2. What Are Disasters?
The term “disaster” originated from
the French word desastre, which is a
combination of the words “des”
meaning bad and “aster” meaning
Is a tragic event that causes loss of
lives and great damages to
properties and the environment.
3. Classification of Disasters
Natural disasters are disasters caused by natural resources. Examples are earthquakes,
flood, hurricane, tornado, fire, tsunami, volcanic eruptions, drought, avalanche, and
- rapid onset or acute onset, such earthquakes, tsunamis, and flood
- progressive onset or gradual onset, such as drought that may lead to famine.
Man-made disasters are caused by man and are identifiable as either intentional or
non-intentional humans actions.
-terrorism or violence
-complex humanitarian emergencies
4. What Is Disaster Risk?
Expressed as the likelihood of loss of life, injury or destruction and
damage from a disaster in a given period of time.
The United Nations International Strategy on Disaster Reduction (ISDR)
defined disaster as the potential loss in lives, health status, livelihood, and
various assets that are often challenging to quatify.
5. Two Caregories of Disaster Risk
Intensive Risks- pertains to the exposure of a large number of people in a specific
geographic area to extreme events that can further lead to catastrophic disaster
involving high- mortality rate and asset loss.
Extensive Risks- more on the exposure of dispersed populations to various hazards of
low or moderate intensity
7. Direct Losses Indirect Losses Intangible Losses
• Include physical effects such
as damages and changes
reduce ability of an individual
• Affect community by
disrupting or damaging
utility services and local
• include psycological
situations caused by casualty
and ability reduction
• Involve damages to people,
buildings, vehicles, clean-up,
and disposal costs
• Include loss of income,
increase in costs, expenses
8. Social Impacts
Housing- Destruction may be
brought by floods and
earthquakes and may lead to
homelessness. This can be have
a long-term impact on society.
Hence, the source of income of
the affected families will be
9. Health- Health care
vulnerable to hazards.
equipment is damaged,
accomodate those who are
affected by calamities.
10. Education- Schools often serve as
evacuation and relief centers when
strikes. This disrupts the educational
services that can have long-term effect on
both students and teachers.
11. Economic Impacts
Natural disasters tend to have stronger impact on countries with major
debt and poverty problems.
Funds are used for reconstruction, repair, rehabilitation, and medical aid.
Negatively impact on economic growth and may lead to a decline in the
capacity to import and export goods.
Cause a spike of unemployment in the country.
12. Environmental Impacts
The following are just several negative
environment impacts of disasters:
Flooding can cause tress and root crops to be submerged.
Drought damages ecosystems by reducing water supply that is essential
for living organisms to survive.
Earthquakes can lead to environmental degradation.
A tsunami can cause long-term negative effects in the population of
species in the region, and consequences on the livelihood of fishermen,
housing, and infrastructure.
14. Answer the following questions:
1. What makes communities vulnerable to disasters?
2. What makes the Philippines very vulnerable to natural disaster?
3. What is the difference between disasters and disaster risks?
Hinweis der Redaktion
Technological hazards include power outages, chemical incidents, dam failures and power plant failures.
Terrorism- assassinations, shootings, kidnappings and bombings