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Sciences of Europe No 91 (2022)

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No 91 (2022)
Vol. 1
Sciences of Europe
(Praha, Czech Republic)
ISSN 3162-2364
The journal is registered and published in C...

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CONTENT
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Aghayeva E.
RHODODENDRON CAUCASICUM PALL.
FLORAGENESIS ..........................................

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Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) 3
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
ФЛОРАГЕНЕЗ RHODODENDRON CAUCASICUM PALL
Агаева Э.З.
Гянджинский Госу...

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Sciences of Europe No 91 (2022)

  1. 1. No 91 (2022) Vol. 1 Sciences of Europe (Praha, Czech Republic) ISSN 3162-2364 The journal is registered and published in Czech Republic. Articles in all spheres of sciences are published in the journal. Journal is published in Czech, English, Polish, Russian, Chinese, German and French, Ukrainian. Articles are accepted each month. Frequency: 24 issues per year. Format - A4 All articles are reviewed Free access to the electronic version of journal Edition of journal does not carry responsibility for the materials published in a journal. Sending the article to the editorial the author confirms it’s uniqueness and takes full responsibility for possible consequences for breaking copyright laws. Chief editor: Petr Bohacek Managing editor: Michal Hudecek  Jiří Pospíšil (Organic and Medicinal Chemistry) Zentiva  Jaroslav Fähnrich (Organic Chemistry) Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic  Smirnova Oksana K., Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor, Department of History (Moscow, Russia);  Rasa Boháček – Ph.D. člen Česká zemědělská univerzita v Praze  Naumov Jaroslav S., MD, Ph.D., assistant professor of history of medicine and the social sciences and humanities. (Kiev, Ukraine)  Viktor Pour – Ph.D. člen Univerzita Pardubice  Petrenko Svyatoslav, PhD in geography, lecturer in social and economic geography. (Kharkov, Ukraine)  Karel Schwaninger – Ph.D. člen Vysoká škola báňská – Technická univerzita Ostrava  Kozachenko Artem Leonidovich, Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor, Department of History (Moscow, Russia);  Václav Pittner -Ph.D. člen Technická univerzita v Liberci  Dudnik Oleg Arturovich, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor, De- partment of Physical and Mathematical management methods. (Chernivtsi, Ukraine)  Konovalov Artem Nikolaevich, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Chair of General Psy- chology and Pedagogy. (Minsk, Belarus) «Sciences of Europe» - Editorial office: Křižíkova 384/101 Karlín, 186 00 Praha E-mail: info@european-science.org Web: www.european-science.org
  2. 2. CONTENT BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Aghayeva E. RHODODENDRON CAUCASICUM PALL. FLORAGENESIS ............................................................3 Vardanyan Z., Bairamyan L., Sahakyan G., Mkhitaryan H. BIOMETRIC INDICATORS OF THE ORGANS OF SAMBUCUS NIGRA L. DEPENDING ON GROWTH CONDITIONS................................................................7 EARTH SCIENCES Kholina T., Bekerov A. ASSESSMENT OF SOIL RESOURCES OF GUBA DISTRICT (AZERBAIJAN) ............................................................11 ECONOMIC SCIENCES Chitakova D., Radev R. CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE COMMISSION FOR CONSUMER PROTECTION IN BULGARIA............15 Rustambekov G. NATIONAL ECONOMIC INTERESTS AS A FACTOR OF SOCIALLY ADAPTED DEVELOPMENT..........................21 HISTORICAL SCIENCES Jafarova E. ANTHROPOMORPHIC AND ZOOMORPHIC PLOTS ON MEDIEVAL CERAMICS OF SHIRVAN...........................25 JURIDICAL SCIENCES Akhmetova N., Serikbaeva S. CODIFICATION WORK IN RUSSIA ON KAZAKH LEGAL CUSTOM IN THE 19TH CENTURY...............................32 MEDICAL SCIENCES Yancheva S., Buchvarov E., Bivolarski I. VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS – CAUSE FOR A TRAFFIC ACCIDENT..................................................................37 Buruaiană S., Guțan D. CLINICAL AND HEMATOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INDOLENT NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMAS...............40 Bayramov Y., Alieva E., Mehmani I., Babayev E., Ashrafov D. FEATURES OF ADAPTATİON TO COMPLETE REMOVABLE LAMELLAR DENTURES..........................42 Shevchenko A., Syusyuka V., Krut` Y., Kyryliuk A., Deynichenko O., Onopchenko S. PRETERM LABOR IN MODERN OBSTETRICS ..............45 PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCES Mukanova R., Iskakova G. CRITERION ASSESSMENT AS A NEW APPROACH OF ASSESSMENT IN A MODERN SCHOOL .......................52 Kulmagambetova S., Kitym G. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AT THE SENIOR STAGE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ................................................58 Kismetova G., Mashzhanova A. TЕСNOLOGY OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING AS A WAY OF DEVELOPING EDUCATIONAL AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITIES IN ENGLISH LESSONS...............................62 Kulmagambetova S., Tolegen A. USING A COGNITIVE APPROACH IN TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN GRADES 9-11 ....................65 Dzhusubalieva D., Utetleuova A. METHODS OF FORMATION OF REFLEXIVE AND DEVELOPING COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LESSONS USING WEB TECHNOLOGIES .........................................................68 TECHNICAL SCIENCES Cozac E. APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK FOR FORECASTING INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKETS...................................................................72 Blahopoluchna A., Liakhovska N., Povorozniuk I., Barvinok N. HACCP SYSTEM IN THE RESTAURANT INDUSTRY ......76
  3. 3. Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) 3 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES ФЛОРАГЕНЕЗ RHODODENDRON CAUCASICUM PALL Агаева Э.З. Гянджинский Государственный Университет, г. Гянджа доцент RHODODENDRON CAUCASICUM PALL. FLORAGENESIS Aghayeva E. Gandja State Universitety, Ganja, Associate Professor АННОТАЦИЯ Современная флора зарослей кав-казского рододендрона состоит из видов са-мого различного гене- зиса и возраста. Эти виды являются в основном плиоценовыми мигрантами, многие из которых прошли процесс видообразования в условиях высо-когорий Кавказа. Дальнейшая тенденция развития зарослей - это обеднение флори-стического состава и сокращение ареала, которое наблюдается в направлении с се- вера на юг и с запада на восток. ABSTRACT The modern flora of the Caucasian rhododendron thickets consists of species of very different genesis and age. These species are mainly Pliocene migrants, many of which underwent the process of speciation in the con- ditions of the high mountains of the Caucasus. A further trend in the development of thickets is the depletion of the floristic composition and the reduction of the area, which is observed in the direction from north to south and from west to east. Ключевые слова: флорогенез, история флоры Кавказа, Rhododendron caucasicum, эндемики, флора. Keywords: floragenesis, history of Caucasian flora, Rhododendron caucasicum, endemic species, flora. The history of Caucasian flora is closely con- nected with the history of the Caucasus itself, on the one hand, and the history of neighboring regions, which significantly influenced its formation, on the other. The peculiarity of this history is that the flora of Caucasian cover plants as a physical-geographical unit appeared at a time of considerable development, and its entire paleoflora is considered to come from the southern and northern coasts of Tethys as a result of invasion of flo- ristic elements against the background of climate change and physical-geographical environment. can be done. The history of flora of the Caucasus is better de- veloped in the works of A.A.Grossheim [2, 3] and is traced back to the beginning of the third period. Against this background, the suspicion of individual phytoce- nosis flora, especially the highland history, is of inter- est. One of such phytocenoses is rhodoretums - Rhodo- dendron caucasicum shrubs, whose floristic composi- tion includes 270 species of tubular plants [9]. Rh.caucasicum shrubs, it is important to consider migration routes, climatic conditions and orogenetic movements at different times, as we are talking about the floragenesis of highland flora, which developed un- der approximately the same conditions as today. The history of Rh.caucasicum is undoubtedly of interest in connection with the development of a model of floragenesis of shrubs. It can be considered that the an- cestors of the Leiorhodion subfamily of Caucasian rho- dodendrons diverged long before entering the Cauca- sus. AI Galushko's point of view [1], which is more rel- evant in this regard, is that Rh.caucasicum Asian Rh. They have a common ancestor with Aureum, and this ancestor was not a forest-dwelling, but a highland mes- ophile. We imagine the history of the species as fol- lows: in the depths of the third period, probably in the Eocene, when relations between the Caucasus and East Asia were established, the invasion of species from the ancient Himalayan generative center of rhododendrons also occurred in the northern and northwestern direc- tions. In North America, Europe and Central Asia, on the one hand, and in the Himalayas and tropical Asia, the northwest wave was weaker in proportion to mod- ern species. Along with this wave, three representatives of the Leiorodion hemisphere reached the southern children of the Tethys and the Caucasus, who were ini- tially distinguished not only morphologically but also ecologically; Rh. The ancestor of the ponticum is more thermophilic, spreading to the lower forest belts, within the tropical flora along the south coast of Tethys to the west. Here he later became Rh. Baeticum has been transformed. Rh. ungernii, Rh. smirnovii ancestors also lived in the forest, but more cryophilic, directed to the upper forest belts, Rh. The ancestor of the Caucasus is oriented to the open mountain areas. The latter is more widespread than the others and was the most cryophilic. Due to different ecologies, these ancient species were the second center of the formation of different moun- tain belts during the Pontic drought. Rh. Its existence as a species of caucasicum most likely began in the Lower Pliocene in Asia Minor and was completed in the maple century. Its complete structure was formed under the influence of intensified epigenogenesis in the
