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матрёшка

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матрёшка

  1. 1. Матрёшка ( HYPERLINK quot; http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A3%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%8C%D1%88%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D1%84%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BC%D0%B0quot; quot; Уменьшительная формаquot; уменьш. от имени « HYPERLINK quot; http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%80%D1%91%D0%BD%D0%B0&action=edit&redlink=1quot; quot; Матрёна (страница отсутствует)quot; Матрёна», восходящего к латинскому слову «Matrona» — знатная дама, мать семейства) — русская деревянная игрушка в виде расписной куклы, внутри которой находятся подобные ей куклы меньшего размера. Число вложенных кукол обычно шесть или более. Почти всегда они цилиндрической формы. У них нет рук (они просто нарисованы). По традиции рисуется женщина в сарафане, хотя внутри может быть и мужчина. Самой маленькой фигурой, которая уже не раскладывается, является ребёнок. Темы для рисования могут быть очень разными: от сказочных персонажей и до политических деятелей.<br />Матрёшка является одним из самых популярных сувениров для иностранных туристов в России.<br />Возникновение матрёшки<br />Японские куклы<br />Считается HYPERLINK quot; http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%BF%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B8%D1%8F:%D0%A1%D1%81%D1%8B%D0%BB%D0%BA%D0%B8_%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%87%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B8quot; quot; Википедия:Ссылки на источникиquot; [источник не указан 29 дней], что русская матрёшка была выточена по образцу, привезённому из Японии. По некоторым данным HYPERLINK quot; http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%BF%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B8%D1%8F:%D0%A1%D1%81%D1%8B%D0%BB%D0%BA%D0%B8_%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%87%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B8quot; quot; Википедия:Ссылки на источникиquot; [источник не указан 29 дней], матрёшки появились в России только после Русско-японской войны и возвращения из Японии в Россию военнопленных.<br />Изобретение формы русской матрёшки приписывается токарю В. П. Звёздочкину в 1890-х годах, а автором первой росписи был профессиональный художник С. В. Малютин. Из воспоминаний Звёздочкина следует, что ему не доводилось видеть японских точёных игрушек HYPERLINK quot; http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%80%D1%91%D1%88%D0%BA%D0%B0quot; quot; cite_note-0quot; [1]. Кроме того, ещё до появления матрёшки русские мастера изготавливали деревянные пасхальные яйца, которые были разъёмными и полыми. Таким образом, вопрос о прямой преемственности между японской и русской матрёшкой остаётся не вполне ясным. В 1900 году М. А. Мамонтова, жена С. И. Мамонтова представила кукол на Всемирной выставке в Париже, где они заработали бронзовую медаль. Вскоре, матрёшек начали делать во многих местах России.<br />A Matryoshka doll or a Russian nested doll (often incorrectly referred to as a Babushka doll - babushka means quot; grandmotherquot; in Russian), is a set of dolls of decreasing sizes placed one inside the other. quot; Matryoshkaquot; (Матрёшка) is a derivative of the Russian female first name quot; Matryonaquot; , which was a very popular name among peasants in old Russia. The name quot; Matryonaquot; in turn is related to the Latin root quot; materquot; and means quot; motherquot; , so the name is closely connected with motherhood and in turn the doll has come to symbolize fertility.<br />Overview<br />A set of matryoshkas consists of a wooden figure which can be pulled apart to reveal another figure of the same sort inside. It has, in turn, another figure inside, and so on. The number of nested figures is usually five or more. The shape is mostly cylindrical, rounded at the top for the head and tapered towards the bottom, but little else; the dolls have no hands (except those that are painted). Traditionally the outer layer is a woman, dressed in a sarafan. Inside, it contains other figures that may be of both genders, usually ending in a baby that does not open. The artistry is in the painting of each doll, which can be extremely elaborate.<br />Matryoshkas are often designed to follow a particular theme, for instance peasant girls in traditional dress, but the theme can be anything, from fairy tale characters to Soviet leaders.<br />History<br />The original matryoshka by Zvezdochkin.<br />Matryoshkas date from 1890, and are said to have been inspired by souvenir dolls from Japan, see below. However, the concept of nested objects was familiar in Russia, having been applied to carved wooden apples and Easter eggs; the first Fabergé egg, in 1885, had a nesting of egg, yolk, hen, and chick.