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Hemsheela Model School
SESSION – 2021-2022
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I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been
possible without the kind support and help of many individuals. I would
like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.
I thank God for providing me with everything that I required in
completing this project.
I am highly indebted to the physical education teacher Mr. Anjan Kumar Biswas
for his guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing
necessary information regarding the project and also for his support in
completing the project. I also express my deep gratitude to him for giving me
the golden opportunity to work on the Project Report of “Cricket”.
I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents for their
kind co-operation and encouragement which helped me in the completion
of this project.
Also I cannot forget the help that I gathered from Internet and Study Books, it
also helped me to gather a lot of Information about this sport, and I also got to
know about various unknown sides of the game.
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This is to certify that “Sayan Mandal” of Class XII Section-D Roll no –26 of Hem
Sheela Model School, Durgapur has completed the assigned practical notebook
on Health & Physical Education (048) for Term-I. I have prepared and submitted
the practical notebook by following guidelines and instruction given by the
teachers and within speculated time of submission allotted for the partial
fulfilment of AISSCE 2021-22.
Internal Teachers Signature External Teachers Signature
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Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on a
field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats,
trying to score as many runs as
possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen
and thus limit the runs scored by the batting team. A run is scored by the
striking batsman hitting the ball with his
bat, running to the opposite end of the pitch and touching the crease there
without being dismissed. The teams switch between batting and fielding at the
end of an innings.
In professional cricket the length of a game ranges from 20 overs of six bowling
deliveries per side to Test cricket played over five days. The Laws of Cricket are
maintained by the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the Marylebone
Cricket Club (MCC) with additional Standard Playing Conditions for Test matches
and One Day Internationals.
Cricket was first played in southern England in the 16th century. By the end of
the 18th century, it had developed into the national sport of England. The
expansion of the British Empire led to cricket being played overseas and by the
mid-19th century the first international matches were being held. The ICC, the
game's governing body, has 10 full members. The game is most popular in
Australia and Asia, England, the Indian subcontinent, the West Indies and
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Cricket is a bat and ball game, played between two teams of eleven players
each. One team bats, attempting to score runs, while the other bowls and fields
the ball, attempting to restrict the scoring and dismiss the batsmen. The
objective of the game is for a team to score more runs that its opponent. In
some forms of cricket, it may also be necessary to dismiss the opposition in
order to win the match, which would otherwise be drawn
Formatof the game
A cricket match is divided into periods called innings. During an innings (innings
ends with "s" in both singular and plural form), one team fields and the other
bats. The two teams switch between fielding and batting after each innings. All
eleven members of the fielding team take the field, but only two members of
the batting team (tw0 batsman) are on the field at any given time. The two
batsmen face each other at opposite ends of the pitch, each behind a line on
the pitch known as a crease. The fielding team's eleven members stand outside
the pitch, spread out across the field. Behind each batsman is a target called a
wicket. One designated member of the fielding team, called the bowler, is given
a ball, and attempts to bowl the ball from one end of the pitch to the wicket
behind the batsman on the other side of the pitch. The batsman tries to prevent
the ball from hitting the wicket by striking the ball with a bat. If the bowler
succeeds in hitting the wicket, or if the ball, after being struck by the batsman, is
caught by the fielding team before it touches the ground, the batsman is
dismissed. A dismissed batsman must leave the field, to be replaced by another
batsman from the batting team. If the batsman is successful in striking the ball
and the ball is not caught before it hits the ground, the two batsmen may then
try to score points (runs) for their team by running across the pitch, grounding
their bats behind each other's crease. Each crossing and grounding by both
batsmen is worth one run. The batsmen may attempt one run, multiple runs, or
elect not to run at all. By attempting runs, the batsmen risk dismissal, which can
happen if the fielding team retrieves the ball and hits a wicket with the ball
before either batsman reaches the opposite crease. If the batsman hits the
bowled ball over the field boundary without the ball touching the field, the
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batting team scores six runs and may not attempt more. If the ball touches the
ground and then reaches the boundary, the batting team scores four runs and
may not attempt more. When the batsmen have finished attempting their runs,
the ball is returned to the bowler to be bowled again. The bowler continues to
bowl toward the same wicket, regardless of any switch of the batsmen's
positions. After a bowler has bowled six times (an over), another member of the
fielding team is designated as the new bowler. The new bowler bowls to the
opposite wicket, and play continues. Fielding team members may bowl multiple
times during an innings, but may not bowl two overs in succession. The innings
is complete when 10 of the 11 members of the batting team have been
dismissed, one always remaining "not out", or when a set number of overs has
been played. The number of innings and the number of overs per innings vary
depending on the match.
Umpires and Scorers
The game on the field is regulated by two umpires, one of whom stands behind
the wicket at the bowler's end, the other in a position called "square leg", a
position 15–20 metres to the side of the "on strike" batsman. The role of the
umpires is to adjudicate on . Umpires also decide on the suitability of the
playing conditions and can interrupt or even abandon the match due to
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circumstances likely to endanger the players, such as a damp pitch or
deterioration of the light. Off the field and in televised matches, there is often a
third umpire who can make decisions on certain incidents with the aid of video
evidence. The third umpire is mandatory under the playing conditions for Test
matches and limited overs internationals played between two ICC full members.