  4. 4. 4 Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) continental arid, semiarid and cold climates of the Cau- casus during this period [1]. Rh. caucasicum had the ability to form shrubs by vegetative propagation. Here the microclimate regime was easier to maintain, as well as humidity was provided. Living together in the form of shrubs was beneficial to the species because it was environmentally friendly. From this time Rh. caucasi- cum began to spread in the Greater Caucasus. This is the time in the mountains of East Asia Rh. caucasicum from a common ancestor Rh. aureum is formed. The ability to form shrubs in the upper open belts of the mountains is still Rh. caucasicum was character- istic of the Himalayan ancestor, from whom he inher- ited this trait [7]. These ancestral shrubs were also ac- companied by neighboring species that now cover the rhododendrons. We do not know anything about the Himalayan neighbors of these shrubs, but during migra- tion in the Caucasus, some components could migrate with rhododendrons. Traces of the initial floristic com- position Rh. should be sought in older parts of the cau- casicum area. Such and more parts of the Savshet Mountains belong to them, where the climatic condi- tions have changed less since the third period. Here, in our opinion, these ancient migrants could have been preserved in a modified form. Rh in modern flora. In- dividual representatives of the caucasicum shrubs re- mained. These are the descendants of ancient flora spe- cies that had ties to East Asia. One of them is found in rhododendron cenoses - Epigaea gualtherioides, which forms the Eastern connections, the second - in the Him- alayas. utilis near Betula medwedewii. Together with the ancestors of rhododendrons, most species migrated to the Caucasus region of East Asia from the ancestors of the species Oxyodonthae, which grows in the Hima- layas and China, and the species Ilex colchica, which belongs to the subsection. Laurocerassus is a member of the southern branch of the Poltava flora, which is re- lated in Southeast Asia officinalis; Ribes biebersteinii with western Asian ties; as well as other representatives of the ancient flora Sorbus boiesieri, Hypericum ino- dorum, Vaccinium arctostaphylos, Ruscus colchicus forms. Rh. Other species that accompany the ancient shrubs of the Caucasian ancestor have either not been preserved at all or have been so transformed that they have lost their connection and it is difficult to trace their kinship ties. Thus, in the upper Miocene, in tropical cli- mates, the ancestor Rh. The praecaucasicum shrubs covered the areas of the Pontic drought, and their flora was represented by numerous species in East Asian re- lations. The closest to this ancestral shrub in terms of floristic composition are the rodaretums of Mount La- zistan. At the beginning of the Pliocene, the wave of mesophilic flora, which formed during the Japhethic Peninsula (in its western part), is directed in the moun- tain flora within them. Primary shrubs extend from the Suran belt to the Greater Caucasus to the west and east along the main belt. At the same time under the influ- ence of cold climates Rh. The formation is completed as a species of caucasicum. During this period, the Greater Caucasus became a mountain range, with the formation of an endemic nucleus based on migration in its highlands. Because the endemism of Caucasian spe- cies is associated with low mountain flora, most Cau- casian endemics form Western Asia, or Europe-Asia Minor connections. Rh. The caucasicum area occupied the southern macroslope of the Greater Caucasus, the Suram belt, the Ajar-Imeriti and trialet belts, the Chavshet, the Arsiya, the Lazistan, and the neighboring belts. Due to the onset of climate change in the direction of cooling, the primary shrubs became thinner due to the breakdown of Lazistan taxa. The area from Erica- ceae to South Kakheti [3] Rh. ponticum and Rh. remain in the luteum. Betula medwedewii, Paeonia steveniana, Cyclamen parviflorum come from flora. Through open migration on the open plateau, the Caucasus passes bo- real elements from western Europe and East Asia to the Aegean and the Balkans, which are part of the rhodo- dendron shrubs. This time it is already in the Caucasus Polystichum lonchitis and Selaginella helvetica [3], ex- ist, and most likely Arctostaphylos caucasica, Blechum spicant, Diphasiastrum alpinum, Selaginella selagi- noides, Lycopodium clavatum and others. At the same time Vaccinium uliginosum, V. myrtillus, Rhodococ- cum vitis-idaea migrated to the Caucasus and became its shrub components, as well as Dryas caucasica, which became extinct due to subsequent warming and the fact that the mountain ranges of Asia Minor and Acar-Imereti are more cryophilic species due to the ab- sence of high mountains. These species are important components of rhododendron shrubs, and other ceno- ses emerged from them. Simultaneously with boreali- zation, flora shrubs such as Sorbus velutina, S. albovii, Arafoe aromatica, Daphne alboviana, Euphorbia eu- geniae, Cyclamen colchicum are enriched in Abkhazian root species. As a result, in the Middle Pliocene (Kim- mer century). The Caspian Sea basin is drying up, des- ertification is intensifying, and as a result, rhododen- dron habitats in the Suram Range are being cut off. area is reduced. Due to the ascent, rhododendron shrubs in- clude many high mountain subalpine species. In the western and central parts of the Greater Cau- casus, it rises and penetrates the northern macro. In the Caucasus, two secondary reproduction centers of mes- ophilic species are formed. In the West Caucasus (Col- chis) and Ponti (Lazistan). In the first, rhododendron shrubs form colchic endemics, which include Sorbus velutina, S. subfusca, Kemulariella caucasica, Anetilla aurea, Arafoe aromatica, Cyclamen colchicum, in the second - Lasepitium affine, Chaerophyllum astrantiae, Epigaea gualtherioides, and finally, Rh. ungernii and Rh. are divided into smirnovii types. During this period of intensified aridification, the bushes rose and adopted new components. These are Aconitum nasutum, Poa iberica, Geranium ptilostemon, G. gymnocaulon, Aco- nitum confertiflorum, Adenostyles plathyphylloides, Anemonastrum fasciculatum, Aquilegia caucasica, Astrantia maxima, Bistorta carnea, Bupleurina poly- phyllum, Gentile, Bupleurum polyphyllum, Gent Daphne glomerata and Primula amoena. Near the end of the Pliocene, the highest altitude in the Caucasus was 2,500-3,000 m above sea level. There was a belt, the vegetation has a modern character [12]. In the Achae- menid Age, the Manechen Strait was restored, an ener- getic uplift took place, in the Apperon Age, the Strait
  5. 5. Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) 5 disappeared again, the Aegean collapsed, and the west- ern route of migration of mesophilic highland elements was cut off. The glacial periods of the Pleistocene caused the exchange of flora elements between different mountain systems. In the risk phase, the Caucasus rose an average of 1,000 m. However, even in the maximum phase of glaciation, Rh. Caucasicum areas were united in the Greater and Lesser Caucasus, because in the Lesser Caucasus there are no shrubs of Caucasian endemic species, and vice versa. Thus, the glacial periods of the Pleistocene did not significantly change the flora of the shrubs. However, transformation took place in different areas of the rho- dodendron's range, and the shrubs changed on the basis of the pure Caucasus. These are Potentilla elatior, Rosa boissieri, Sorbus albovii, S. subfusca, S. velutina, Hy- pericum xylosteifolium, Cyclamen colchicum. Vaccin- ium uliginosum did not exist among the bushes in the Greater Caucasus. The reason for this, it seems to us, is that this species is tall, and when it migrates from the small Caucasus rhododendron, its short Vaccinium myrtillus and Rhodococcum vitis-idaea, which are completely covered with rhododendrons and do not live in another environment. For this species, V.P.Maleyev [12] suggests an earlier, Upper Pliocene form of pene- tration into the Lesser Caucasus. Most researchers believed that there was a direct route of migration of boreal elements to the Caucasus during periods of maximum glaciation. Two possible directions were noted: the road from the north to the plain of Ergenya-Stavropol plateau-Elbrus [1] and from the east to the small hills of Gazakh - Mugodjar - Cas- pian "Pleistocene forest-steppe" development strip [11]. It was also suggested that boral species could not be exchanged between the corners of the northern con- tinental glaciers in the Caucasus, and that boreal ele- ments preceded the Caucasus. In other words, the bo- real influence on the Caucasian flora should have be- longed entirely to the Pliocene, and the Arctic-Alpine elements were formed on the basis of more ancient an- cestral species [14]. An important argument in support of this view is the existence of lacunae (anomalies of non-existence), especially in