WHAT IS INTERNET OF THINGS
How it Works
Application of IOT
Current Status and prospect
TECHNICAL DETAILS OF IOT
New Wireless Technologies
Criticism, Problems and Controversies
What is IOT?
The Internet of Things(IOT) is the network of physical objects or "things"
embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, which
enables these objects to collect and exchange data.
Iot connects physical world to the internet.
Iot are also called as "Intelligent system of systems."
IoT allows us to use affordable wireless technology and transmit the data into
the cloud at a component level. It also provides a place to save data as well as
management and security. ... Whatever the future holds for IoT, Smart devices
will become convoluted into our lives.
The Internet of things (IoT) is the network of devices such as vehicles, and
home appliances that contain electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and
connectivity which allows these things to connect, interact and exchange data.
... In this example, the system does not need to be connected to the Internet.
The concept of the Internet of Things first became popular in 1999,
through the Auto- ID center at MIT and related market- analysis
publications. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) was a prerequisite for
the IOT at that point. If all objects and people in daily life were equipped
and identifiers, computers could manage and inventory them. Besides
using RFID, the tagging of things may be achieved through such
technologies as near field communication, barcodes, QR codes, Bluetooth,
and digital watermarking. But the actual term “Internet of Things” was
coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999 during his work at Procter & Gamble.
Ashton who was working in supply chain optimization, wanted to attract
senior management's attention to a new exciting technology called RFID.
How it works?
There are four components of IOT system, which tell us
how it works
Sensor/devices-sensors or devices help in collecting very minute data from the surrounding
environment. All of this collected data can have various degrees of complexities ranging from a
simple temperature monitoring sensor or a complex full video feed.
Connectivity- The collected data is sent to a cloud infrastructure, but it needs a medium for
Data processing- Once the data is collected and it gets to the cloud, the software performs
processing on the acquired data.
User Interface -the information made available to the end-user in some way. This can achieve by
triggering alarms on their phones or notifying through texts or emails.
Current status and prospects
In present IOT connected devices worldwide would be 20.8 billion. The
various “things”, which include not only communication devices but also
every other physical object on the planet, are also going to be connected
to the Internet, and controlled through wireless networks. This concept,
which is referred to as the “Internet of Things (IoT)”, has attracted much
attention from many researchers in recent years.
IoT is intelligent decision-making on behalf
of the devices.
As can be seen from the list, both artificial
intelligence and machine learning are
important research topics.
These research areas focusing on IoT
decision-making will only gain more
emphasis in the future.
Research paper (IEEE)
Improving Pedestrian Safety in Cities
Using Intelligent Wearable Systems
A Comprehensive Survey on Internet of
Things (IoT) Toward 5G Wireless Systems
Internet Of Things For Smart Cities
The internet of things can be developed using the LAN or WAN. The LAN network can enable the inter-
connecting between the devices in a specific area whereas, the WAN can offer a very broad geographical
This technology plays a major role in the organizations. Offers ease of work, monitoring assistance,
automation and several other benefits, which add values to the organizational productivity
It would be justified to state that the interconnectivity, ease of work, convenience, adding to the
productivity in individual’s performance and eventually benefits the society as a whole.
Technical Details in IOT
In the initial, three layers architecture was
Then, Some researchers analyzed one more layer, a
According to latest researchers, there are 5 layers as
shown in Figure.
Identify things and collect the information from sensors. Example of sensors: RFID, 2D barcode.
Carry and transmit the information from the physical objects.
Connect the smart things, network devices.
Collect the information sent from transport layer.
Eliminate extra information, extract the useful information.
Define all applications that use the IoT. Applications: smart homes, smart cities, smart health, etc.
Manage and control applications, business, user’s privacy.
Determine how information be created, stored and changed.
New Wireless Technologies in IOT
The IOT will consist of new devices:
Over a wide variety of ranges
It is useful to discuss the technologies
into categories based on range.
New Technologies based on every range
LAN and PAN. ( WIFI and Bluetooth)
ZigBee: short-range, low-power
6LoWPAN: easily communicate with other protocols
Thread: does not define an application layer
SigFox: a narrowband technology, using BPSK
Lora: a spread-spectrum technology with a wider band
WAN. (4G and 5G)
LTE-MTC: a stripped-down version of LTE. They use the same spectrum and base stations
NB-IOT: not related to LTE, but is based on a DSSS modulation
IOT spreads widely, cyber-attacks are likely to become an increasingly physical threat.
Conventional technical attack, including: Denial of Service Attack, Man-in-The-Middle Attack
on Network layer; Eavesdropping, Replay Attack on perception layer.
IOT lacks common technical standards, each with its own advantages and disadvantages,
suffers platform fragmentation.
Privacy and Control
When user's information travels through hops in IOT network, it is vulnerable to privacy
violation by compromising nodes in network.
Challenge is the storage of the bulk data generated by IOT.