These matches also have a match referee whose job is to ensure that play is
within the Laws of cricket and the spirit of the game.
The match details, including runs and dismissals, are recorded by two official
scorers, one representing each team. The scorers are directed by the hand
signals of an umpire. For example, the umpire raises a forefinger to signal that
the batsman is out (has been dismissed); he raises both arms above his head if
the batsman has hit the ball for six runs. The scorers are required by the Laws of
cricket to record all runs scored, wickets taken and overs bowled; in practice,
they also note significant amounts of additional data relating to the game.
The innings (ending with 's' in both singular and plural form) is the term used for
the collective performance of the batting side. In theory, all eleven members
of the batting side take a turn to bat but, for various reasons, an innings can end
before they all do so. Depending on the type of match being played, each team
has one or two innings apiece.
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The main aim of the bowler, supported by his fielders, is to dismiss the batsman.
A batsman when dismissed is said to be "out" and that means he must leave the
field of play and be replaced by the next batsman on his team. When ten
batsmen have been dismissed (i.e., are out), then the
whole team is dismissed and the innings is over. The last batsman, the one who
has not been dismissed, is not allowed to continue alone as there must always
be two batsmen "in". This batsman is termed "not out".
An innings can end early for three reasons: because the batting side's captain
has chosen to "declare" the innings closed (which is a tactical decision), or
because the batting side has achieved its target and won the game, or because
the game has ended prematurely due to bad
weather or running out of time. In each of these cases the team's innings ends
with two "not out" batsmen, unless the innings is declared closed at the fall of a
wicket and the next batsman has not joined in the play.
In limited overs cricket, there might be two batsmen still "not out" when the
last of the allotted overs has been bowled.
The bowler bowls the ball in sets of six deliveries (or "balls") and each set of six
balls is called an over. This name came about because the umpire calls "Over!"
when six balls have been bowled. At this point, another bowler is deployed at
the other end, and the fielding side changes
ends while the batsmen do not. A bowler cannot bowl two successive overs,
although a bowler can bowl unchanged at the same end for several overs. The
batsmen do not change ends and so the one who was non-striker is now the
striker and vice-versa. The umpires also change positions
so that the one who was at square leg now stands behind the wicket at the non-
striker's end and vice-versa.
A team consists of eleven players. Depending on his or her primary skills, a
player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. A well-balanced team
usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers.
Teams nearly always include a specialist wicket-keeper because of the
importance of this fielding position. Each team is headed
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by a captain who is responsible for making tactical decisions such as
determining the batting order, the placement of fielders and the rotation of
bowlers. A player who excels in both batting and bowling is known as an all-
rounder. One who excels as a batsman and wicket-keeper is known as a "wicket-
keeper/batsman", sometimes regarded as a type of all-rounder. True all-
rounders are rare as most players focus on either batting or bowling skills.
Additional runs can be gained by the batting team as extras (called "sundries" in
Australia) due to errors made by the fielding side. This is achieved in four ways:
· No ball: a penalty of one extra that is conceded by the bowler if he breaks the
rules of bowling either by
(a) using an inappropriate arm action
(b) overstepping the popping crease
(c) having a foot outside the return crease.
In addition, the bowler has to re-bowl the ball. In limited overs matches, a no
ball is called if the bowling team's field setting fails to comply with the
restrictions. In shorter formats of the game (20–20, ODI) the free hit rule has
been introduced. The ball following a front foot no-ball will be a free-hit for the
batsman, whereby he is safe from losing his wicket except for being run-out.
· Wide: a penalty of one extra that is conceded by the bowler if he bowls so that
the ball is out of the batsman's reach; as with a no ball, a wide must be re-
bowled. If a wide ball crosses the boundary, five runs are awarded to the batting
side (one run for the wide,
and four for the boundary).
· Bye: extra(s) awarded if the batsman misses the ball and it goes past the
wicketkeeper to give the batsmen time to run in the conventional way (note
that one mark of a good wicketkeeper is one who restricts the tally of byes to a
· Leg bye: extra(s) awarded if the ball hits the batsman's body, but not his bat,
while attempting a legitimate shot, and it goes away from the fielders to give
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the batsmen time to run in the conventional way. When the bowler has bowled
a no ball or a wide, his team incurs an additional penalty because that ball (i.e.,
delivery) has to be bowled again and hence the batting side has the opportunity
to score more runs from this extra ball. The batsmen have to run (i.e., unless the
ball goes to the boundary for four) to claim byes and leg byes but these only
count towards the team total, not to the striker's individual total for which runs
must be scored off the bat.