the flora of the Caucasus, important components of the Pleistocene forest-steppe complex Larix, Pinus sect. The absence of representa- tives of such genera as Cembra, Soldanella, Cortusa, Leontopodium, Saussurea, Dendranthema, Thermop- sis, Ledum, Arctous, Andromeda, Chamaedaphne, which penetrates the territory of Europe, gives infor- mation about the presence of boreal elements in the Pleistocene not only in the north but also in the east. In the Caucasus, Oxalis acetosella, Pyrola rotundifolia, Moneses uniflora, Orthylia secunda, Gymnocarpium dryopteris, Listera cordata, Daphne mezereum, Lin- naea borealis, Rubus saxatilis, Vaccinium myrtillus, Rhodococta octae. During the ice age, there were no suitable ecolog- ical conditions for the direct entry of such taiga ele- ments into the Caucasus [6]. Even before the Pleisto- cene, there were open forestless landscapes in the south of the European plain. Starting from the second half of the Sarmatian period, it was possible to think about the existence of steppe landscapes in the south of the Euro- pean plain. From the end of Sarmatia to the end of the Pliocene, the steppe zone expanded both north and west, and during the Pleistocene the boundaries of the steppe zone were subject to repeated fluctuations. Along with quantitative changes during the glaci- ation period, it occurred in the qualitative variability of shrubs that have reached the maximum of their area so far. Rh. caucasicum covered the area of the Rock Range, the Andes, and fell in the Dagestan Range up to 1,500 m above sea level. The Western Transcaucasian rhododendron fell to 1,100 m, and the central and east- ern Transcaucasia covered the front limestone moun- tains to 1,400 m. Rh in the Lesser Caucasus. The cau- casicum lazistan range occupied an altitude of 1200- 1400 m above sea level. It is widely spread from the north-west of Azerbaijan to Karabakh. The relict exist- ence of this species has been discovered here [13]. These two areas of the range have existed in isolation since the Miocene, and did not merge even during the maximum phase of glacial glaciation. There was only an exchange of forest species with a high altitude am- plitude between them. To the east and south, the bushes expanded, enriching them with native species. Shrubs based in the Central Caucasus have arrived in Dagestan. This area has always been arid, local conditions. anno- tinum, Milium schmidtianum, Goodyera repens, Moneses uniflora, Orthylia secunda, Gentiana septem- fida, Linnaea borealis, Doronicum oblongifolium, Di- phasium alpinum, Selaginella selaginoides, Athyrium filixumia, Genceopian, D.cyopter, Dryopter, Dryopter viride and b. such as taxa have disappeared. The for- mation of bushes was initially mainly due to impover- ishment. The same thing happened in Karabakh, but more species became extinct here, except for Selagi- nella helvetica, Dryopteris assimilis, Listera cordata, Cotoneaster integerrima, Pyrola rotundifolia, Rhodo- coccum vitis-idaea, Swertia iberica, Dolicorrhiza. There was no umbrozophyte among native grass spe- cies. Heliophytes, on the other hand, were included only in sparse, impoverished shrubs. These include Briza media, Helictotrichon adzharicum, Carex tristis, Allium ledschanense, Traunsteinera sphaerica, Al- chemilla sedelmey eriana. Rh due to the reduction of glacial areas and the rise of vegetation belts. narrows in the caucasicum area. It occupies the highlands of the Elav and Yan ranges of the Greater Caucasus, and is preserved as a relict island in the rocky heights and leading limestone ranges of Western Eruzia [4, 5]. Decreases in the central part of the Lesser Caucasus, and relict shrubs are preserved in northeastern Azerbaijan and southern Georgia. Due to the declining area as a result of the gradual desertifica- tion of the Central Caucasus, the floristic composition is impoverished. In general, there is depletion of forest flora in the forest mesophilic elements from north-west to south-east. Rh in the last holocene. The floristic com- position of caucasicum is approaching its modern form. Geographical analysis of the flora of rhododendrons al- lows to distinguish three types of shrubs and 12 variants [8,9]. The Lazistan variant can be considered closer to the primary bushes. The reason for this conclusion is
  6. 6. 6 Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) that in the bushes of Caucasian rhododendrons Erica- ceae: Rhododendron ungernii, Rh. smirnowii, Rh. lu- teum, Rh. ponticum, Rh. sochadzae, Epigaea gualtheri- oides, allows the existence of several representatives of the families, as well as numerous tree and shrub forms. All other variants are other forms of it, the esti- mated transformations of which took place according to the following scheme. (Fig.1) It can be seen from this scheme that changes in the phytocenosis from the initial type occur in the direction of impoverishment of the species composition and rel- ative xerophytization. More mesophilic variants are ter- ritorially related to the West and Central Caucasus (Ab- khazian, Cuban, Central Caucasus variants and lime- stone variants of the rock range. transformation, impoverishment with mesophilic elements from west to east in other types, enrichment with meadow and hemicserophilic elements. Thus, the general model of floragenesis of Rhodo- dendron caucasicum shrubs differs little from the pro- posed migration isolation model to explain the history of pre-Caucasian flora [6]: 1. Isolation of endemic species of the Caucasus was carried out on the basis of high-mountain migrants of East Asian or European-small mountain roots, as most endemics and subendymics of rhododendron bushes do not have genetic links with plain and lowland species. 2. The isolation of populations migrating along the emerging mountain ranges (Greater and Lesser Caucasus, isolated ranges and massifs, valleys) and the emergence of secondary Caucasian species formation centers allowed the transformation of these populations into new species. 3. The evolution of different species took place in different ways, which in some cases led to the isola- tion of groups of species united in endemic Caucasian species. 4. The process of regeneration involved the vast majority of plastic young species, mainly subalpine and more conservative forest species that have not been ex- perimentally modified and are included in the compo- sition of shrubs in the form of tertiary relics (mainly spore plants and some taiga grass elements). 5. Numerous changes in climatic conditions in the Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene helped migrate the various elements left in the pre-Caucasian refutiums to adjacent areas. The modern flora of the shrubs of Caucasian rhododendrons consists of species of differ- ent genesis and age. Most of them are Pliocene mi- grants and have undergone species formation in the highlands of the Caucasus. The next development trend of shrubs is the impoverishment of floristic composi- tion and the reduction of the area observed in the north- south and west-east directions. References 1. Galushko AI. Analysis of the florizapadnoy part of the Central Caucasus // Flora of the North Cau- casus and issues of its history. - Stavropol, 1976. - p. 5- 130. 2. Grossheim AA. Analysis of flora of the Cau- casus: The work of the Botanical Institute of Azerbai- jan. FAN OF THE USSR. Issue. 1. - Baku 1936. - 260 p. 3. Grossheim AA. Plant cover of the Caucasus. - M.: MOIP Publishing House, 1948. -267 p. 4. Ivanov AL. Relic overgrown Rhododendron caucasicum Pall. на г. Skalistoy (Khahalgi) in Chech- nya-Ingushetia // Izvestia SK NTSVSH. - № 3. Natural sciences. - Rostov: Izd-vo RGU, 1988a.-С.3-5. 5. Ivanov AL. About relict carvings Rhododen- dron caucasicum Pall. on the limestone massif Okhach- kue (Western Georgia) // Natural resource potential of mountainous regions of the Caucasus: Abstracts of con- ference reports. Грозный: Изд-во ЧИГУ, 19886. - С. 180-181. 6. Ivanov AL. Flora of the Transcaucasia and its genesis. - Stavropol: Izd-vo SSU, 1998. - 204 p. 7. Ivanov AL. On the genesis of Rhododendron caucasucum Pall.//Problems of the development of bi- ology and chemistry in the North Caucasus: Proceed- ings of the scientific conference. - Stavropol, 2001a. - С. 66-67. 8. Ivanov AL. Phytogeographic zoning of Rho- dodendron caucasicum Pall.//Biogeography at the turn of the XXI century: Materials of the All-Russian scien- tific teleconference. - Moscow-Stavropol: SSU Pub- lishing House, 20016 (internet-publication: www.stavsu.ru). - С. 33-41. 9. Ivanov AL. Analysis of the flora of overgrown Rhododendron caucasicum Pall.//Vestnik of Stavropol State University. - Vyp. 28. -Stavropol: SSU Publishing House, 2001. -S. 63-69. 10. Kamelin RV. Asian mountain elements in the flora of the Caucasus // Flora and vegetation of the Al- tai. - Барнаул: Изд-во Алтайского ун-та, 1996. - С. 5- 22. 11. Lavrenko EM. About the Central Caucasus mountain slopes and about the Siberian Mongolian el- ements in the flora of the Caucasus // Aka Demiku BN Sukachev to the 75th anniversary of his birth. -M.-L, 1956. - p. 340-353. 12. Maleev BP. Tertiary relics in the flora of the Western Caucasus and the main stages of the four -si- lent history and its flora and plants // Materials on the history of flora and plants of the USSR. -№1. - 1941. - С. 61-144. 13. Safarov IO., Asadov KS. The new location is Rhododendron caucasicum Pall. (Ericaceae) in the Lesser Caucasus // Botanical Journal. - 1979. - Т. 64. - №11. - С. 82. 14. Fedorov AN. History of high-altitude flora of the Caucasus in the fourth period as during the -autoch- thonous development of the third internal flora of the ancient basis // Materials on the fourth. period of the USSR. "But. 3. - 1952. - С. 24-36. 15. Kharadze AL. On some florogenetics of Czech groups of endemics of the Greater Caucasus // Problems of botany. -Х11. - L., 1974. - p. 70-76.
  7. 7. Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) 7 БИОМЕТРИЧЕСКИЕ ПОКАЗАТЕЛИ ОРГАНОВ РАСТЕНИЯ SAMBUCUS NIGRA L. В ЗАВИСИМОСТИ ОТ УСЛОВИЙ ПРОИЗРАСТАНИЯ Варданян З.С. доктор биологических наук, профессор кафедры химии и биологии, Ванадзорский государственный университет, Армения, г. Ванадзор Байрамян Л.Е. кандидат сельскохозяйственных наук, доцент кафедры химии и биологии, Ванадзорский государственный университет, Армения, г. Ванадзор Саакян Г.Р. кандидат биологических наук, доцент кафедры химии и биологии, Ванадзорский государственный университет, Армения, г. Ванадзор Мхитарян А.К. кандидат биологических наук, преподаватель кафедры химии и биологии, Ванадзорский государственный университет, Армения, г. Ванадзор BIOMETRIC INDICATORS OF THE ORGANS OF SAMBUCUS NIGRA L. DEPENDING ON GROWTH CONDITIONS Vardanyan Z., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Chemistry and Biology, Vanadzor State University, Armenia, Vanadzor Bairamyan L., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Chemistry and Biology, Vanadzor State University, Armenia, Vanadzor Sahakyan G., Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Chemistry and Biology, Vanadzor State University, Armenia, Vanadzor Mkhitaryan H. Candidate of Biological Sciences, Lecturer of the Department of Chemistry and Biology, Vanadzor State University, Armenia, Vanadzor АННОТАЦИЯ Вид Sambucus nigra L. (бузина черная) на территории Армении встречается в лесах и зарослях север- ных и южных районов. Исследованы жизненные формы, распространение растений бузины черной в Лорийском и Тавуш- ском марзах Армении. В окрестностных лесах Ванадзора и Степанавана Лорийского марза и лесопокрытой части национального парка "Дилижан", Тавушского марза ареалы распространения, число особей, жиз- ненные формы вида Sambucus nigra L. не уточнены. Выявлена разница биометрических показателей в за- висимости от условий и мест произрастания. Доказано, что наиболее благоприятны для роста и развития бузины черной климатические условия национального парка "Дилижан" Тавушского марза. Наибольшая длина стеблей зафиксирована в образцах Дилижанского национального парка. Показатели толщины сред- ней части стеблей с территории Дилижанского национального парка преобладают над толщиной средней части стеблей с территории Ванадзора и образцов из Степанавана. Средняя длина листьев растений Дили- жанского национального парка наибольшая, преобладает над средней длиной листьев растений с террито- рии Ванадзора и Степанавана. Средняя величина плодов, собранных в Дилижанском национальном парке крупнее образцов плодов, собранных в окрестностях Ванадзора и Степанавана. ABSTRACT The species Sambucus nigra L. is found on the territory of Armenia in forests and thickets of the northern and southern regions. Life forms, distribution of black elderberry plants in Lori and Tavush marzes of Armenia have been studied. In the surrounding forests of Vanadzor and Stepanavan, Lori Marz and the forested part of the Dilijan National Park, Tavush Marz, the distribution areas, number of individuals, and life forms of the species Sambucus nigra L. have not been specified. The difference of biometric indicators depending on the conditions and places of growth was revealed. It was proved that the climatic conditions of the Dilijan National Park, Tavush Region are the most favorable for the growth and development of black elderberry. The greatest length of the stems was recorded in the samples of the Dilijan National Park. The thickness of the middle part of the stems from the territory of the Dilijan National Park prevails over the thickness of the middle part of the stems from the territory of Vanadzor and samples from Stepanavan. The average length of leaves of plants in Dilijan National Park is the largest, pre- vailing over the average length of leaves of plants from the territory of Vanadzor and Stepanavan. The average
  8. 8. 8 Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) size of fruits collected in the Dilijan National Park is larger than the samples of fruits collected in the vicinity of Vanadzor and Stepanavan. Ключевые слова: подлесок, дерево, куст, мезофильные виды, систематика, разновидность. Keywords: undergrowth, tree, bush, mesophilic species, taxonomy, variety. Введение Растения вида Sambucus nigra L. принадлежат роду Sambucus L, семейства Caprifoliaceae. В Арме- нии, в диком виде встречаются два вида: Sambucus nigra L., Sambucus tigrani N. Troitzky L. На террито- рии республики виды встречаются в лесах и зарос- лях северных и южных районов. Армянские народ- ные названия: бузинник, червиха и т.д. Sambucus nigra L. теневыносливое и влаголю- бивое растение. В среднем и верхнем горно-лесном поясах наиболее распространена разновидность вида S.nigra-(S.nigraf. Laciniata (L.) Zabel), которая применяется для облагораживания парков [1,6]. S. Tigrani N. Troitzky.-эндем Армянского нагорья, встречается на каменистых склонах, в ущельях, за- рослях Арзни, Апарана, Вайка, Раздана, на горе Арай лер. Является крайне засухоустойчивым, све- толюбивым, морозостойким видом, не требовате- лен к почвенным условиям. Вид S. Tigrani N. Troitzky. занесен в Красную книгу Армении. Так как растение является эндемом, то несомненно за- служивает охраны. В последней редакции Красной книги Армении оно зарегистрировано под статусом близкое к уязвимому положению (NT) [1,6]. Из ли- тературных данных видно, что в некоторых странах большинство исследований посвящено выявлению антибактериальных, антиоксидантных свойств напитков, полученных из генеративных органов растения S.nigra [9,16,17,18]. В Армении исследо- вания также ведутся в этом направлении [8]. Нами исследованы жизненные формы, распро- странение растений бузины черной в Лорийском и Тавушском марзах Армении. Выявлена разница биометрических показателей в зависимости от условий и мест произрастания. Материалы и методы В конце 20-го века, в связи с топливно-энерге- тическим кризисом, в частности в Лорийском марзе проводились незаконные вырубки леса. В резуль- тате этого, ценные породы деревьев постепенно вы- теснились неприхотливыми к условиям произрас- тания породами. К таким видам относится и Sambucus nigra L. В Армении, мало исследований, посвященных изучению распространения и биоэко- логических особенностей бузины черной [2,3,4,5,7,19]. Таким образом, работа представляет научный интерес и имеет практическое значение. Обьектом исследования являются принадле- жащие семейству Caprifoliaceae растения и популя- ции вида Sambucus nigra L. Целью работы является исследование распро- странения и жизненных форм особей вида Sambucus nigra L. в Лорийском и Тавушском марзах Армении. Работы велись на лесопокрытых территориях Степанаванского, Гугаркского районов Лорийского марза, а также национального парка "Дилижан" Та- вушского марза. Исследования проводились маршрутным, по- лустационарным, стационарным методами [14]. Изучаемые территории находятся в северо-восточ- ной части республики, в пределах высот над уров- нем моря: Ванадзор-1350м, Степанаван-1375м, национальный парк "Дилижан"-1500м. Показатели климатических условий Лорийского и Тавушского марзов разнятся не сильно [10,15(таб.1)]. Таблица 1. Разница основных климатических показателей Лорийского и Тавушского марзов Марз Средне-годо- вое количе- ство осадков (мм) Среднегодовая t0 C Средняя высота над у.м Число пас- мурных дней Продолжи- тельность Солнечного Сияния (часы) лето зима Лорийский 400-700 +180 C -4,8 1788 43 2000 Тавушский 500-600 +18-+24 0; -1;+1 1594 64 1900- 2100 В подлеске марзов встречаются деревья и ку- старники Sambucus nigra L. [1,6,7]. На данном этапе, в планах управления лесами лесных хозяйств Ванадзора, Дилижана, Степа- навана не уточнены ареалы распространения, жиз- ненные формы бузины черной этих районов [11,12,13 ]. Таким образом, в трех исследуемых рай- онах необходимо провести инвентаризацию и опре- делить ресурсы растений вида. Опыты и результаты. Образцы исследуемого растения взяты в окрестностных лесах Ванадзора и Степанавана Ло- рийского марза и с территории национального парка "Дилижан" Тавушского марза. Для исследо- ваний выбраны кустарниковые формы Sambucus nigra L. Определены: средняя длина стеблей, тол- щина средней части стеблей, средняя длина ли- стьев, форма плодов, их величина. Полученные данные сравнили с известными литературными данными [1,6]. Результаты исследований приве- дены в таблице 2.
  9. 9. Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) 9 Таблица 2 Биометрические показатели образцов растений Sambucus nigra L. Лорийского и Тавушского марзов 2021г. Вид Sambucus nigra L. Биометрические показатели растений Средняя длина стеб- лей (м) толщина средней части стеблей (диаметр, см) средняя длина листьев (см) форма, величина плодов (диаметр, см) Лорийский марз, Ванадзор 2.33 1.3 22 шаровидные, 0.7 Лорийский марз, Степанаван 2.1 1.2 21.5 шаровидные, 0.6 Тавушский марз, нацио- нальный парк "Дилижан" 2.7 1.4 23.2 шаровидные, 0.85 Литературные данные 2-6 1.1-1.5 32 шаровидные, 0.5-0.7 Полученные данные сравнили с известными литературными данными [4,11]. При сравнении об- разцов выявили, что длина стебля, взятого с расте- ния в Ванадзоре превышает минимальные литера- турные показатели длины стебля бузины черной в 1.165 раза. Стебли, взятые с растений в Степа- наване, длиннее данных литературы в 1.05 раза, а средняя длина стеблей, взятых с растений Дили- жанского национального парка - в 1.35 раза. Показатели толщины средней части стеблей, взятых на территории Ванадзора преобладают над литературными минимальными показателями в 1.18 раза, над показателями Степанавана - в 1.09 раза и растений с территории Дилижанского наци- онального парка - в 1.27 раза. Представленные в литературе данные средней длины листа бузины черной 32см. Средняя длина листьев, взятых на территории Ванадзора уступает показателям из литературы в 0.68, Степанавана-в 0.67 раза, Дилижанского национального парка 0.73 раз В литературе, величина плодов колеблется в пределах 2-7 мм. Плоды, собранные в окрестностях Ванадзора соответствуют литературным данным. Плоды, собранные в окрестностях Степанавана меньше литературных данных в 0.86 раза, а плоды, собранные в Дилижанском национальном парке наоборот, больше литературных данных в 1,21 раза. Приведенные в таблице 2 результаты данных показали, что климатические условия Тавушского марза более благоприятны для роста, развития ис- следуемого растения. Биометрические данные рас- тений с территории Тавушского марза преобладают над показателями Лорийского марза. В графике 1 приведены сравнительные данные растений с территорий Тавушского и Лорийского марзов. График 1. Сравнительные результаты биометрических показателей образцов растений Sambucus nigra L. А-Ванадзор; Б-Степанаван; В- Дилижан. 1. средняя длина стеблей (м); 2. толщина средней части стеблей (диаметр, см); 3. средняя длина листьев (см); 4. диаметр плодов (см). -1,5 -1 -0,5 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 1 2 3 4
  10. 10. 10 Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) Таким образом, наиболее длинные стебли вы- явлены у растений на территории Дилижанского национального парка. Показатели средней длины стеблей Дилижанского национального парка пре- вышают показатели Ванадзора в 1.17 раза, Степа- навана -в 1.28 раза. Наибольшая толщина средней части стебля за- фиксирована в растениях Дилижанского нацио- нального парка. Эти показатели преобладают над показателями Ванадзора в 1.07 раза, Степанавана - в 1.16 раза. Средняя длина листьев растений Дили- жанского национального парка наибольшая, преоб- ладает над средней длиной листьев растений с тер- ритории Ванадзора в 1.05 раза и над показателями образцов из Степанавана - в 1.07 раза. Плоды, со- бранные в Дилижанском национальном парке круп- нее плодов, собранных в окрестностях Ванадзора в 1.21 раза, Степанавана -в 1.41 раза. Заключение: В результате исследований пришли к выводу, что: - природно-климатические условия Лорий- ского и Тавушского марзов благоприятны для роста и развития бузины черной. - Ареалы распространения вида Sambucus nigra L. на территориях Ванадзора, Степанавана Лорийского марза и в Дилижанском национальном парке Тавушского марза не уточнены. - Выявлена разница биометрических показателей в зависимости от условий и мест произрастания. Литература 1. Арутюнян Л.В., Арутюнян А.Л. Дендро- флора Армении. Изд. Луйс, Ереван,1986г. 2-ое изд.- е. 463с. стр.267-269. (на арм.яз). 2. Варданян З.С., Байрамян Л.Е., Локян А.Б., Мхитарян А.К. Биоэкологические особенности вида Sambucus nigra L. в Гугаркском регионе "Бан- бер". Ереван, 2015г. стр. 82-87(на арм.яз). 3. Варданян З.С., Оганесян А.И., Мирзоян Я. Определение хлорофилла в листьях видов Sambucus nigra L. и Rumex acetosa l.. Министерство образования и науки РА, Научный вестник ВГУ. том Б, Ереван 2016г., стр.97-104. (на арм.яз). 4. Варданян З.С., Оганесян А.И. Особенности водного режима вида Sambucus nigra L. в Гугаркском регионе. Министерство образования и науки РА, Научный вестник ВГУ . том Б, Ереван 2017 г., стр. 57-64. (на арм.яз). 5. Варданян З.С., Байрамян Л.Е., Мхитарян А.К., Залинян С.А. Получение натуральных красителей из растительного сырья. Министерство образования и науки РА, Научный вестник ВГУ. том Б, Ереван 2019 г., стр. 36-43. (на арм.яз). 6. Варданян Ж.А. Дендрология. Ереван, 2005г., с.370, стр 209-211. 7. Варданян З., Сафарян А., Агабекян Л. Зави- симость содержания хлорофилла в листьях расте- ний от условий произрастания. Министерство образования и науки РА, Научный вестник ВГУ. том Б, Ереван 2021г., стр.20-30. (на арм.яз). 8. Варданян З.С., Григорян К.М., Овсепян В.В. Исследование антибактериальных свойств сиропа, полученного из генеративных органов растений Бузины черной. Министерство образования и науки РА, Научный вестник ВГУ. том Б, Ереван 2021г., стр.69- 79. (на арм.яз). 9. Георгиевский В.П., Комиссаренко Н.Ф., Дмитрук С.Е. Биологически активные вещества ле- карственных растений, 1990, 333с. стр.140, 162. 10. Манасян М.Г., Григорян А.Т., Егьян Г.Б. Лорийский марз. Природа, население, экономика Ереван 2003г, с.140, стр.54-58(на арм.яз). 11. Министерство сельского хозяйства РА, ГНКТО «Армлес». План управления лесного хозяй- ства Гугарка, ГНКТО, Ереван, 2008г. (на арм.яз) 12. Министерство сельского хозяйства РА, План управления лесного хозяйства Степанавана. Ереван, 2008г. (на арм.яз). 13. План управления национального парка "Дилижан" 2017-2026гг. Программа мероприятий 2017г. (на арм.яз). 14. Сукачев В.Н., Зонн С.В. Методические ука- зания к изучению типов леса. М., 1961, 144с. 15. Физическая география Армянской ССР. Ереван, 1971г. с.470, стр.231-240 (на арм.яз). 16. Caroline Hearst and all- Antibacterial activity of elder (Sambucus nigra L.) flower or berry against hospital pathogens, Journal of Medicinal Plants Re- search Vol. 4 (17) pp.1805-1809, 4 September, 2010. 17. Rodino S., Butu A., Butu M., Cornea P.C. - Comparative studies on antibacterial activity of lico- rice, Elderberry and dandelion, Digest Journal of Nano- materials and Biostructures Vol. 10, No. 3, July-Sep- tember, 2015, p. 947-955 18. Srinivas Goud N., Gobind Prasad, Antioxi- dant, antimicrobial activity and total phenol and flavo- noids analysis of Sambucus nigra (elderberry), Interna- tional Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, Vol 12, Issue 1, 2020, 35-37. 19. Vardanyan Z.S., Bairamyan L.E., Mkhitaryan A.K. -The biological and medical peculiarities of Sam- bucus nigra L. in Lori region Armenia//2nd Black Sea Association of Food Science and Technology-B-FOST 2018, Congress, Armenia, elect.
  11. 11. Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) 11 EARTH SCIENCES ОЦЕНКА ПОЧВЕННЫХ РЕСУРСОВ ГУБИНСКОГО РАЙОНА (АЗЕРБАЙДЖАН) Холина Т.А. Бакинский государственный университет, преподаватель, канд.биол.наук Бекеров А.О. Бакинский госудасрственный университет, магистрант II курса ASSESSMENT OF SOIL RESOURCES OF GUBA DISTRICT (AZERBAIJAN) Kholina T., Baku State University, Lecturer, Candidate of Biology Bekerov A. Baku State University, 2nd year undergraduate АННОТАЦИЯ Проведена сравнительная оценка (бонитировка) почв Губинского района на основе диагностических показателей, коррелирующих с урожайностью сельскохозяйственных культур или продуктивностью есте- ственных ценозов. В результате составлена основная шкала бонитета почв Губинского район, где для каж- дой зоны, отличающейся по географо-экологическим условиям в качестве эталона выбрана почва с наилучшими показателями плодородия, а баллы остальных почв соответственно вычислены. ABSTRACT A comparative assessment (grading) of the soils of the Guba region was carried out on the basis of diagnostic indicators that correlate with the productivity of agricultural crops or the productivity of natural cenoses. As a result, the main soil quality scale of the Guba region was compiled, where for each zone that differs in geographical and environmental conditions, the soil with the best fertility indicators was selected as a standard, and the scores of the remaining soils were calculated accordingly. Ключевые слова: показатели плодородия, баллы бонитета, эталонные почвы, высокогорный пояс, средне- и низкогорный пояс, предгорья и низменность, основная шкала бонитета почв. Keywords: fertility indicators, bonitet scores, reference soils, high-mountain zone, mid- and low-mountain zone, foothills and lowland, main scale of soil bonitet. Губинский район расположен в северо-восточ- ной части Азербайджана, его площадь 261032 га, что составляет 3 % от площади республики. Это один из самых крупных районов в Азербайджане, он обладает хорошими почвенно-климатическими ресурсами, там выращиваются многие сельскохо- зяйственные культуры, в первую очередь он сла- вится своими фруктовыми садами. Территория рай- она очень разнообразна по рельефным, климатиче- ским показателям, растительному покрову. Разница гипсометрических показателей здесь составляет от 100 м в низменной части района до 4191 м над ур.м. (вершина Туфандаг). Соответственно таким раз- личным экологическим условиям и почвенный по- кров здесь чрезвычайно разнообразен: от высоко- горных почв альпийских и субальпийских лугов до серо-коричневых и аллювиально-луговых почв предгорий и низменности. На изучаемой террито- рии нами с учетом предыдущих исследований [1, 5- 8] были выявлены следующие типы и подтипы почв (табл.1.) Таблица 1 Состав почвенного покрова Губинского района № Название почв Площадь га % Высокогорный пояс 1 Горно-луговые дерновые 12240 4,69 2 Горно-луговые черноземовидные 6570 2,52 3 Горно-лесо-луговые 3870 1,48 4 Горные лугово-степные 18270 6,99 Средне- и низкогорный пояс 5 Типичные горно-лесные бурые 10440 3,99 6 Горно-лесные бурые лессивированные 6570 2,53
