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Lec 1 introductiontosociology.pptx

  1. Sociology Module I
  2. Introduction Definition of Sociology Nature and Scope of Sociology
  3. Introduction The word sociology was coined by Auguste Comte – French Philosopher in 1839. He is consider as a father of Sociology. Sociology is one of the youngest of all the Social Sciences. The word Sociology is derived from the Latin Word ‘Societus’ which means ‘society’ and the Greek word ‘logos’ means ‘science or study or advanced study’. Science of society or study of society.
  4. Definitions of Sociology L.F. Ward defines, “Sociology is the science of society or of social phenomena”. Ginsbergsays, “Sociology is the study of human interaction and interrelation of their conditions and consequences”. Emile Durkheim defines, “ Sociology as a science of social institutions”. Ogburn and Nimkoff defines, “Sociology as the study of social life”. Kimball Young defines, “Sociology deals with the behaviour of men in groups”.
  5. Subject matter of Sociology Sociology is – the study of society – the science of social life – the study of social relationships – the study of human behaviour in groups – the study of forms of social relationships – the study of social action – the study of social groups and social systems
  6. Nature of Sociology 1. Sociology is an Independent Science 2. Sociology is a Social Science and not a Physical Science 3. Sociology is a Categorical and not a Normative Discipline 4. Sociology is a Pure Science and not an Applied Science 5. Sociology is Relatively an Abstract Science not a Concrete Science 6. Sociology is a Generalising and not a Particularsing or Individualising Science 7. Sociology is Both a Rational and an Empirical
  7. Nature of Sociology Sociology is an Independent Science. – Sociology has now emerged into an independent science. – It is not treated and studied as a branch of any other science like philosophy or political philosophy or history. – As an independent science it has its own field of study, boundary and method.
  8. Nature of Sociology Sociology is a Social Science and not a Physical Science. – As a social science it concentrates its attention on man, his social behaviour, social activities and social life. – The fact that sociology deals with the Social universe it distinguishes from astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology, mathematics and other physical sciences.
  9. Nature of Sociology Sociology is a Categorical and not a Normative Discipline – Sociology “confines itself to statements about what it is, not what should be or ought to be”. – But it does not mean that sociological knowledge is useless and serves no purpose.
  10. Nature of Sociology Sociology is a Pure Science and not an Applied Science – Each pure science may have its own applied field. – For example: physics is a pure science and engineering is its applied field. – Sociology as a pure science has its applied field such as administration, diplomacy, social work etc.
  11. Nature of Sociology Sociology is Relatively an Abstract Science and not a Concrete Science – Sociology is not interested in concrete only it demonstrations of human events. – It is more concerned with the form of human events and their patterns. – For example: sociology is not concerned with particular wars and revolutions but with war and revolution in general, as a social phenomena, as a type of social conflict.
  12. Nature of Sociology Sociology is a Generalising and not a particularising or individulalising Science – Sociology tries to find out the general laws of principle about human interaction and association, about the nature, form, content and structure of human groups and societies. – It does not study each and every event that takes place in society. It is not possible also.
  13. Nature of Sociology Sociology is Both a Rational and Empirical Science – Rationalism, stresses reason and the result from logical inference. – Empiricism, is emphasises experience and the facts that result from observation and experimentation. – In Sociological inquiry both are significant.
  14. Scope of Sociology Two different views about the scope of sociology. There is no one opinion about the scope of sociology. In the broadest sense, Sociology is studying human interactions, their conditions and consequences. There are two main schools of thought among sociologist on this issue. – Specialistic or Formalistic School – Synthetic School
  15. Specialistic or Formalistic School In this group of sociologists demarcates, Sociology clearly from other branches of social study and confines it to the “enquiry into certain defined aspects of human relationship” or “Sociology as pure and independent”. Sociology has a limited field of enquiry and deals those problems which are not dealt with other social science. – Specialistic or Formalistic School.