There are ten ways in which a batsman can be dismissed; five relatively
common and five extremely rare. The common forms of dismissal are "bowled",
"caught", "leg before wicket" (lbw), "run out", and "stumped". Less common
methods are "hit wicket", "hit the ball twice", "obstructed the field", "handled
the ball" and "timed out" – these are almost unknown in the professional
If the dismissal is obvious (for example when "bowled" and in most cases of
"caught") the batsman will voluntarily leave the field without the umpire
needing to dismiss them. Otherwise before the umpire will award a dismissal
and declare the batsman to be out, a member of the
fielding side (generally the bowler) must "appeal". This is invariably done by
asking (or shouting) "how's that?" – normally reduced to howzat? If the umpire
agrees with the appeal, he will raise a forefinger and say "Out!". Otherwise he
will shake his head and say "Not out". Appeals are
particularly loud when the circumstances of the claimed dismissal are unclear,
as is always the case with lbw and often with run outs and stumpings.
· Bowled : the bowler has hit the wicket with the delivery and the wicket has
"broken" with at least one bail being dislodged (note that if the ball hits the
wicket without dislodging a bail it is not out)
· Caught : the batsman has hit the ball with his bat, or with his hand which was
holding the bat, and the ball has been caught before it has touched the ground
by a member of the fielding side.
· Leg before wicket (lbw): the ball has hit the batsman's body (including his
clothing, pads etc. but not the bat, or a hand holding the bat) when it would
have gone on to hit the stumps. This rule exists mainly to prevent the batsman
from guarding his wicket with his legs instead of the bat. To be given out lbw,
the ball must not bounce outside leg stump or strike the batsmen outside the
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line of leg-stump. It may bounce outside off-stump. The batsman may only be
dismissed lbw by a ball striking him outside the line of off-stump if he has not
made a genuine attempt to play the ball with his bat.
· Run out : a member of the fielding side has broken or "put down" the wicket
with the ball while the nearest batsman was out of his ground; this usually
occurs by means of an accurate throw to the wicket while the batsmen are
attempting a run, although a batsman can be given out Run out even when he is
not attempting a run; he merely needs to be
out of his ground.
· Stumped is similar except that it is done by the wicketkeeper after the
batsman has missed the bowled ball and has stepped out of his ground, and is
not attempting a run.
· Hit wicket : a batsman is out hit wicket if he dislodges one or both bails with
his bat, person, clothing or equipment in the act of receiving a ball, or in setting
off for a run having just received a ball.
· Hit the ball twice is very unusual and was introduced as a safety measure to
counter dangerous play and protect the fielders. The batsman may legally play
the ball a second time only to stop the ball hitting the wicket after he has
already played it.
· Obstructing the field : another unusual dismissal which tends to involve a
batsman deliberately getting in the way of a fielder.
· Handled the ball: a batsman must not deliberately touch the ball with his
hand, for example to protect his wicket. Note that the batsman's hand or glove
counts as part of the bat while the hand is holding the bat, so batsmen are
frequently caught off their gloves (i.e. the ball hits, and is deflected by, the glove
and can then be caught).
· Timed out usually means that the next batsman did not arrive at the wicket
within three minutes of the previous one being dismissed.
In the vast majority of cases, it is the striker who is out when a dismissal occurs.
If the non-striker is dismissed it is usually by being run out, but he could also be
dismissed for obstructing the field, handling the ball or being timed out. A
batsman may leave the field without being dismissed. If injured or taken ill the
batsman may temporarily retire, and be replaced by the next batsman. This is
recorded as retired hurt or retired ill. The retiring batsman is not out, and may
resume the innings later. An unimpaired batsman may retire, and this is treated
as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal. Batsmen
cannot be out bowled, caught, leg before wicket, stumped or hit wicket off a no
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ball. They cannot be out bowled, caught, leg before wicket, or hit the ball twice
off a wide.
Some of these modes of dismissal can occur without the bowler bowling a
delivery. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he
leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out
obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Timed out is, by its
nature, a dismissal without a delivery. With all other modes of dismissal, only
one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled.
An innings is closed when:
· Ten of the eleven batsmen are out (have been dismissed); in this case, the
team is said to be "all out"
· The team has only one batsman left who can bat, one or more of the
remaining players being unavailable owing to injury, illness or absence; again,
the team is said to be "all out"
· The team batting last reaches the score required to win the match
· The predetermined number of overs has been bowled (in a one-day match
only, commonly 50 overs; or 20 in Twenty20)
· A captain declares his team's innings closed while at least two of his batsmen
are not out (this does not apply in one-day limited over matches)
If the team that bats last is all out having scored fewer runs than their
opponents, the team is said to have "lost by n runs" (where n is the difference
between the number of runs scored by the teams). If the team that bats last
scores enough runs to win, it is said to have "won by n wickets", where n is the
number of wickets left to fall. For instance a team that passes its opponents'
score having only lost six wickets would have won "by four wickets". In a two-
innings-a-side match, one team's combined first and second innings total may
be less than the other side's first innings total. The team with the greater score
is then said to have won by an innings and n runs, and does not need to bat
again: n is the difference between the two teams' aggregate scores.
If the team batting last is all out, and both sides have scored the same number
of runs, then the match is a tie; this result is quite rare in matches of two innings
a side. In the traditional form of the game, if the time allotted for the match
expires before either side can win, then the game is
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declared a draw. If the match has only a single innings per side, then a
maximum number of deliveries for each innings is often imposed. Such a match
is called a "limited overs" or "one-day" match, and the
side scoring more runs wins regardless of the number of wickets lost, so that a
draw cannot occur. If this kind of match is temporarily interrupted by bad
weather, then a complex mathematical formula, known as the Duckworth-
Lewis method after its developers, is often used
to recalculate a new target score. A one-day match can also be declared a "no-
result" if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs have been bowled by
either team, in circumstances that make normal resumption of play impossible;
for example, wet weather.
Cricket is played on a grassy field. The Laws of Cricket do not specify the size or
shape of the field but it is often oval. In the centre of the field is a rectangular
strip, known as the pitch. The pitch is a flat surface 10 feet (3.0 m) wide, with
very short grass that tends to be worn away as the game progresses At either
end of the pitch, 22 yards (20 m) apart, are placed wooden targets, known as
the wickets. These serve as a target for the bowling (also known as the fielding)
side and are defended by the batting side, which seeks to accumulate runs.
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Bowling:- Bowling is important as batting in the cricketing field, bowling
means when the ball is defended by a batsman to save his cricket. A
player who has skills to bowl known as a bowler. When the ball is thrown
to the batsman is called a ball or delivery. One over has six sets of the
ball usually a bowler bowls six balls in an over when one over bowled by
any bowler another player from his teammates bowl the next over. There
are some laws of cricket for bowlers on how to bowl a ball of the bowls an
illegal bowl, an umpire will rule it a ‘No Ball’. If a bowler bowl very far from
the batsman then it’s known as ‘Wide’ and the bowler has to bowl another
Types of Bowling:-
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Fielding:-In the 21st century fielding is a key point to winning the match a
player required more hard work, practice, and flexibility to become a good
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fielder. Being a good fielder he should have more flexibility, and body right
behind the ball. He must have judgment where the going for a catch fielder eye
must to on batsman strictly he should look at all the activities performed by the
batsman to react to catch the ball.
A good fielder should have great concentration even when the team field is out
of the blazing sun for more than five hours. A team should have a good fielding
side to win more matches for his country a good fielder saves more runs and
force him to come in under pressure. Fielding is an important part of cricket
fielding creates pressure that wins many matches. Now a day the standard of
fielding is on a top-level. Every player of any team is a great fielder because of
their fitness and flexibility.
Batting:- Begin a batsman he must have good wrist power, eye coordination,
stamina, running speed, a judgment of speed, bat speed, and other knowledge
and statistics for cricket.
Some basic following skills batsman required:-
He should try to save his cricket by the
Avoid the ball which hits to legs.
Avoid playing aerial shots as this can
result in batsmen getting caught and
He should have perfect guidance when
to take a run.
Hit the ball by prefect chooses of shot,
timing, and strength.
Different types of shots
The good batsman plays different shots to make more runs. He has perfect
knowledge and skills to play different types of shots. Usually good, the batsman
has great balance throughout his body there are a variety of shots a batsman
can play. Hits that reach the boundary of the field are automatically awarded
four runs if the ball touches the ground enroute to the boundary or six runs if
the ball clears the boundary without touching the ground within the boundary.
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Types of batting
Running :- The primary concern of the batsman on strike (i.e., the "striker") is
to prevent the ball hitting the wicket and secondarily to score runs by hitting the
ball with his bat so that he and his partner have time to run from one end of the
pitch to the other before the fielding side can return the ball.
To register a run, both runners must touch the ground behind the crease with
either their bats or their bodies (the batsmen carry their bats as they run). Each
completed run increments the score. More than one run can be scored from a
single hit; but, while hits worth one to three runs are common, the size of the
field is such that it is usually difficult to run four or more.
To compensate for this, hits that reach the boundary of the field are
automatically awarded four runs if the ball touches the ground en route to the
boundary or six runs if the ball clears the boundary without touching the ground
within the boundary. The batsmen do not need to run if the ball reaches or
crosses the boundary. Hits for five are unusual and generally rely on the help of
"overthrows" by a fielder returning the ball. If an odd number of runs is scored
by the striker, the two batsmen have changed ends, and the one who was non-
striker is now the striker. Only the striker can score individual runs, but all runs
are added to the team's total.
The decision to attempt a run is ideally made by the batsman who has the
better view of the ball's progress, and this is communicated by calling: "yes",
"no" and "wait" are often heard.
Running is a calculated risk because if a fielder breaks the wicket with the ball
while the nearest batsman is out of his ground (i.e., he does not have part of his
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body or bat in contact with the ground behind the popping crease), the batsman
is run out.
Wicket- Keeping:-Wicketkeeper plays an
important role in cricket good wicket-keeper
can save a number of runs for his teams. His
function is to stop deliveries, which the
batsman unable to play or passed by batsman
wicket-keeper is the god in cricket because he
can dismiss the batsman in various ways. The
first way is when the bowler ball to a batsman
and when it got an edge of the bat and keeper
caught it before it, bouncer.
The wicket-keeper position is the best position then other fielders for high air
caught, he can easily catch that he sought another way to dismiss a batsman for
the wicketkeeper. When the batsman miss to play the shot and he comes out of
the crease wicketkeeper caught the ball and fall bails from the stumps and at
last when the balls hit the outfield wicket-keeper come closer to the stumps and
receive the ball and run out if it’s possible.
