2. C -COMMON
O - OPERATING
M - MACHINE
P – PURPOSELY
U - USED FOR
T - TRAINING
E - EDUCATION
R - RESEARCH
3. WHAT IS COMPUTER?
A computer is an electronic device that
manipulates information, or data. It has the
ability to store, retrieve, and process data. You
may already know that you can use
a computer to type documents, send email,
play games, and browse the Web.
4. Computer Hardware:
Hardware refers to the physical
components of a computer.
Computer Hardware is any part of
the computer that we can touch
these parts. These are the primary
electronic devices used to build up
the computer. Examples of hardware
in a computer are the Processor,
Memory Devices, Monitor, Printer,
Keyboard, Mouse, and the Central
Software is a collection of instructions,
procedures, documentation that
performs different tasks on a computer
system. we can say also Computer
Software is a programming code
executed on a computer processor. The
code can be machine-level code or the
code written for an operating system.
Examples of software are Ms Word,
Excel, Power Point, Google Chrome,
Photoshop, MySQL etc.
6. Any information or data sent to a computer for processing is
considered input. Input or user input is sent to a computer
using an input device. The picture is an illustration of the
difference between input and output.
7. Any information that is processed by and sent out from a computer or
other electronic device is considered output. An example of output is
anything viewed on your computer monitor screen, such as the words you
type on your keyboard. Without some type of output that a human could
see, feel, or hear a human could not interact with the computer. In the
picture, the bottom half shows data being sent from a computer to
a printer, which is also considered a form of output.
8. Storage Devices
A storage device refers to a computing hardware used to store
information permanently or temporarily. The device can be external
or internal to a computer, server, and other computing
systems. Storage devices are also known as storage medias or
storage medium. There are two types of storage device: secondary
storage device and primary storage device.
10. The computer as we know it today
had its beginning with a 19th century
English mathematics professor name
Charles Babbage.He designed the Analytical
Engine and it was this design that the basic
framework of the computers of today are based on.
ENIAC ( FIRST COMPUTER)
The first substantial computer was the giant ENIAC machine by John
W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of
Pennsylvania. ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator)
used a word of 10 decimal digits instead of binary ones like
previous automated calculators/computers.
12. First Generation:Vacuum Tubes (1940-1956):-The first computer systems
used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and
were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. These computers were very
expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity,
the first computers generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of
Second Generation: Transistors (1956-1963):-The world would
see transistors replace vacuum tubes in the second generation of
computers. The transistor was invented at Bell Labs in 1947 but did not
see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s.
The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers
to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more
reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still
generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it
was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation
computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.
. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this
time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN.
13. Third Generation:
Integrated Circuits (1964-1971):-
The development of the integrated
circuit was the hallmark of the third
generation of computers. Transistors
were miniaturized and placed
on silicon chips, called semiconductors,
which drastically increased the speed
and efficiency of computers.
14. Fourth Generation:
The microprocessor brought the fourth
generation of computers, as thousands
of integrated circuits were built onto a
single silicon chip. What in the first
generation filled an entire room
could now fit in the palm of
The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer from
the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls—on a single
chip.In1981 IBM introduced. Its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple
introduced the Macintosh.
Artificial Intelligence (Present and Beyond):-Fifth generation computing devices, based
on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications,
such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and
superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality.