DEPARTEMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
PROJECT PHASE 2:
LABORATORY STUDY ON THE LIGHT WEIGHT
CONCRETE BY PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF COARSE
AGGREGATES WITH CINDERS
UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF:
Er. BHARGAVA G
Department of civil Engineering
PAVITHRA R 1CK17CV050
NIVETHA RAJ B 1CK17CV048
NARAYANASWAMY K V 1CK18CV409
SHASHIDHARA T V : 1CK17CV060
With the advent of Industrial development and mass
constructions in various parts of the world, the
pollution levels as well as scarcity of construction
materials have reached the peak level.
The main specialties of lightweight concrete are its low
density and thermal conductivity.
Based on the literature, the main function for usage
cinder material is to minimize the cost and it is reduced
to disposal of waste material and it helps in reduction
of dead load.
In the present study, an attempt has been made to
replace both coarse and fine aggregate by lighter
weight material to achieve concrete of lighter density.
Light weight concrete has a lower Density and Higher
porosity than normal concrete
Light Weight Concrete is a Special Concrete Which Weighs
Lighter than Conventional Concrete.
The strength of light weight concrete is generally less than
conventional concrete and cannot be adopted for heavy load
The advantages of lightweight concrete are its reduced mass and
improved thermal and sound insulation properties, while
maintaining adequate strength.
Density of conventional concrete varies from 2400-2500 Kg/m3.
But the density of light weight concrete is in between 300-1900
To Conduct the Basic Test on Material of Concrete i.e.
Cement, Fine Aggregate, Coarse Aggregate, Cinders,
To Mix Design M30 Grade Concrete as per code
To Conduct Laboratory Test on Mechanical Properties of
Light Weight Concrete (LWC) i.e. Compression test.
To analyze cost comparison between light weight concrete
and conventional concrete.
Dr. V. Bhaskar Desai and Mr. A. Sathyam replaced the normal
aggregate by cinder in 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%.
The various test results showed that compression, split tensile as
well as flexural strength decrease continuously with increase in
cinder content. However, up to 70 % replacement, the values were
within the acceptable strength limits.
N. Sivalinga Rao et. al explained the necessity of trial mixes in
light weight concrete in the absence of accurate data of water
absorption, moisture content etc. Their investigation projected 10%
as optimum replacement of silica fume for cement with 40% cinder
and 60 % natural aggregates. In addition to this it is also noted that
there is a slight increase in the strength of based on the during
period extension and the unit weight of the cinder concrete is
varying from 1980 to 2000 Kg/m³
Further more it is also Noted That there is a Decrease in Density
After Extended Curing Periods.
• P.S. Raghuprasad et al., as studied the coarse aggregates
in the conventional solid concrete blocks were replaced partially
with Cinder (12mm) and tested for compressive strength at the age
of 3days, 7days and 21days. From the results of the investigation,
it can be concluded that solid concrete block with 15%
replacement of coarse aggregate by cinder records more strength
than the conventional one.
• Owens, P.L. et al., had stated that Light weight aggregate
concrete was used for structural purposes since the 20th century.
As per this study, the Light weight aggregate concrete is a material
with low unit weight and often made with spherical aggregates.
The density of structural Light weight aggregate concrete typically
ranges from 1400 to 2000 kg/m³ compared with that of about 2400
kg/m³for normal weight aggregate concrete.
Cement : 53 grade Ordinary Portland Cement
Blenders : Cinders,
Fine Aggregates : Manufactured sand
Coarse Aggregate : 20mm down size +12.5mm down size
Water : potable water
Cinder is the material comes under the
category light weight aggregate and it is
a by product of steel, iron manufacturing
Properties of cinders
Cinder aggregates possess high porosity
and low density.
It is having high thermal insulation
It is having good fire resistant property.
It has good binding property with
The raw materials are firstly cleaned such that it should be free
from impurities and then they are subjected to the Basic Tests
Conducted on materials.
Tests on cement: Finess test, Consistency test, Setting time
test, Soundness test, Specific Gravity.
Coarse Aggregate & Cinders: Crushing test, Abrasion
test , Impact test, Shape test ( Flakiness, Index , Elongation
Index, Angularity Number) Specific Gravity, Sieve Analysis,
Fine Aggregate & Saw Dust: Sieve Analysis, Bulcking
of Sand, Specific Gravity.
Based on the appropriate water cement ratio the Mix Designs
are obtained for M30 grade concrete as per the code IS
10262:2019 .For the obtained mix design the lightweight
aggregates such as Cinder are partially replaced in place of
conventional aggregates with various percentages.
CEMENT: (OPC 53 GRADE, IS 12269-1987)
• OPC 53 grade cement as per IS 12269-1987 is used from mangala traders in
hulimavu, Bangalore are used with a designed strength for 28 days being a
minimum of 53Mpa or 530 kg/sq-cm. 53 grade opc provides high strength and
durability to structure because of its optimum particle size distribution super
• TEST CONDUCTED AND OBTAINED RESULTS WITH THEIR
STANDARD RESULTS OF CEMENT: (TABLE -1)
1) specific gravity
of the cement
consistency of the
3) Initial setting
time of cement
50 minutes >30 minutes
COARSE AGGREGATE : (20MM DOWN SIZE, IS 383-1970)
The locally available crushed angular aggregate obtained from HMT layout
Bangalore, Karnataka are used. Coarse aggregate of maximum size 20mm is
used as coarse aggregate. The tests have been carried out as per the procedure
given in IS 383-1970. all in aggregates.