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All-Rounder:A batsman who has the ability to bat and bowls both. Can also
refer to a batsman/wicket-keeper.
Around-the-wicket: When a bowler bowls with the wicket on the other side of
the body to the bowling arm.
All Out: When a batting side has no more player to bat, the state is called 'all-out', or end
of the innings.
Appeal: A call by a player to an umpire for a decision on any playing matter. Usually, it is
'How's that's by the fielding side, asking the umpire to declare a batsman 'out'.
Away-Swinger:A bowling delivery that moves in the air from leg to off, for left-handed
batsman it moves fromoff to leg.
Arm Bowl: Typeof bowling by an off-spinner that has little or no spin. Such bowlwhen
bowled by leg-spinner is called 'footer
Back Foot: Batsman's footwork when he has placed his centre of gravity onto the back
foot to play a shot, usually a defensive shoton a rising delivery.
Bails: Two smallwooden cylinder-likepieces balanced at the top of three vertical dowels
Ball-Tampering: Illegally altering the condition of the ball by the fielding side. The altered
condition may give the fielding side an unfair advantageas the ball can swing moreand
Bat carry:If oneof the openers stays at the crease, while all other batsmen are out; it is
said that he 'carried the bat'.
Batsman:A player who plays with the help of bat different shots when the ball has been
bowled, usually in order to make runs.
Bowler:A player throwing the red, leather ball at the batsman to play, aiming to get him
Box: A protector worn by a batsman to protect his part of the body below the navel
(genitals), types of guard, like chestguard or thigh guard.
Beamer:A bowling delivery aimed directly at the body or head of the batsman.
Beaten:When a batsman failed to strikeor play the ball, he is said to have been 'beaten'
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by the bowler's skilfuldelivery.
Bouncer:A bowling delivery by a fastbowler which is pitched shortand rising towards the
batsman's head, or at least chesthigh. Also called short-pitched delivery.
Boundary:Outer limit of playing area, like bowing ring, soccer ground, etc.
Break:A slow bowler's delivery spins to either side after hitting the pitch surface.
Bye: A run not scored by the bat, usually refers to when the wicketkeeper failed to stop
the bowling delivery, which allows a batsman to makerun/runs, whether the bowl
connected the bat or not.
Century:When a batsman scored 100 runs in one inning.
Chinaman: Kind of leg-break delivery, when bowled by a left-handed bowler.
Call: When both batsmen communicate, in order to refuseor confirm, for making a run or
runs, usually by shouting "yes", "no", "wait".
Chop:Kind of shotplayed by a batsman, a form of late cut.
According to law, chucker:Illegal delivery by a bowler when he throws to bowlinstead
Creeper:A ball runs along the ground, also known as 'shooter'or 'sneaker'.
Cut: kind of shotby a batsman.
Cover drive:A batting strokedirected towards the cover area.
Deep:When fielder fields near the boundary e.g. Deep Mid-on, Deep Cover, Deep Third
Duck:When a batsman out without scoring any run.
Duck (Golden):Golden duck is referred to when batsman out on zero on the very first
Declaration:When a captain decides to close an innings when he still has wickets in hand
i.e. batsmen still remaining to bat.
Doosra:When a right-handed off-spinner bowls a delivery turning like a leg break, turning
fromoff to leg side.
Drive:A strokeby batsman like 'cover-drive, 'on-drive...
Edge:Outermostperimeter of the bat. Also, refer to a bowler's bowlwhen only juststruck
by the edge of the bat.
Extras:Runs added to a team's total which is not created by the bat/batsman e.g. bys, leg-
byes, no-ball, wide-ball, etc.
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Field: Playing area, also refers to a fielderor positioning of the fielders.
Fine Leg:Field positionwhether short-leg or long-leg.
Full Toss:Bowler's ball which doesn'thit the pitch before reaching the batsman.
Finger Spin:A method that helps slow bowlers to spin the ball with the help of
Flight: Kind of slow ball which has a loop in the air, droppedsharply onto the pitch
in order to deceive the batsman.
Full Blooded:Batting strokeplayed with full physicalpower.
Good Length:In terms of length this bowling delivery pitches in such a position that a
batsman faces difficulty to play a stroke. Usually, heplays it defensively.
Googly:Leg break bowling to the right-arm batsman, it appears that the ball will spin leg
to off or middle to off, but instead it will spin in opposite directions to deceive the batsman.
Grubber:A delivery after pitching the surfacego very low.
Half Volley: A bowling delivery which pitches very near the bat that batsman has to strike
the ball immediately.
Hook: A batting strokewhen played on the side of the short-pitched delivery.
Howzat: "How's That?" An appeal by the fielding side to the umpire asking for dismissalof
Innings:Time period for batting by a team or individual.
King Pair:A batsman is out on the firstball for zero in both innings in a test match, he
begged King Pair.
Late Cut: With a horizontal bat a wristy strokeplayed outside the off-stump in the slip
Long Leg:Fielding position, near the boundary, behind the wicket.
LBW: Leg Before Wicket. Method of dismissalcredited to the bowler. When Batsman
failed to play the delivery and ball struck on his leg which is justin front of the wicket. It is
up to umpire judgmentto give the batsman out or not under certain cricket law.