  16. Synthetic School Theothergroupmaintainsthatthefieldof socialinvestigationistoowideforanyother socialscienceand“Sociologyasspecialsocial science”SuchasEconomics,Anthropology, History,etc.thereisalsoconsiderof a “Sociologyisageneralscience”. Sociologystudieseverythingandanything underthe sun. – SyntheticSchool
  17. Specialist of Formalistic School Simmel Small Vierkandt Max Weber Von Wiese Tonnie
  18. Specialist of Formalistic School This group led by Simmel views sociology is confined to the enquiry of certain defined aspects of human relationship and they consider sociology as pure and independent. Simmel’s view sociology deals with same topics as they from a different angle – from the angle of different modes of social relationships.
  19. Specialist of Formalistic School Small’s views - sociology does not study all the activities of society. The scope of sociology is the study of the generic (general) forms of social relationships, behaviours and activities, etc.
  20. Specialist of Formalistic School Vierkandt’s view – sociology is a special branch of knowledge dealing with the ultimate forms of mental or psychic relationships which unite people in society. He further maintains that similarly in dealing with culture sociology should not concern itself with the actual contents of cultural evolution but it should confine itself to only the discovery of the fundamental forces of change and persistence.
  21. Specialist of Formalistic School Max Weber’s view – sociology aims to interpret and understand social behaviour but it does not include all human relations because all of them are not social. According to him, Sociology concerned with the analysis and classification of types of social relationships. Von Wiese’s view – the scope of sociology is the study of forms of social relationships.
  22. Synthetic School Sociology studies everything and anything under the sun. According to this group sociology is a general science. It wants sociology to be a synthesis (mixture) of the social sciences or a general science.
  23. Synthetic School Durkheim Hobhouse Sorokin Karl mannheim Ginsberg Alex Inkeles J.B. Mckee
  24. Synthetic School Durkheim’sview– sociologycanbedivided intothreemajor divisions – Social Morphology Isconcernedwithgeographicalorterritorialbasisof the lifeof such as itsvolumeand density, localdistribution andthe life. – Social Physiology Isdividedintoanumberof branchessuchasSociology of religion,of Morals,of Laws,of Economiclife,of Language etc.this activities related tothevarious social groups. – General Sociology Isdiscoverthegeneralcharacterof thesesocial facts.
  25. Synthetic School Hobhouse’sview– sociologyisasynthesisof manysocialstudies– taskof threefold. – Studiesinparticularpartof thefield. – Interconnecttheresultsgivenbydifferentsocial sciences. – Interpretsociallifeasa whole. Sorokin’sview-thesubjectmatterof sociology – The study of relationship between different aspects of social phenomena. – The study of understanding the relationship between the social and non-social aspects. – The study of general characteristics of social phenomena.
  26. Synthetic School Karl Mannheim’s view – two branches. – Systematic and General Sociology. Describes one by one the main factors of living together as far as they may be found in every kind of society. – Historical Sociology. Deals with the historical variety and actuality of the general forms of society. Historical Sociology falls into two main sections. – Comparative Sociology Deals with historical variations of the some phenomena and tries to find by comparison general features as separated from industrial features. – Social Dynamics Deals with the interrelations between the various social factors and institutions in a certain given society, for instance, in a primitive society.
  27. Synthetic School Alex Inkeles’s view; – Social Analysis – Primary Concepts of Social Life – Basic Social Institutions – Process J.B. Mckee’s view – Social Action, Social Structure, Social Process and Social Institutions are included in the scope of Sociology.
  28. Importance of sociology 1. Sociology makes a Scientific Society. 2. Sociology studies the role of the institutions in the development of the Individual. 3. The study of Sociology is indispensable for understanding and planning of society. 4. Sociology is of great importance in the solution of social problems. 5. Sociology has drawn our attention to the essential worth and dignity of man.
  29. Importance of sociology 6. Sociology has changed outlook with regard to the problems of crime etc. 7. Sociology has made great contribution to enrich human culture. 8. Sociology is of great importance in the solution of international problems. 9.Sociology is useful as a teaching subject. 10.Sociology as a profession.
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