1. “Emergence of NGOs and their
Role in Development”
Lecturer, Department of Social Relations
GEN 201: Bangladesh Studies
2. What is an NGO?
• In Bangladesh NGOs vary
from their traditional
approach in 2 ways:
1. Works in the areas mainly
where the Government
2. Follow a participatory
3. Emergence of NGOs in Bangladesh
1. Pre-liberation and Liberation period
2. Post-liberation period
3. Dissatisfaction of Donor agencies
4. Unsuccessful Government efforts
5. An increase in foreign aids
6. Successful in sector development
5. Achievement records of NGOs in Bangladesh
Micro credit – covered almost entire rural Bangladesh
(BRAC, Grameen Bank)
Innovative education through - Non Formal Education
Women development (BRAC, Grameen Bank, Proshika
Employment generation (Esho Nijera Kori)
Income earning through enterprise development (BRAC
Capacity building in planning and management (SC,
Action Aid, Islamic Relief, Oxfam, CARE)
• NGOs as Entrepreneurs in commercial activities
6. Achievement records of NGOs in Bangladesh
• Occupational skill training (SC, POPI)
• Productive assets (Oxfam, Uttoron, IDE)
• Political participation (USAID)
• Heath and nutrition (SC, BRAC, CARE)
• Family planning ( Surjer Hasi)
• Environment (BAPA, BELA, IUCN, USAID)
• Awareness building (BRAC
• Access to governance services and local administration
• Agricultural sector (Katalyst, IDE)
• Children development (SC, Plan International)
• Humanitarian works (SC, Oxfam, Islamic Relief, CARE)
• Legal aid (Ain o Salish Kendro)
7. Risks and Contradictions!!!
Misleading assumptions (efficiency,
effectiveness) about NGOs !
Are the NGOs cost effective?
To whom the NGOs are accountable?
Are the NGOs transparent?
Macro and Micro economic links and
impact!? (Interest rates? Vicious cycle of
Are the NGOs politically motivated?
Agenda – home grown or external?
The term “NGO’ encompasses a broad array of organizations, varying in their specific purposes, philosophy, sectoral expertise and scope of activities. In two important ways the NGOs in Bangladesh stand out from the traditional private voluntary organizations (PVOs). First, NGOs engage in activities, which had traditionally been in the domain of the government agencies, and it is the failure of the later, which prompted donors to route funds through these organizations. Second, NGOs are largely participatory in their approach.
NGOs are required to register with the department of social welfare, for the purpose of claiming to be a non-profit organization. Beside some, NGOs have sought registration with the directorate of women’s affairs, and yet others have registered as a cooperative society. In some exceptional cases, an NGO may register itself with the register of the joint stock companies as a not-for-profit organization. Since the formation of the NGO Affairs bureau (NGOAB) in 1990, the NGOs have to register with the bureau in order to avail of foreign funds.