Leg Break:On pitching a ball turns from leg to off.
Leg Cutter: A fastleg-break bowled by the seam bowler.
Long Leg:Fielding position near the boundary on the leg-side. A very deep fine-leg.
Long-Off,Long-On:Fielding positions near the boundary on either side of the
sightscreen at the bowler's end.
Maiden Over:An over in which no run is scored by the batsman.
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Night Watchman:When a wicketfalls shortly before the closing of the play, a low-order
batsman is sent in to play out time, in order to prevent a better batsman from risking his
No Ball: An illegal delivery under a certain law. And the bowler has to bowl extra. A run is
added to the score.
Off-Break:When a ball turns fromoff to leg.
Off-Cutter: Fastoff-break bowling cutting the fingers across the seam of the ball.
Off-Drive: Driveon the frontfoot which hits the ball between cover and mid-off.
On-Drive:Drivewhich hits the ball between mid-wicket and mid-on.
Pitch: A specially prepared area, 5 feet width and 22 yards long, between the two sets of
Point: A close fielding position squarewith the wicketon the off-side.
Pull: A force-fullstrokesending the ball between mid-on and mid-wicket.
Reverse Sweep: When a right-handed or left-handed batsmen plays a sweep shot
towards the other side by changing the stance from left-handed to right-handed and vice
versa. This relative improvisation by the batsmen to play opposite to the set field position
allowing the batsmen to scoreruns where there are no fielders.
Run: Unit of scoring.
Run-out: A method of dismissalnot credited to the bowler. When a batsman running for a
run and failed to reach the stumps in time, meanwhile a fielder, by throwing the ball, hit
Seam:The stitching around the circumferenceof the ball that fastens together its leather
Seamer: A bowler (medium or fast) who uses the seam to deviate the ball when it pitches.
Shooter:A ball does not rise off the ground after pitching.
Short-Leg:A closefielding position on the leg side, it could be forward short-leg,
backward or square.
Slip: Fielding position on the off-sidenear the wicket-keeper.
Square-Cut:A batsman's strokewhich dispatches the ball justbackward of point.
Stumps:Three wooden sticks when surmounted by the bails.
Sweep:Another strokeplayed off the frontfoot from the crouch position on the leg side.
Tail: Lower order of players in the team of 11, who are not selected for their specialized
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TestMatch:A contest of two innings per side in 5 days between the two full members of
the ICC (InternationalCricketConference)
Tie:Match ended up with equal runs scored by both sides and with the team batting last
having completed its innings.
Top Spin: Leg-break bowling when ball gain pace after bouncing but not deviate laterally.
Track:Substituteword for the cricket pitch.
Twelfth Man:An emergency fielder.
UDRS: Umpire Decision Review System. The link covers Hawk-Eye, Snickometer, and
Wicket: Three wooden stumps having bailed on top. Wickets are pitched opposite and
parallel to each other, 22 yards apart. The term is also used to describe the pitch.
Wicket-Maiden: An over in which no runs scored by the batsman but at least one wicket
Wide: A ball high over or wide of the wicketand must be signalled by the umpire as "wide"
and as a penalty, a run is added to the score.
Yorker:A ball pitched justnear the bat or batsman's toes, the batsman has to stop it very
quickly otherwiseball passes underneath the bat to hit the wickets.
Ball – A red, white or pink ball with a cork base, wrapped in twine covered with leather.
The ball should have a circumferenceof 9.1 in (23 centimetres) unless it is a children's size.
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Bat – A wooden bat is used. The wood used is from the Kashmir or English willow tree. The
bat cannot be more than 38 inches (96.5 cm) long and 4.25 inches (10.8 cm) wide.
Aluminium bats are not allowed. The bat has a long handle and one side has a smooth face.
Stumps – three upright wooden poles that, together with the bails, form the wicket.
Bails – two crosspieces madeof wood, placed on top of the stumps.
Sight screen –
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A screen placed at the boundary known as the sightscreen. This is aligned exactly parallel
to the width of the pitch and behind both pairs of wickets.
Boundary – A ropedemarcating the perimeter of the field known as the boundary.
Batsman’s Accessories (Helmet, Gloves, Leg Pads, Abdominal Guard)
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1. ICC Cricket WorldCup
This is possibly the most prominentand respected
tournamentand the largest celebration of cricket, occurring
every four years. It also claims the best games in the world,
and is the most watched cricket eventever.
The tournamentcomprisesfour stages, the Super 8, 6, as well as semi-finals and finals.
Teams from around the world putouttheir strongest playersin an effort to win to the
competition. This is a cup that all playerswant to win, and all fans wanttheir country to
2. T20 WorldCup
An importantsporting event, the trophy for the competition
weighs a whopping7.5 kilograms. The T20 formatis popular
as it consumesless time, and strives to be as exciting and
fast-paced as possible. The tournamenthas witnessed some
of the highest volumesof sixes in the sport. Viewer
considered this oneof the most entertainingcricket
competitions available to spectators.