  12. 12. 12 Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) 7 Горно-лесные коричневые типичные 27270 10,45 8 Горно-лесные коричневые выщелоченные 20070 7,69 9 Горно-лесные коричневые карбонатные 4770 1,84 10 Горно-лесные коричневые остепненные 3240 1,24 Предгорья и равнины 11 Лугово-коричневые 94712 36,28 12 Серо-коричневые обыкновенные 2970 1,14 13 Аллювиально-луговые 44370 16,99 14 Другие почвы 5670 2,17 Итого по району: 261032,0 100 Для рационального использования и охраны почвенных ресурсов необходима качественная оценка земель, или бонитировка, то есть сравни- тельная качественная характеристика почв, корре- лирующая с урожайностью сельскохозяйственных культур и продуктивностью кормовых и лесных угодий. Нами в течение ряда лет проводились поле- вые исследования на территории Губинского рай- она. Полевые работы велись на основании поч- венно-картографических материалов. В характер- ных для определенного типа почв местах делались почвенные разрезы, из каждого горизонта брались образцы почв для химического и гранулометриче- ского анализов. В результате проведенных исследо- ваний выявлены экологические условия формиро- вания почвенного покрова изучаемой территории, определены типы и подтипы почв, их физические и химические показатели. Далее на основе методики [ 2-4] была проведена бонитировка по свойствам и диагностическим признакам почв. В качестве ос- новных оценочных критериев были выбраны за- пасы гумуса, валового азота, фосфора, калия и сумма поглощенных оснований. Сначала процентные величины показателей свойств почв (гумус, азот, фосфор, калий и сумма поглощенных оснований) были пересчитаны по ге- нетическим горизонтам почвы каждого типа на условно принятых глубинах 0-20, 0-50, 0-100 см. Далее произвели пересчет веществ в тоннах на гек- тар по формуле: Z= 100 V P d   , где: Z – запас гумуса, азота, фосфора, калия на глубине 0-20, 0-50, 0-100 см; d – объемный вес почвы данного слоя; P - процентное содержание гу- муса или других питательных веществ; V – объем почвы данного слоя, м3 /га. Почва, обладающая самыми высокими показа- телями этих факторов, была принята за эталон (100 баллов), баллы бонитета остальных почв вычис- лены по формуле: , 100   м ф З З Б где Б – балл бонитета почвы; Зф- фактическое содержание в почве каждого показателя (гумус, азот, фосфор, калий, сумма поглощенных основа- ний); Зм - содержание данных показателей в почве, взятой в качестве эталона. Как отмечено выше, изучаемая территория очень разнообразна по эколого-географическим условиями, растительному и почвенному покрову, поэтому мы проводили сравнительную оценку почв каждого пояса отдельно. Полученные результаты нашли отражение в основной шкале бонитета почв (табл.2). Как видно из таблицы, в высокогорном поясе эталонными почвами являются горно-луговые чер- ноземовидные, приближаются к ним горно-луго- вые дерновые (90 баллов), несколько ниже баллы горно-лесо-луговых (87) и горных лугово-степных почв (85). В средне- и низкогорном поясе наулучшими качествами обладают горно-лесные коричневые ти- пичные почвы (100 баллов), средние баллы у горно- лесных коричневых выщелоченных (87), горно-лес- ных бурых типичных (84),горно-лесных бурых лес- сивированных (83) и горно-лесных коричневых карбонатных (82). Наименьший балл (72) получили горно-лесные коричневые остепенные почвы, что, видимо, связано с выходом этих почв из-под леса и изменением гидротермического режима, а вслед- ствие этого и почвенных показателей. В поясе предгорий и низменности за эталон приняты лугово-коричневые почвы, обладающие хорошими запасами гумуса и других питательных веществ. Аллювиально-луговые почвы получили 77 баллов, а самый низкий балл (69) в пределах этой зоны получили серо-коричневые почвы. Составление основной шкалы бонитета почв – это один из этапов качественной оценки почв. Для оценки всех почвенных разновидностей необхо- димо применение поправочных коэффициентов на гранулометрический состав, степень эродирован- ности, мощность и др., необходимо выявить корре- ляционную зависимость урожайности сельскохо- зяйственных культур или продуктивности есте- ственных ценозов от почвенных показателей и т..д. Тем не менее основная шкала бонитета позволяет определить относительное достоинство почв по их плодородию, т.е. установить, во сколько раз одна почва лучше или хуже другой по своим естествен- ным и устойчиво приобретённым свойствам.
  13. 13. Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) 13
  14. 14. 14 Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) Заключение Выявлено, что наилучшими почвами в высоко- горном поясе Губинского района являются горно- луговые черноземовидные, получившие 100 баллов при оценке, а у горных лугово-степных почв самый низкий балл (85). Эталонные почвы средне- и низ- когорного пояса – горно-луговые бурые типичные почвы, самый низкий балл (72) у горно-лесных ко- ричневых остепненных почв. В предгорной и низ- менной части территории района наилучшими по- казателями плодородия отличаются лугово-корич- невые почвы (100 баллов), а самыми низкими – серо-коричневые обыкновенные почвы, получив- шие 69 баллов. Сравнительная оценка почв пока- зала, какие почвы в первую очередь нуждаются в проведении агротехнических мероприятий по по- вышению плодородия почвы. Литература 1. Алиев Г.А. Почвы Большого Кавказа в пре- делах Азербайджанской республики. – Баку, «Элм», 1994. - 310 с. 2. Гаврилюк Ф.Я. Бонитировка почв. Ростов- на-Дону: Изд.Ростовского университета, 1984. – 227 с. 3. Методическое руководство по оценке пло- дородия почв лесных угодий Азербайджанской ССР. Баку, 1980. - 30 с. 4. Мамедов Г.Ш. Экологическая оценка почв сельскохозяйственных и лесных угодий Азербай- джана. Автореф. дис. док. биолог. наук, Днепрепет- ровск, 1991. - 32 с. 5. Мамедов Г.Ш. Земельная реформа в Азер- байджане: правовые и научно-экологические во- просы. – Баку: «Элм», 2000. - 374 с. 6. Морфогенетические профили почв Азер- байджана / Под ред.Ш.Г.Гасанова. Баку: Элм, 2004. - 202 с. 7. Салаев М.Э. Диагностика и классификация почв Азербайджана. Баку: Элм, 1991. – 240 с. 8. Шабанов Дж.А., Мустафаева З.Р., Холина Т.А. Современное экологическое состояние поч- венного покрова Губы и его рациональное исполь- зование // Сборник научных трудов Азербайджан- ского НИИ земледелия, XXV том, Баку, 2014, с.428- 430.
  15. 15. Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) 15 ECONOMIC SCIENCES CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE COMMISSION FOR CONSUMER PROTECTION IN BULGARIA Chitakova D., Student of Management and Administration Radev R. Doctor of Commodity Science, Chief Assistant Professor University of Economics Varna, Bulgaria ABSTRACT The Consumer Protection Commission (CPC) is a specialized state body implementing the legislation for consumer protection in Bulgaria and exercising administrative control over the entire internal market. The purpose of this article is to study the attitudes of consumers towards the Commission for Consumer Protection in Bulgaria, examining its role and importance for the Bulgarian consumer. Usually, what the Bulgarian consumer lacks is a higher consumer culture and for this reason it is very important that Bulgarian consumers are more widely aware of their rights as consumers in order to avoid their violation. Keywords: consumer, consumer protection, Consumer Protection Commission, consumer rights. Introduction The right of consumers to protection in the event of a violation of their rights and interests is a fundamen- tal right of the individual in every civilized state. The protection of the rights and interests of consumers is an expression of the care of the state, society for the indi- vidual and a particularly important indicator of social achievement and the state of the economy [1]. Consumer protection is one of the main priorities in today's market economy. An important condition for competitiveness and successful business is to meet the growing demands of consumers and offer them quality and safe goods [2]. Consumer protection rules have the potential to improve market performance for the whole economy. They make markets fairer, and when the quality of information provided to consumers im- proves, these rules can lead to greener and more so- cially oriented market outcomes. Consumer empower- ment and the effective protection of their safety and economic interests have become essential policy objec- tives of the European Union (EU). It is the policy of both Bulgaria and the EU countries to protect the rights and interests of consumers. Bulgarian legislation intro- duces the requirements of EU law on consumer protec- tion in all its aspects: the right to information about goods and services; protection against risks from the acquisition of goods and services that endanger the health and lives of consumers; protection against unfair commercial practices and unfair contract terms; the right to compensation for damage caused by a defect in goods; access to court and out-of-court procedures for resolving consumer disputes, etc. [3]. Despite the existence of a rich legal framework for consumer protection, its poor knowledge and the lack of an adequate mechanism for monitoring compliance with it, create conditions for the emergence of unfair commercial practices, misleading the consumer and changing his consumer behavior. On June 10, 2006 a new law regulating the consumer-trader-consumer pro- tection law came into force. After its adoption, a num- ber of European acts were transposed, which necessi- tated numerous changes, mostly in the interest of con- sumers [4]. The consumer has the right to be informed not only about the characteristics of the goods and ser- vices, but also about the rights he has under the law or at the will of the trader, in case of defects or other in- consistencies of the purchased goods or services. The law defines as fundamental the right to protect the eco- nomic interests of the consumer in the acquisition of goods or services as a result of unfair commercial prac- tices and methods of sale, unfair contract terms and the provision of guarantees for goods [5]. The Consumer Protection Commission (CPC) is a specialized state body implementing the legislation for consumer protection in Bulgaria and exercising admin- istrative control over the entire internal market. The main goal of this control is to create an environment in which consumers feel calm and secure [3]. The main goal of the CPC is to assist in creating conditions for achieving a high level of consumer pro- tection on the Bulgarian market. The CPC acts as a single liaison office of the Re- public of Bulgaria in its contacts with the EU and the Member States regarding consumer protection measures within the meaning of Regulation (EU) №2006/2004 [6]. The main activities of the Consumer Protection Commission are market surveillance of dangerous goods, control of unfair commercial practices, elimina- tion of unfair terms in the general terms of consumer contracts and distance selling [3]. The general and special literature always empha- sizes the role that the consumer plays at all stages in the creation of various goods. Only one cultural consumer is able to build his own concept for each product, which is not inferior to scientific knowledge and logic [7]. Bulgarian and European law do not deal with a single concept of consumer. Different regulations use different definitions for their own needs. According to Art. 13, item 1 of the RD CPA: "Consumer is any natural person who acquires goods or