TEST CONDUCTED AND OBTAINED RESULTS OF COARSE AGGREGATE
WITH THEIR STANDARD VALUES:(TABLE-2)
2) Specific gravity 2.65 2.5-3.0
3) Water absorption 0.4% <2%
4) Bulk density •Compact BD =
FINE AGGREGATE : (M SAND, IS 383-1970)
• The M sand is obtained from the HMT layout mallathahalli Bangalore,
• This is mainly crushed fine aggregate produced from a hard granite stones by
• The tests have been carried out as per the procedure given in IS 383-1970
• Well graded sand passing through 4.75mm was used as fine aggregate.
2) Specific gravity 2.63 <2.68
3) Bulk density • Compact BD
• Loose BD =
CINDERS of 20 mm down size Aggregate used. The tests have been carried
out as per the procedure given in IS 383-1970. All in aggregates(Table-2).
TEST CONDUCTED AND OBTAINED RESULTS OF CINDERS
AGGREGATE WITH THEIR STANDARD VALUES:
Name of the
1 specific gravity 1.60
3 Water absorption 9.62%
CALCULATION OF MATERIALS FOR CASTING
• Volume of cube:
= Length x Breadth x Depth
= 0.15 x 0.15 x 0.15
= 3.375 x 10-3 m3
• Volume of concrete required for 7 and 28 days ( 36 cubes)
= (3.375 x 10-3 x 36)
= 0.1215 m3
• Weight of concrete = volume of concrete x density of concrete
= 0.1215 x 2400 = 291.6 kg
• Taking 20% extra = (20/100 x 291.6) + 291.6 =349.9 kg
• For proportion: 1: 0.75: 1.5 (M30)
• Weight of cement = (1/ (1+0.75+1.5)) x 349.9
• Weight of sand = 80.74 kg
• Weight of coarse aggregate =161.50 kg
• Water =w/c *cement
• =0.45*107.66 =48.4 liters
VARIOUS MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR DIFFERENT % OF CINDERS
REPLACEMENT WITH C.A
Mean target strength = 38.25 N/mm^2
w/c ratio =0.45
table: % of materials
0% 107.67 80.75 161.50 0 48.4
20% 107.67 80.75 129.2 32.3 48.4
40% 107.67 80.75 96.9 64.6 48.4
60% 107.67 80.75 64.6 96.9 48.4
80% 107.67 80.75 32.3 129.2 48.4
100% 107.67 80.75 0 161.50 48.4
The batching of all the ingredients was
performed by weight.
The sand was air dried in the laboratory
First the surface was damped with water then
all the aggregates (Natural Coarse Aggregate,
Fine Aggregate and cinders Aggregate) were
spread on the surface area till the aggregates.
After thorough mixing of aggregates cement
was introduced on the ground surface and
water were added slowly as per W/C ratio.
The concrete was mixed for approximately
three minutes after the water was added.
PREPARATION, CASTING OF LIGHT WEIGHT
CASTING OF CONCRETE CUBES
Before casting cubes should
be apply oil to inner surface
Concrete is filled in cube
By layer by layer.
Each layer compacted with
25 blows with tamping rod.
TEST ON FRESH CONCRETE (SLUMP TEST)
It is the most commonly used method to measure the consistency of
concrete, which can be employed at site of work or laboratory.
It is not suitable method for very wet or very dry concrete.
The slump value is calculated by the difference between the height of
the mould and the height of the container thoroughly after using.
If the pile topples sideways it indicates that the materials have not been
uniformly distributed in the mould and test should be remade.
TO DETERMINE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LIGHT
A. Test on fresh concrete:
B. Test on hardened concrete:
Compression strength test:
The cubes of 150x150x150mm are casted by varying the
proportions of cinders M30 grade concrete mixes. The
results obtained are tabulated for the curing period of 7
days,14 days, 28 days.
Compression test is carried out on various % of cubes.
• Compressive strength=fc=ultimate load/cross
• A=b*D in mm2
• Fc in Mpa
• P in N
compressive strength for M30 is 32.86 for 28 days curing
period and 7 days curing period compressive strength is
COST ANALYSIS :
Cost Estimation Between Conventional Concrete and
Light Weight Concrete is Carry Out.
As The Cinders Usually Obtained From Industrial Waste
By- product they are cheaper than the normal aggregates
used in conventional concrete Hence Light Weight Concrete
would be quite Economical.
To Realize the low cost construction we have to implement
light weight concrete first.
Due to lower handling, transportation and construction cost,
the light weight concrete s ideally suited for the production
of pre cast concrete elements and prefabricated concrete.
The cinder aggregates is no way inferior with the natural
With 40% replacement of cinder and 60% of coarse aggregates the
highest slump value is found .
The compressive strength of the concrete is more when 50%
replacement of cinder and 50% of coarse aggregates.
Therefore with 40%replacement of cinder and 60% of coarse
aggregate the better workability are obtained for the concrete mix.
1. Dr.V.Bhaskar Desai , A.Satyam,’Some studies on strength
properties of Light weight cinder aggregate concrete’,
“volume 4 issue 2, feb 2014.
2. P.S.Raghuprasad, R.satish “Experimental investigations
on solid concrete blocks with partial replacement of
coarse aggregate with cinder aggregate”.
3. N.Siva lingaRao , V.Bhaskar Desai “Properties of light
weight concrete with cinder and silica fume” ,
International journal of earth sciences and Engineering ,
vol 4, No.6, October 2011.
4. A text book of “concrete Technology” by M.S.Setty.
CODES OF PRACTICE:
1. " Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and
Reinforced concrete”, IS 456-2000, fourth revise, BIS,
2. " Indian Standard Methods of tests for aggregates” IS 2386-
1963, BIS , New Delhi.
3. -“Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design, ",
IS10262-2019 BIS, New Delhi.
4. ” Handbook on concrete mixes, SP 23-1982, BIS, New