Promoted by the ICC, T20 first arrived in 2007 in India. Sincethen it has exploded in
popularity acrossall cricketing nations. It energy and excitement are unmatched in the
game. In this tournament, technique and defenceare superseded by shot selection and
power, makingit oneof the most popular eventsin the cricket calendar.
3. The Ashes Series
The Ashes Series is fought outby England and
Australia, two traditional power-housesof the
cricketing world. They compete to win a smallurn
every two years. As legend has it, the urn contains
the bails burntto symbolise the death of English
cricket in 1882. Thebails were burntbecause of the
shock and outrage felt after England’sfirstever loss
to the newly formed nation of Australia.
The urn wasthen taken to Australia, with England vowingto win back the Ashes the
next year, as they promptly did. Thefierce rivalry has continued from then onwards
with the winner claiming back the Ashes for their country, and the defeated country
vowingto win it back next series. This is oneof the most personaland hotly contested
competition in sport.
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4. Indian Premier League
The Indian Premier Leagueis India’smost watched
sportingevent and a well-established namein world
cricket. Teams are a blend of young, Indian and
expensiveinternationalplayersin one squad. The
tournamentis a two-monthsummer bonanzaof
excitement and nerve-wreckingcricket.
Ranking5th as the worldsmost watched domestic
league, the first six seasons have been a must-watch for cricket fans. Great viewingin
terms of quality of cricket and for sheer drama, providingglamour, glitz and glory.
5. ICC Champions Trophy
Another ICC initiative, the tournamentis oneof the most important
cricket eventsbehind the World Cup. Originally named the ICC
KnockoutTournamentin 1998 and then renamed in 2002, the
eventwas a one-day international completion taking place every
6. Champions League Twenty20
One of mostrenowned global cricket tournamentatdomestic level. The top played
cricketing nationstake partin this tournamentevery year. Three countriescompete
with top teams coming from the Cricket Australia, Cricket South Africa and the BCCI. In
this league, experienced professionalsplay alongsideexciting youthtalent.
The eventis a finecricket spectacle with teams puttingon an
excellent display of the sportat the highest level. Only launched
in 2008 thecompetition wasrelatively youngand needed to
time to establish itself to its fullpotential with fansand players
alike. Unfortunately, it wasnot given this time, as some home-
leagues banned their playersfrom joining. This subsequent
caused a fatal lack of interest, and the competition was
cancelled after 2014.
7. Asia Cup
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This is a competition fought-outbetween all Asian cricketing nations. Includingdriving
forces in the game, like Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Indiaand UAE. The tournament
started in 1984, and wascreated by the Asian Cricket
Council. It is arguably the biggest eventon the Asian
continent, witnessing heated Pakistan vsIndia fixtures.
Organisers have been forced to cancel on two occasions
because of political tensionsin the continent. It is also
true, not all nationsare selected or willing to join, but
the competition is hugely popular amountfansand
considered a great honour for player
8. Ranji Trophy
The RanjiTrophy started back in the 1934-35
season and is named after KS Ranjit Sinhji Vibhaji,
the Princeof Nawanagar. The Ranji Trophy is the
premier domestic cricket competition of India.
Teams representingregional and state cricket
associations battle against each other to win this
tourney. Withtime, Ranji Trophy has survived many
changes in formats. It started out as a Zonal Competition,
changed to a two-tier league-cum-knockoutformatwhich
then started to includerelegation and promotion between
Currently, atotal of 37 teams will take partin the Ranji
Trophy this year, which includes9 new teams.
GOVERNING BODIES OF CRICKET
Full Membersare the governingbodiesfor cricket in a country or a group of associated
countriesrepresentinga geographical area. All Full Membershave a right to send one
representativeteam to play official Test matches and have full votingrights at meetings
of the ICC. Also, all Full Member nations are automatically qualified to
play ODIs and T20Is. TheWestIndies cricket team doesnot representone country,
but rather an amalgamation of morethan 15 countriesand territories from
the Caribbean. The English Cricket team representsboth England and Wales and
the Ireland cricket team represents all of the island of Ireland.
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Amongthese 12 nations, Sri
Lanka, Zimbabwe, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Ireland have played as associate
nations under theICC beforebecoming Full Members.
Associate Membersare countrieswhere cricket is firmly established and organised but
do not qualify for FullMembership. There are 94 Associate Members.
All Associates wereeligible to play in the ICC World CricketLeague, a series of
internationalone-day cricket administered by the ICC until 2019. Thiswasreplaced by
the ICC Cricket World Cup LeagueTwo and Cricket World Cup ChallengeLeague from
2019 onwards. In April2018, theICC announced T20Istatusfor all its membersfrom
1 July 2018 for women'sgameand from 1 January 2019 for themen'sgame
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Famous As: Cricketer
Birthdate: November 5, 1988
Birthplace: New Delhi, India
Counted amongstworld’s bestbatsmen, Virat Kohli is presently the captain of Indian
national cricket team. A cricketlover, he started training while still young and shot to fame
when he led India’s Under-19 teamto victory at the 2008 Under-19 World Cup. Since then,
Kohli has proved his talent in all forms of the game.