  16. 16. 16 Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) uses services that are not intended for commercial or professional activities, and any natural person who as a party to a contract under this law acts outside of his commercial or professional activity [3]. There are various consumer studies in the scien- tific literature: the peculiarities of protecting the rights of insured persons in voluntary insurance, in their ca- pacity as users of insurance and personal pension insur- ance services [8] are analyzed; the role of market sur- veillance in protecting consumers from non-compliant and dangerous products placed on the EU market is ex- amined. Useful tips are given to consumers when buy- ing products from traditional and online stores. The role of market surveillance is emphasized as an important tool for increasing the level of consumer protection from non-compliant and dangerous products placed on the single European market [9]; The new trends in the field of consumer protection are analyzed, with an em- phasis on administrative cooperation between the com- petent authorities of the EU member states. Based on the normative analysis, conclusions and recommenda- tions have been made regarding the application of the norms in our national law [10]; a normative analysis of the administrative legal methods for consumer protec- tion has been performed. The public law regime for the protection of consumer rights stems from their public importance and the need for the state to protect the more vulnerable country (consumers) in these relations [11]. On the basis of the normative analysis, conclu- sions and summaries are made regarding the applica- tion of the legal regulations in the field of consumer protection, through the prism of administrative law [12]; It is essential for the prevention of problems with online shopping that consumers are informed about the legal requirements for distance contracts within the meaning of the Consumer Protection Act. The CPC has a significant role in this through active campaigns and events, which it regularly organizes, as well as through its operational activities [13]. No research has been established related to a sur- vey of consumer attitudes in Bulgaria regarding the Consumer Protection Commission. The purpose of this article is to study the attitudes of consumers towards the Commission for Consumer Protection in Bulgaria, examining its role and im- portance for the Bulgarian consumer. Methodology and data To achieve the scientific goal in this article are used: descriptive-analytical method, study of various scientific literature, European and Bulgarian regula- tions, systematic approach, comparative analysis, sta- tistics, method of observation, induction, deduction, etc.. The survey was conducted in the period July 2021 - January 2022, and a questionnaire was used in con- ducting the survey. The created survey consists of 10 questions in which the respondents have expressed their personal position. The survey was distributed online through social networks and Gmail. The total number of respondents is 512. The stochastic (random) selection method was used to recruit users for the sur- vey. Role and importance of the Consumer Protec- tion Commission The CPC is the specialized body of the central state administration in the Republic of Bulgaria, re- sponsible for the protection of the rights and interests of consumers. It has its structural subdivisions in all re- gional cities of Bulgaria. The total number of staff of the department is currently 176 full-time. Separately, for the needs of control, non-staff associates are also involved [3]. The Consumer Protection Commission offers a wide range of digitized services available on the web- site, which consist of: an available mobile application; direct access to document forms intended for consum- ers, medium and small enterprises; links to other web- sites, such as laws, directives, regulations, ordinances, etc. [14]. A "Register of Dangerous Goods" has been pub- lished on the website of the Consumer Protection Com- mission. Dangerous goods include auto parts, jewelry, gas appliances and components, decorative items, gadgets, electrical appliances and equipment, lighters, protective equipment, toys, childcare products, station- ery, cosmetics, communication and media equipment, kitchen / cooking accessories, laser pointers, machines, furniture and motor vehicles [15]. During the period July - December 2021, the Con- sumer Protection Commission has imposed 112 admin- istrative acts on Bulgarian companies regarding: unfair commercial practices; immediate and effective with- drawal of goods from the market; temporary suspen- sion of the placing on the market of goods; compulsory administrative measure "temporary closure of a tourist site"; prohibition of import, export, remunerated or gra- tuitous placing on the market of dangerous goods, etc. [16]. In the annual report of the CPC for 2020 an activ- ity report was made. 20,755 inspections of traders (physical and electronic shops, tourist sites, etc.) were carried out. 1023 acts for administrative violations were drawn up for the established violations and 1203 penal decrees were issued, with which fines and property sanctions were imposed [17]. In the last three years, after inspections, the Con- sumer Protection Commission has ruled on the applica- tion of 30 unfair commercial practices by mobile oper- ators, and in 2021 alone, 48 penal decrees were issued to mobile operators to establish administrative viola- tions [18]. There are three possible ways to file a complaint / signal to the Consumer Protection Commission - the first is by filing a complaint electronically; the second is to file a complaint in person at the office of the Con- sumer Protection Commission; the third is by calling the telephone numbers listed on the site to report a vio- lation. The filing of a complaint electronically is done through the CPC website, and it will be filed with a unique incoming number, which is received by e-mail. Filing a complaint in person at the office of the Con- sumer Protection Commission, receiving the incoming number on the spot.
  17. 17. Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) 17 The incoming number can be used to inquire about the progress of the complaint after calling the CPC's phone number in the respective office to which the complaint is addressed. When the complaint is investi- gated, the Consumer Protection Commission should consider the case and decide within one month from the date of its receipt. An inspection is a procedure involving a series of actions, correspondence between the inspection body and the inspected trader, creation of documents and col- lection of suitable evidence for a possible lawsuit, which in some cases makes it impossible to complete the inspection within the statutory period. When the investigation in the specific case is com- pleted, the complainant is informed of the results of the same, the same way as the complaint was sent [19]. The CPC is the specialized body that actively pro- tects the rights and interests of Bulgarian consumers with periodic inspections of the activities of economic entities, detected dangerous goods and administrative violations of economic organizations. The question re- lated to the survey of consumer attitudes towards the Consumer Protection Commission in Bulgaria remains interesting. Survey of consumer attitudes towards the Con- sumer Protection Commission in Bulgaria The survey is presented in the form of figures, and the results are analyzed and summarized. Fig. 1 Gender of users surveyed,% Source: Compiled by the authors In fig. 1 presents the results regarding the gender of the surveyed users. The number of men is 32.7% and the number of women is 67.3%. Slightly more than twice as many women took part in the study. The results are most likely due to the assumption that women are more active consumers and shop more often than men, which explains the greater interest in the topic of the study. Fig. 2. Age of users surveyed, in % Source: Compiled by the authors The subjects are representatives of different age groups. They are divided into six categories: up to 18 years, from 19 to 30 years, from 31 to 40 years, from 41 to 50 years, from 51 to 60 years and over 60 years. The highest percentage of users participating in the sur- vey fell in the age range of 19 to 30 years, respectively by 31.20%, followed by the second group aged 31 to 40 years by 24.20%. The results obtained can be explained by the fact that in this age range the population is in active working age and often uses the Internet, where the survey is distributed. The lowest percentage of re- spondents under the age of 18 (4.30%) who are not so interested in the specific topic. For users over 60, the low rate may be due to the fact that they do not use the Internet often or do not use it at all. In fig. 3 presents the level of education of the users who participated in the survey. 32,70% 67,30% Man Woman 4,30% 31,20% 24,20% 20,20% 12,50% 7,60% 0,00% 5,00% 10,00% 15,00% 20,00% 25,00% 30,00% 35,00% up to 18 years from 19 to 30 years from 31 to 40 years from 41 to 50 years from 51 to 60 years over 60 years
  18. 18. 18 Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) Fig. 3. Level of consumer education, in % Source: Compiled by the authors The criterion of education is an important indica- tor for the research. The attitude of the educated to such research is different from that of the uneducated. We believe that respondents with a higher level of educa- tion are more interested in their rights as consumers, as opposed to those with lower education or no education at all. It is evident from the data that the largest percent- age of respondents have completed higher education - 48.20%, which proves the above that the higher edu- cated are more interested in protecting their rights and interests as consumers. They are followed by respond- ents with secondary education - 41.6%. 2.00% have no education and 8.20% have primary education. A causal link can be found between the education- income factors. The highest percentages are of consum- ers with higher education and those who receive rather high incomes. The link is that those consumers with a higher level of education receive higher incomes than consumers with a secondary and lower level of educa- tion. In fig. 4. the incomes of the households are pre- sented. Fig. 4. Consumer household income, in % Source: Compiled by the authors Over 66% of the surveyed consumers define the income of the household as rather high (33.12%) and rather low (32.90%). Respondents who define their in- come as low are 23.59%, and those with high income are 10.39%. In Fig. 5 presents consumers' awareness of their rights as consumers. Fig. 5 Are the respondents aware of their rights as a consumer? Source: Compiled by the authors Just over 1/4 of the respondents (25.30%) strongly confirm that they are aware of their rights as consumers. The highest percentage of consumers (35.70%) indicated rather yes in response, according to 0,00% 50,00% Without education Primary education Secondary education Higher education 2,00% 8,20% 41,6% 48,20% 0% 20% 40% Low Rather low Rather high High 23,59% 32,90% 33,12% 10,39% 25,30% 35,70% 24,90% 8,60% 5,50% Yes Rather yes Rather no No I can not judge
