive Disability
• The World Wide Web Consortium(W3C) is committed to
promoting usability for people with disabilities.
• Follow WCAG 2.O
• Guidelines for :
Aiding Disabled Audience
Aiding Agent type support
• Universal access for everyone.
• Broad and testable success criteria
• Three levels: A, AA, AAA
• Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content.
• Don’t rely on color alone.
• Use markup and style sheets and do so properly.
• Clarify natural language usage.
• Create tables that transform gracefully.
• Ensure that pages featuring new technologies transform gracefully.
• Ensure user control of time sensitive content changes.
• Provide context and orientation information.
• Provide clear navigation mechanisms.
• Ensure that documents are clear and simple.
Essential Components for Web
Web browsers, media
users' knowledge and
When accessibility features are effectively implemented in one
component, the other components are more likely to implement them.
The Implementation Cycle
1. AChecker – Accessibility Checker
Accessibility Checker is an open source accessibility evaluation tool that
was developed in 2009 by the Inclusive Design Research Centre
(formerly known as the Adaptive Technology Resource Centre) of the
University of Toronto. Using this tool, the user can submit a web page
via its URL or by uploading its HTML file and can subsequently select
which guidelines to evaluate it against, namely the HTML Validator,
WCAG 1.0 and WCAG 2.0.
2. WAVE – Web Accessibility Versatile Evaluator
WAVE is a tool developed by WebAIM that is available both
online and as a Firefox add-on. It reports accessibility
violations by annotating a copy of the page that was
evaluated and at the same time, providing recommendations
on how to repair them. Rather than providing a complex
technical report, WAVE shows the original Web page with
embedded icons and indicators that reveal the accessibility
information within your page.
• Commercial: Accessibility increases the
website use and it is cost effective.
• Technical: produces a high quality and highly
• Legal: conformances with government
• Ethical: Accessibility contributes to build a
• CAPTCHA: Difficulty in Considering All Types of
• People who cannot move any of their body
• Assistive Technologies for Mobile Applications
• Check for Accessibility barriers for all major
disability groups- Visual, Hearing, Physical,
• Select the testing technique or a combination of
• Once the scope of testing is defined, clearly identify
the core pages and functionalities and verify each
against manual Accessibility checklist.
• Consider accessibility throughout the design and
development process for seamless and elegant
integration into web projects and to save