M. S. Dhoni
Famous As: Cricketer
Birthdate: July 7, 1981
Birthplace: Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
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Former Indian international cricketer M. S. Dhoni captained the Indian national team from
2007 to 2016. Heplayed as a right-handed middle-order batsman and wicket-keeper. With
more than 10,000 runs scored, heis one of the highest run-scorersin OneDay
Internationals (ODIs). Healso became the firstwicket-keeper to effect 100 stumpings in ODI
Famous As: Cricketer
Birthdate: April24, 1973
Birthplace: Mumbai, India
Often referred to as the God of Cricket in India, Sachin Tendulkar is a retired cricketer. Also
known for his humility on and off the field, Sachin is one of the most revered, celebrated,
and decorated cricketers. Considered one of the greatest batsmen of all time, Sachin
Tendulkar played a key role in turning India into a cricket-frenzy nation.
AB de Villiers
Famous As: Cricketer
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Birthdate: February 17, 1984
Birthplace: Bela-Bela, South Africa
AB de Villiers, also known as “Mr. 360” and “Superman,” has captained the South African
cricket team in Tests, ODIs, and T20s. Named the ICC ODI Player of the Year thrice,
the Wisden "cricketer of the decade" is a devout Christian, has written an autobiography,
and released a pop album
Famous As: Cricketer
Birthdate: January 6, 1959
Birthplace: Chandigarh, Punjab, India
Kapil Dev is a former Indian all-rounder who captained India to its first Cricket World
Cup win, in 1983. Hestarted his career at 16, playing for Haryana. Wisden’s Indian
Cricketer of the Century becamethe firstcricketer to take 400 Test wickets and also scored
One of the fastestwomen bowlers in the
realm of cricket, Jhulan Goswamiis
known for her overallcapacities. The ICC
Women Cricketer of the Year in 2007,
Jhulan has 200 ODI wickets, 40 Test
Wickets and 50 T20 wickets at an
excellent average. Itdroveher to be at
the highestpoint of the ICC’s reality
rankings as the main ODI bowler and
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the Padma Shrigrant for being the blessed skipper of India in October 2008.
At age nine, shemade it to the Maharashtra
under-15 group, and after two years she was
playing for the under- 19 group. At 17, she
turned into the firstIndian lady to scorea
twofold hundred of every an ODI
amusement, when she made 224 in a match
between Maharashtra and Gujaratstate
Sir Donald Bradman
Famous As: Greatest Batsmen Ever
Birthdate: August27, 1908
Birthplace: Cootamundra, New South Wales, Australia
Died: February 25, 2001
Australian cricketer, Sir Donald Bradman, is widely acknowledged as the greatest batsman
of all time. He started playing cricketas a young man and scored numerous records within a
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few years. In a career spanning around two decades, he retired with a career test batting
averageof 99.94. Heretained a pre-eminent position in the game for decades following his
Birthdate: March 7, 1952
Birthplace: SaintJohn's, Antigua and Barbuda
Viv Richards is an Antiguan retired cricketer who played for the WestIndies national team.
In his international playing career, he played 121 Test matches scoring 8,540 runs and 187
ODIs scoring 6,721 runs. As partof the team, he played a crucial role in West Indies winning
the World cup in both 1975 and 1979. Healso successfully captained the team between
1984 and 1991 and has the distinction of being the only West Indian captain who never lost
a test series. A destructive batsman, he destroyed the opposition’s bowling attack
completely and played fearlessly without a helmet throughouthis career. Some of the
records that he set during his playing career stand even today.
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Famous As: Cricketer
Birthdate: September 13, 1969
Birthplace: Upper FerntreeGully
He is an Australian cricket commentator and former international cricketer who captained
the Australian national team in One Day Internationals (ODI). Widely considered oneof the
greatest bowlers in cricket history, Warnewas named one of the Wisden Cricketers of the
Year in the 1994 Wisden Cricketers'Almanack. He was the Wisden Leading Cricketer in the
World in 1997 (NotionalWinner). He was banned from the sportin 2003 for testing positive
for a prohibited substance. Following the ban, he was named Wisden Leading Cricketer in
the World for the year 2004 in the 2005 Wisden Cricketers'Almanack. In 2000, hewas
selected by a panel of cricket experts as one of the five Wisden Cricketersof the Century,
the only specialist bowler selected in the quintet and the only one still playing at the time.
He officially retired fromall formats of cricket in July 2013.
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Famous As: Cricketer
Birthdate: July 10, 1949
Birthplace: Mumbai, India
Sunil Gavaskar is an Indian former professionalcricket player who represented the national
team during the 1970s and 1980s. Considered oneof the greatest batsmeninTest cricket
history, SunilGavaskar was thefirstbatsman to scoreover 10,000 runs in Testcricket. He
also set many world records and held the record for mostTest centuries for nearly 20 years.
Famous As:Trinidadian Cricketer
Birthdate: May 2, 1969
Birthplace: Santa Cruz
Legendary Trinidadian cricketer Brian Lara, also known as "The Prince of Portof Spain,” is
considered one of the greatestbatsmen in history. His 501 not out for Warwickshire in
1994 remains the only quintuple-hundred in first-class cricket. Hehas also been inducted
into the ICC Hall of Fame.
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