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Wireless networks

  1. Bangalore Vijayakumar, Subhash Sharma Choudhary, Shelly Tang, Zihan INSTRUCTOR: BHUIYAN, MD MOINUDDIN
  2. Content  WHAT IS INTERNET OF THINGS  History  How it Works  Application of IOT  Current Status and prospect  METHODOLOGY  Research areas  Research paper  Literature review  TECHNICAL DETAILS OF IOT  Architecture layers  New Wireless Technologies  Criticism, Problems and Controversies
  3. What is IOT?  The Internet of Things(IOT) is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, which enables these objects to collect and exchange data.  Iot connects physical world to the internet.  Iot are also called as "Intelligent system of systems."  IoT allows us to use affordable wireless technology and transmit the data into the cloud at a component level. It also provides a place to save data as well as management and security. ... Whatever the future holds for IoT, Smart devices will become convoluted into our lives.  The Internet of things (IoT) is the network of devices such as vehicles, and home appliances that contain electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and connectivity which allows these things to connect, interact and exchange data. ... In this example, the system does not need to be connected to the Internet.
  4. History  The concept of the Internet of Things first became popular in 1999, through the Auto- ID center at MIT and related market- analysis publications. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) was a prerequisite for the IOT at that point. If all objects and people in daily life were equipped and identifiers, computers could manage and inventory them. Besides using RFID, the tagging of things may be achieved through such technologies as near field communication, barcodes, QR codes, Bluetooth, and digital watermarking. But the actual term “Internet of Things” was coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999 during his work at Procter & Gamble. Ashton who was working in supply chain optimization, wanted to attract senior management's attention to a new exciting technology called RFID.
  5. How it works? There are four components of IOT system, which tell us how it works Sensor/devices-sensors or devices help in collecting very minute data from the surrounding environment. All of this collected data can have various degrees of complexities ranging from a simple temperature monitoring sensor or a complex full video feed. Connectivity- The collected data is sent to a cloud infrastructure, but it needs a medium for transport. Data processing- Once the data is collected and it gets to the cloud, the software performs processing on the acquired data. User Interface -the information made available to the end-user in some way. This can achieve by triggering alarms on their phones or notifying through texts or emails.
  6. Application of IOT
  7. Current status and prospects  In present IOT connected devices worldwide would be 20.8 billion. The various “things”, which include not only communication devices but also every other physical object on the planet, are also going to be connected to the Internet, and controlled through wireless networks. This concept, which is referred to as the “Internet of Things (IoT)”, has attracted much attention from many researchers in recent years.
  8. Research Area  IoT is intelligent decision-making on behalf of the devices.  As can be seen from the list, both artificial intelligence and machine learning are important research topics.  These research areas focusing on IoT decision-making will only gain more emphasis in the future.
  9. Research paper (IEEE) Improving Pedestrian Safety in Cities Using Intelligent Wearable Systems A Comprehensive Survey on Internet of Things (IoT) Toward 5G Wireless Systems Internet Of Things For Smart Cities
  10. Literature Survey The internet of things can be developed using the LAN or WAN. The LAN network can enable the inter- connecting between the devices in a specific area whereas, the WAN can offer a very broad geographical domain This technology plays a major role in the organizations. Offers ease of work, monitoring assistance, automation and several other benefits, which add values to the organizational productivity It would be justified to state that the interconnectivity, ease of work, convenience, adding to the productivity in individual’s performance and eventually benefits the society as a whole.
  11. Technical Details in IOT Architecture layer  In the initial, three layers architecture was introduced.  Then, Some researchers analyzed one more layer, a support layer.  According to latest researchers, there are 5 layers as shown in Figure.
  12. Architecture layer  Perception Layer Identify things and collect the information from sensors. Example of sensors: RFID, 2D barcode.  Transport Layer Carry and transmit the information from the physical objects. Connect the smart things, network devices.  Processing Layer Collect the information sent from transport layer. Eliminate extra information, extract the useful information.  Application Layer Define all applications that use the IoT. Applications: smart homes, smart cities, smart health, etc.  Business Layer Manage and control applications, business, user’s privacy. Determine how information be created, stored and changed.
  13. New Wireless Technologies in IOT The IOT will consist of new devices:  low power  low cost  Limited memory  Over a wide variety of ranges It is useful to discuss the technologies into categories based on range.
  14. New Technologies based on every range  LAN and PAN. ( WIFI and Bluetooth) ZigBee: short-range, low-power 6LoWPAN: easily communicate with other protocols Thread: does not define an application layer  MAN. SigFox: a narrowband technology, using BPSK Lora: a spread-spectrum technology with a wider band  WAN. (4G and 5G) LTE-MTC: a stripped-down version of LTE. They use the same spectrum and base stations NB-IOT: not related to LTE, but is based on a DSSS modulation
  16.  Security IOT spreads widely, cyber-attacks are likely to become an increasingly physical threat. Conventional technical attack, including: Denial of Service Attack, Man-in-The-Middle Attack on Network layer; Eavesdropping, Replay Attack on perception layer.  Platform fragmentation IOT lacks common technical standards, each with its own advantages and disadvantages, suffers platform fragmentation.  Privacy and Control When user's information travels through hops in IOT network, it is vulnerable to privacy violation by compromising nodes in network.  Data Storage Challenge is the storage of the bulk data generated by IOT.
  17. REFERENCES  mber=6488907  5453/  the-internet-of-things  technologies/
  18. Thank you !