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focus of the solu<on.
quick research to validate.
shiM the project focus if necessary.
plan the project, based on the
phases of the Design Thinking
each team member has an
individual view on the
. invest <me to discuss in a
structured way using
result will be a clear, agreed
upon, design challenge
write down your challenge and underline keywords. brainstorm thoughts per keyword and op<onally discuss constraints . reframe the challenge: “Redesign the (experience) for
(user & context) in a world where (constraint).”
subject maRer experts
how to research, discover,
explore & capture?
(users & customers)
analysts & thought leaders
inspira<on & trends
I run my
THE BASIC PRINCIPLE
say = do = think = feel
Diﬀerent methods of observa<on to get
try and do ask and listen watch and observe
try and do
■see through the eyes of your users
■deﬁne your task and really do it
■state your impressions
■men<on all enablers and constraints
■take it seriously
ask and listen
■ask open-‐ended ques<ons
■ask 5 <mes why
■be aware of body language
(own and interviewee)
■LISTEN – you are the student
■write down your impressions
■pair up for interviews, interviewer
and note taker
■say thank you in the end
■debrief and make the next
interview even beRer
watch and observe
■look for details
■capture the atmosphere
■be curious and talk to people
■take photos and notes
■speculate: what if...?
■buy things, do things
■write down your impressions
■be polite and do not disturb
■act as a guest
define point of viewdefine point of view
diverge converge diverge converge
We sLll need to re-‐focus and make choices
Synthesis — The art of structuring your insights
3crea<ng a persona
— experiment with diﬀerent frameworks
4deﬁning a point of view
Make a list of users you saw. Start with stories of
similar roles. As the storyteller, describe what you
heard and observed: Set the stage, introduce
“actors”, tell the story.
Try not to (mis)interpret or judge and indicate if
you make an assump<on.
As the audience, try to note down all important
details on post-‐its. Be visual :)
Put one statement per post-‐it and ar<culate the
statements clearly so that they are
understandable without other context.
Use one color per user to have a reference.
Sort your insights into categories or “buckets”.
Which insights are related to each other in some way?
Look for common paRerns and themes.
Personas are ﬁc<onal characters created to represent
user types. They are useful in considering the goals,
desires, and limita<ons of the users to help to guide
design decisions. Personas put a personal human face
on otherwise abstract data about customers.
Your persona descrip<on might include:
■ name and picture
■ demographics like age, educa<on
■ needs and tasks
■ goals and aspira<ons
point of view
Coming up with a
The Point of View is one sentence that creates an
image in your mind. Based on an understanding of a
user group and an insight into a speciﬁc need, it
narrows the focus and makes the problem speciﬁc.
[User] needs (to) [Need] because [Insight]
The Department Supervisor needs <me with
customers, since knowing who they are enables her to
op<mize her ordering plan.
POV = USER + NEED + INSIGHT
point of view
ideate prototype test
As a team agree on a method for
Set a target, e.g. we need 50 ideas.
Sort the post-‐it’s into themes
according to similariLes of ideas.
Discuss if the team can decide
which soluLon ideas to pursue. If
the team cannot decide, do a voLng
exercise. Use ﬁve to seven voLng
dots per parLcipant.
Care about good quesLon(s) to deal with.
A good set of quesLons will inspire good
Care about the energy level in your team.
Take care that every idea is wriben down.
Emphasize respect for “wild” ideas -‐ Do
not constrain ideas to technical feasibility.
If necessary, remind the parLcipants
about the brainstorming rules.tips
Use stage-‐ prototypes
Prototyping – Cost of change over Time?COSTS OF ERRORS
Test & Iterate:
ber of Errors
Cost per Failure
“Sunk cost fallacy”
Procurement & Produc<onPlanning & Development Test, Delivery & Launch
Feedback: tweaks to the screen as
a whole – incremental improvements.
“I don’t like the two-‐column layout for
tools. Can we have them go across the
Storyboard of how the user might interact
Feedback: big-‐picture ideas – revolu<onary
“We should NOT try to put a drawing feature in
here… it’s featuri<s without a key beneﬁt to
Hand drawing look and feel
Feedback: higher-‐level features are
ques<oned, bigger change possible.
“Maybe the tool should be context-‐
speciﬁc… Let’s kill the toolbar and bring
up only tools that make sense at that
Feedback: detailed tweaks to speciﬁc
features – very focused and incremental.
“Can you change the font on that ‘T’?
Not sure I like this bevel line weight.”
Encourage the team to make a
decision on the soluLon they
want to pursue.
Encourage the team to start
building a prototype, think
about a concept, and idenLfy
Help as necessary.
Get them going!
Step back—let the team members facilitate the
ﬁnal secLon of their project. Communicate to
them that the ownership of the prototype is
theirs, though you are sLll there to oﬀer help.
Help team members decide which prototyping
method to use.
Make sure that they understand that it's OK to
be wrong—this is just a prototype, it's not a
Encourage the team to go
with their gut feeling.
why test?why test?
■to gather early feedback
from users, stakeholders
and experts, to be able
■to learn about your
idea’s strengths and
■to fail early
How to test
Let the prototype speak for itself –
accept that you may show users something that‘s not perfect.
2 Don‘t defend your idea.
It‘s for the user – not for you!
3 Be aware what you want to learn
– stay on topic.
4 Be open-‐minded – you might
hear new ideas and insights.
5 Be receptive and thankful for feedback
– it‘s the best way to learn.
6 Ensure feasibility and viability.
7 Use roles to improve tes<ng success.
8 Capture and later synthesize all feedback.
9 Ideate how the feedback can
be worked into the next itera<on.
What was good?
What was bad?
from your users
from your users
Your ﬁnal presenta<on brieﬂy describes the context of your
solu<on. What were you asked to do? Who were you designing
for? Which insights did you discover?
Then focus on the essence of your solu<on and how it solves your
5 minutes each team
■Make sure your elevator pitch is between 30 and 60
second in length.
■Ensure your delivery is compelling and enthusias<c,
but try not to use overly ﬂashy openers-‐ don’t forget
your audience has probably heard them all before.
■Make certain your pitch is tailored to your audience
and that it is easy to understand