<br />The story goes that Sergei Maliutin, a painter from a folk crafts workshop in the Abramtsevo estate of a famous Russian industrialist and patron of arts Savva Mamontov, saw a set of Japanese wooden dolls representing Shichi-fuku-jin, the Seven Gods of Fortune. The largest doll was that of Fukurokuju — a happy, bald god with an unusually long chin — and within it nested the six remaining deities. Inspired, Maliutin drew a sketch of a Russian version of the toy. It was carved by Vasiliy Zvezdochkin and painted by Sergei Maliutin at the Children’s Education Workshop-Salon in Abramtsevo. It consisted of eight dolls; the outermost was a girl holding a rooster, six inner dolls were girls, the fifth doll was a boy, the innermost – a baby.<br />In 1900, M.A. Mamontova, the wife of Savva Mamontov, presented the dolls at the World Exhibition in Paris and the toy earned a bronze medal. Soon, many other places in Russia started making matryoshki.<br />Several Russian politicians depicted in matryoshka form.<br />During Perestroika, the leaders of the Soviet Union became a common theme depicted on matreshki. Starting with the largest, Mikhail Gorbachev, then Leonid Brezhnev (Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko almost never appear due to the short length of their respective terms), then Nikita Khrushchev, Josef Stalin and finally the smallest, Vladimir Lenin. Newer versions start with Dmitry Medvedev and then follow with Vladimir Putin, Boris Yeltsin, Mikhail Gorbachev, Joseph Stalin and then Vladimir Lenin.<br />Modern artists create many new styles of nesting dolls. Common themes include animal collections, portraits and caricatures of famous politicians, musicians and popular movie stars. Matryoshka dolls that feature communist leaders of Russia became very popular among Russian people in the early 1990s, after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Today, some Russian artists specialize in painting themed matryoshka dolls that feature specific categories of subjects, people or nature.<br />Areas with notable matryoshka styles include Sergiyev Posad, Semionovo (now the town of Semyonov), Polkholvsky Maidan, and Kirov.<br />Matryoshka metaphor<br />Matryoshka doll taken apart<br />Matryoshkas are also used metaphorically, as a design paradigm, known as the quot; matryoshka principlequot; or quot; nested doll principlequot; . It denotes a recognizable relationship of quot; similar object-within-similar objectquot; that appears in the design of many other natural and man-made objects. Examples include the Matryoshka brain and the Matroska media-container format.<br />The onion metaphor is of similar character. If the outer layer is peeled off an onion, a similar onion exists within. This structure is employed by designers in applications such as the layering of clothes or the design of tables, where a smaller table sits within a larger table and a yet smaller one within that. See also onion routing.<br />Matryoshkas in popular culture<br />The Higglytown Heroes characters are matryoshkas.<br />An episode of The Amazing Race included the players looking for clues hidden among several thousand matryoshkas.<br />Australian composer Julian Cochran wrote a Russian inspired composition titled quot; Wooden Dollsquot; about a group of Matryoshkas communicating.<br />In the 2008 film Transsiberian the character Carlos uses matryoshka dolls to smuggle heroin.<br />Dymkovo Toys<br />Dymkovo toys, a unique phenomenon in Russian folk art, are among the most popular works of folk craftsmen of Russia and all over the world. For many decades folk art exhibitions have invariably included the colored clay figurines and figure compositions. The origin of Dymkovo toys goes back to ancient times, and is linked with the local festival of the Vyatka province, Svistoplyaska (quot; whistle-dancequot; , dancing with and to whistles). The festival included commemoration of the ancestors, rolling clay balls down a steep slope of the river, play-fights, promenading and also rich bazaars selling sweets, nuts but mainly clay toys and whistles made by thousands in Dymkovo specially for the occasion. The chief manufacturers of toys were women and children, who worked seasonally first, and later throughout the year. There were three types of clay toys, balls, whistles and dolls. The first two are of ancient origin connected with the heathen symbols of fertility, which must also account for the prevalence of women with children, domestic animals, and fowl among the figurine motifs. With the passage of time pagan symbols gave way to everyday themes, and clay balls and whistles were substituted by figurines and groups that decorated window sills, cabinets like fashionable china. However, still rooted in ancient traditions, Dymkovo toys were not imitations of porcelain, they developed into an original art, vital and always up-to-date. The toys prospered on new themes and subjects taken from life and, at the same time, modified by people's imagination. Thus, a new world of Dymkovo toys was formed, with tradition and imagery of its own; new artistic media and standards became established, that were characteristic of the new art throughout its development. Dymkovo toys appeal to our contemporaries by their artistry, clear-cut characters, witty humor and optimism. These are the traits that make this original art superior to time. <br />

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