  19. 19. Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) 19 which it can be assumed that they are partially aware of their rights. Rather no, 24.90% of respondents are not aware of their rights, and 8.60% are not aware. It is worth noting here that if consumer rights are violated, respondents will not know how to protect themselves and who to turn to for help. They cannot judge whether 5.50% of consumers are familiar or not. Fig.6. Does the CPC protect the rights of the Bulgarian consumer? Source: Compiled by the authors Obviously, consumers have great confidence in the institution (CPC). More than 1/3 of the respondents (36.80%) confirm that the Consumer Protection Commission protects the rights and interests of consumers well. In response, rather yes, they indicated 30.00% of the respondents, and 11.00% of them - rather not. The percentage of consumers (7.10%) who do not trust the institution is low, and 15.10% of them cannot judge. Fig.7. If consumer rights are violated, would they file a complaint / alert to the CPC? Source: Compiled by the authors The majority of respondents (53.80%) would seek help from the Consumer Protection Commission if they feel that their consumer rights have been violated; rather yes, they indicated 17.80%; rather no, they would not file a complaint / signal of 10.40%. The answers "No" and "I can't judge" have equal results - 9.00% each. Fig. 8. What is the reason for consumers not to submit a complaint / signal to the CPC? Source: Compiled by the authors Question number 8 addresses the reason why respondents would not lodge a complaint / alert with the institution. A significant number of users (56.30%) are of the opinion that the submitted complaint or signal will not give any result. It would be a waste of time for 28.50% of respondents, and 15.20% indicated otherwise. 36,80% 30,00% 11,00% 7,10% 15,10% 0,00% 5,00% 10,00% 15,00% 20,00% 25,00% 30,00% 35,00% 40,00% Yes Rather yes Rather no No I can not judge 53,80% 17,80% 10,40% 9,00% 9,00% Yes Rather yes Rather no No I can not judge 28,50% 56,30% 15,20% Waste of time I think that there will be no result Otherwise
  20. 20. 20 Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) Fig. 9. Do respondents believe that their rights as consumers are protected? Source: Compiled by the authors Figure 9 shows that consumers (40.90%) believe that their rights are protected. Rather yes, 25.20% of them answered. Rather no, they do not believe 15.70%; categorically (6.30%) of the respondents do not believe that their consumer rights are protected, which is an indicator of distrust towards the control authorities; 11.90% of the respondents cannot judge. Fig. 10.Do consumers approve of the work of the CPC? Source: Compiled by the authors A high score of 63.10% is observed in question №10, which is related to the approval of consumers for the work of the CPC. 8.60% of the respondents do not approve of it. 16.90% of the respondents cannot judge. 11.40% of the respondents have not heard of the Consumer Protection Commission, which suggests that these are people with low educational status or in the youngest age group. Summary Summarizing the questions of the survey, the subject of this analysis, it is important to point out the existence of different types of questions that build its character. The results of the survey prove that the majority of the surveyed Bulgarian consumers are well aware of their rights and will seek help from the competent authorities in case of any violation. For some of the questions asked, the percentage of answers is very close. The results of the survey are impressive for the high percentage of consumers who trust the Consumer Protection Commission, as well as those who would signal if their rights were violated. Consumer awareness of their rights makes them less vulnerable to unfair commercial practices. Conclusion From the results of the present study it can be concluded that the Consumer Protection Commission is a specialized state body in which the majority of Bulgarian consumers have confidence and would file a signal / complaint in case of violation. This finding shows a good level of consumer culture, although it is safe to say that what is usually lacking for the Bulgarian consumer is a higher consumer culture, a broader knowledge of both the rights and the goods themselves and services to avoid possible infringements of consumer rights. For this reason, buyers need to become more aware of their rights as consumers and, in the event of their infringement, report to the competent authorities. Knowledge of consumer rights will provide a higher consumer culture, which is very important for security and safety in the shopping process and in the subsequent consumption of the product. References 1. Stefanov, D. (1995). Regarding the protection of the rights and interests of consumers. Goods - Qual- ity - Problems: National Scientific Conference, Varna, Oct. 1994. IU, Varna, p. 176-182. 2. Stoykova, T. (2018). The role of commodity science in training in the field of consumer protection. Quality of goods and consumer protection: Collection of reports from the round table with international par- ticipation, Science and Economics, Varna, p. 20-29. 3. Varadinov, O. (2014). Unfair commercial practices in the trader-consumer relationship, Analysis of Chapter 4, Section IV, of the Consumer Protection Act, Sibi, Sofia, p. 256. 4. Andreeva, A., Danev, V. (2018). Establishing the quality of goods in the proceedings on the com- plaint. Product Quality and Consumer Protection: Pro- ceedings of a Round Table with International Participa- tion, Science and Economics, Varna, pp. 199-210. 0,00% 10,00% 20,00% 30,00% 40,00% 50,00% Yes Rather yes Rather no No I can not judge 40,90% 25,20% 15,70% 6,30% 11,90% 63,10% 8,60% 16,90% 11,40% 0,00% 20,00% 40,00% 60,00% 80,00% Yes No I can not judge I haven't heard of her
  21. 21. Sciences of Europe # 91, (2022) 21 5. Kraleva, V., Dimitrova I. (2017). Protection of consumer interests in the shadow of the trade guaran- tee. Marketing - experience and perspectives: Proceed- ings: International. Scientific Conference, June 29-30, 2017, Science and Economics, Varna, pp. 423-430. 6. Regulation (EU) № 2006/2004 of the Euro- pean Parliament and of the Council of 27 October 2004 on cooperation between national authorities responsi- ble for the enforcement of consumer protection laws. 7. Kanturski, G. (1972). Consumer culture - an obligation and a right of our contemporaries. Assoc. of VINS - Varna, pp. 33-44. 8. Andreeva, A., Yolova, G. (2018). Protect con- sumers' rights in voluntary insurance. Quality of goods and consumer protection: Collection of reports from the round table with international participation, Science and Economics, Varna, p. 74 - 87. 9. Mukhtarova, M. (2018). The role of market surveillance to protect consumers from non-compliant and dangerous products. Quality of goods and con- sumer protection, Proceedings of a round table with in- ternational participation, Science and Economics, Varna, pp. 42-55. 10. Andreeva, A., Dimitrova, D. (2020). A new legal framework for administrative cooperation between EU Member States to increase consumer protection. Quality and certification of products, Proceedings of an international scientific-practical conference dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the University - Varna, Science and Economics, Varna, pp. 46-55. 11. Dimitrova D., Mateeva Zh. (2020). Administrative control and administrative penal responsibility for consumer protection. Assoc. Sp. Icon. univ. - Varna, Science and Economics, Varna, p. 36 - 53. 12. Dimitrova, D. (2020). Specifics of the administrative and legal protection of the consumers. Quality and certification of products, Proceedings of an international scientific-practical conference dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the University - Varna, Science and Economics, Varna, pp. 56 - 64. 13. Milev, H., Dushkova, M. (2020). Consumer protection in online shopping. Quality and certification of products, Proceedings of an international scientific- practical conference dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the University -Varna, Science and Economics, Varna, pp. 36-45. 14. Peteva, V., Dushkova M. (2019). The role of digitalization in consumer protection in Bulgaria. Izvestia Journal of the Union of Scientists - Varna. Eco- nomic Sciences Ser., Varna, pp. 37-46. 15. Consumer Protection Commission. /https://kzp.bg/ 16. Acts /https://kzp.bg/aktove 17. Annual reports /https://kzp.bg/godishni- dokladi 18. Commission for Consumer Protec- tion/https://kzp.bg/ 19. What happens after giving a complaint / sig- nal. https://kzp.bg/kakvo-se-sluchva-sled-podavane- na-zhalba-signal НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЕ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ ИНТЕРЕСЫ КАК ФАКТОР СОЦИАЛЬНО - АДАПТИРОВАННОГО РАЗВИТИЯ Рустамбеков Г.Б. Бакинский Государственный Университет, профессор NATIONAL ECONOMIC INTERESTS AS A FACTOR OF SOCIALLY ADAPTED DEVELOPMENT Rustambekov G. Baku State University, Professor АННОТАЦИЯ Человек всегда нацелен на преобразование окружающей его пространственной и социальной действи- тельности для удовлетворения своих запросов. В этом заключена первопричина производственной актив- ности вообще, а также нахождения человеком наиболее оптимальных решений в своей жизнедеятельно- сти. В этой связи очень важно познание факторов социально-адаптированного развития, среди которых определяющее значение имеют национальные экономические интересы. ABSTRACT A person is always aimed at transforming the spatial and social reality surrounding him in order to satisfy his needs. This is the root cause of production activity in general, as well as finding by a person the most optimal solutions in his life. In this regard, it is very important to understand the factors of socially adapted development, among which national economic interests are of decisive importance. Ключевые слова: национальные интересы, субъекты хозяйствования, социальная адаптация, чело- веческий фактор, институты, экономические модели. Keywords: national interests, business entities, social adaptation, human factor, institutions, economic mod- els.

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