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TOPIC 4.3
POWER TRANSMISSION-GEAR
DRIVES
By,
-Prof. Satish G Sonwane
-Mechanical Engineering Department
-DBACER (Formerly SVSSCOER),
Wanadongri Nagpur
WHAT ARE GEARS?
 Wikipedia says, A gear or cogwheel is
a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs,
which mesh with another toothed part to
transmit torque.
 Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and
direction of a power source.
 Gears almost always produce a change in torque,
creating a mechanical advantage, through
their gear ratio, and thus may be considered
a simple machine.
WHAT ARE GEAR DRIVES?
 Mechanical systems that drive or run the other
systems are called ‘Mechanical drives’.
 Mechanical drives employing gears are called
“Gear Drives”
 These drives are called “POSITIVE” on account of
absence of slip.
ADVANTAGES INCLUDE:
1. Transmit constant velocity ratio
2. Can transmit large power
3. High efficiency
4. Reliable drive
5. Compact
DISADVANTAGES ARE:
1. Costlier
2. Error in mfg can induce noise and vibration
3. Requires continuous lubrication
4. Cannot transmit power over long distance
GEAR TERMINOLOGY
LAW OF GEARING
 In order to have a constant
angular velocity ratio for all
positions of the wheels, the point P
must be the fixed point (called
pitch point) for the two wheels.
 In other words, the common
normal at the point of contact
between a pair of teeth must
always pass through the pitch
point.
 This is the fundamental condition
which must be satisfied while
designing the profiles for the teeth
of gear wheels. It is also known as
law of gearing.
CLASSIFICATION OF GEARS
 Gears are classified on the basis of, position of axes
of the shafts on which they are mounted
 Parallel shafts
Two parallel shafts are connected by,
1) Spur Gears
2) Helical Gears
3) Double helical gears OR Herringbone gears
4) Rack and Pinion
SPUR GEARS
 Teeth is parallel to axis of
rotation
 Transmit power from one shaft
to another parallel shaft
 Used in Electric screwdriver,
oscillating sprinkler, windup
alarm clock, washing machine
and clothes dryer
EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL SPUR GEAR…
HELICAL GEARS
 The teeth on helical gears are
cut at an angle to the face of
the gear
 This gradual engagement
makes helical gears operate
much more smoothly and
quietly than spur gears
 If the angles of the gear teeth
are correct, they can be
mounted on perpendicular
shafts, adjusting the rotation
angle by 90 degrees
DOUBLE HELICAL OR HERRINGBONE GEARS
GEARS
 To avoid axial thrust, two
helical gears of opposite hand
can be mounted side by side,
to cancel resulting thrust
forces
 Herringbone gears are mostly
used on heavy machinery.
RACK AND PINION
 Rack and pinion gears are
used to convert rotation
(From the pinion) into linear
motion (of the rack)
 A perfect example of this is
the steering system on many
cars
CLASSIFICATION OF GEARS
 Intersecting Shafts
Two non-parallel or Intersecting shafts are
connected by,
1) Bevel Gears
Bevel Gears can be Straight Bevel Gears or Spiral
Bevel gears
BEVEL GEARS
 Bevel gears are useful when the direction of a shaft's
rotation needs to be changed
 The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or
hypoid
 They are usually mounted on shafts that are 90
degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other
angles as well
 Applications include: locomotives, marine
applications, automobiles, printing presses, cooling
towers, power plants, steel plants, railway track
inspection machines, etc.
STRAIGHT AND SPIRAL BEVEL GEARS
CLASSIFICATION OF GEARS
 Intersecting Shafts
Two non-parallel or non-Intersecting shafts are
connected by,
1) Skew Bevel gears or Spiral gears
2) Worm and Worm Wheel
WORM AND WORM WHEEL
 Used when large gear reductions are needed. It is
common for worm gears to have reductions of 20:1,
and even up to 300:1 or greater
 These drives are not reversible i.e. The worm can
easily turn the gear, but the gear cannot turn the
worm
 Worm gears are used widely in material handling and
transportation machinery, machine tools, automobiles
etc
WORM AND WORM GEAR
GEAR TRAINS
 Two or more gears are made to mesh each other to
transmit power from one shaft to another. Such a
combination is called a Gear train.
 The nature of a train depends upon the velocity ratio
required and the relative position of the axes of the
shafts
TYPES OF GEAR TRAINS
1. Simple Gear Train
2. Compound Gear Train
3. Reverted Gear Train
4. Epicyclic OR Planetary Gear Train
 In the first three types of gear trains, the axes of the
shafts over which the gears are mounted are fixed
relative to each other.
 But in case of epicyclic gear trains, the axes of the
shafts on which the gears are mounted may move
relative to a fixed axis.
SIMPLE GEAR TRAIN
 When the distance between the two shafts is small,
the two gears 1 and 2 are made to mesh with each
other to transmit motion from one shaft to the other
 The teeth of this type can be spur, helical or
herringbone.
 Since the gear 1 drives the gear 2, therefore gear 1 is
called the driver and the gear 2 is called the driven or
follower.
 It may be noted that the motion of the driven gear is
opposite to the motion of driving gear.
ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE GEAR TRAIN
 Let N1 = Speed of gear 1(or driver) in r.p.m.,
N2 = Speed of gear 2 (or driven or follower) in r.p.m.,
T1 = Number of teeth on gear 1, and
T2 = Number of teeth on gear 2.
VELOCITY RATIO, TRAIN VALUE
 The Speed ratio (or velocity ratio) of gear train is
the ratio of the speed of the driver to the speed of
the driven or follower
 Ratio of speeds of any pair of gears in mesh is the
inverse of their number of teeth, therefore,
 It may be noted that ratio of the speed of the driven
or follower to the speed of the driver is known as
train value of the gear train. Mathematically,
FURTHER ANALYSIS
COMPOUND GEAR TRAIN
 When there are more than one gear on a shaft, as
shown in Fig., it is called a compound train of gear.
CONTINUED..
 The advantage of a compound train over a simple
gear train is that a much larger speed reduction
from the first shaft to the last shaft can be obtained
with small gears.
 Usually for a speed reduction in excess of 7 to 1, a
simple train is not used and a compound train or
worm gearing is employed.
ANALYSIS OF COMPOUND GEAR TRAIN
REVERTED GEAR TRAIN
 When the axes of the first gear (i.e. first driver) and
the last gear (i.e. last driven or follower) are co-
axial, then the gear train is known as reverted gear
train as shown in Fig.
ANALYSIS OF REVERTED GEAR TRAIN
 Let T1 = Number of teeth on gear 1,
r1 = Pitch circle radius of gear 1, and
N1 = Speed of gear 1 in r.p.m.
 Similarly T2, T3, T4 = Number of teeth on respective
gears,
r2, r3, r4 = Pitch circle radii of respective
gears, and
N2, N3, N4 = Speed of respective gears in
r.p.m.
 Since the distance between the centres of the shafts of
gears 1 and 2 as well as gears 3 and 4 is same,
therefore,
r1 + r2 = r3 + r4
CONTINUED…
 Also, the circular pitch or module of all the gears is
assumed to be same, therefore number of teeth on
each gear is directly proportional to its
circumference or radius.
∴ T1 + T2 = T3 + T4
or,
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
 In an epicyclic gear train, the axes of
the shafts, over which the gears are
mounted, may move relative to a fixed
axis.
 A simple epicyclic gear train is shown
in Fig., where a gear A and the arm C
have a common axis at O1 about
which they can rotate.
 epi. means upon and cyclic means
around.
CONTINUED…
 The epicyclic gear trains are useful for transmitting
high velocity ratios with gears of moderate size in a
comparatively lesser space.
 The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear
of lathe, differential gears of the automobiles,
hoists, pulley blocks, wrist watches etc.

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MSBTE_4thsem_TOM_Gear drives

  • 1. TOPIC 4.3 POWER TRANSMISSION-GEAR DRIVES By, -Prof. Satish G Sonwane -Mechanical Engineering Department -DBACER (Formerly SVSSCOER), Wanadongri Nagpur
  • 2. WHAT ARE GEARS?  Wikipedia says, A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque.  Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and direction of a power source.  Gears almost always produce a change in torque, creating a mechanical advantage, through their gear ratio, and thus may be considered a simple machine.
  • 3. WHAT ARE GEAR DRIVES?  Mechanical systems that drive or run the other systems are called ‘Mechanical drives’.  Mechanical drives employing gears are called “Gear Drives”  These drives are called “POSITIVE” on account of absence of slip.
  • 4. ADVANTAGES INCLUDE: 1. Transmit constant velocity ratio 2. Can transmit large power 3. High efficiency 4. Reliable drive 5. Compact DISADVANTAGES ARE: 1. Costlier 2. Error in mfg can induce noise and vibration 3. Requires continuous lubrication 4. Cannot transmit power over long distance
  • 6. LAW OF GEARING  In order to have a constant angular velocity ratio for all positions of the wheels, the point P must be the fixed point (called pitch point) for the two wheels.  In other words, the common normal at the point of contact between a pair of teeth must always pass through the pitch point.  This is the fundamental condition which must be satisfied while designing the profiles for the teeth of gear wheels. It is also known as law of gearing.
  • 7. CLASSIFICATION OF GEARS  Gears are classified on the basis of, position of axes of the shafts on which they are mounted  Parallel shafts Two parallel shafts are connected by, 1) Spur Gears 2) Helical Gears 3) Double helical gears OR Herringbone gears 4) Rack and Pinion
  • 8. SPUR GEARS  Teeth is parallel to axis of rotation  Transmit power from one shaft to another parallel shaft  Used in Electric screwdriver, oscillating sprinkler, windup alarm clock, washing machine and clothes dryer
  • 9. EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL SPUR GEAR…
  • 10. HELICAL GEARS  The teeth on helical gears are cut at an angle to the face of the gear  This gradual engagement makes helical gears operate much more smoothly and quietly than spur gears  If the angles of the gear teeth are correct, they can be mounted on perpendicular shafts, adjusting the rotation angle by 90 degrees
  • 11. DOUBLE HELICAL OR HERRINGBONE GEARS GEARS  To avoid axial thrust, two helical gears of opposite hand can be mounted side by side, to cancel resulting thrust forces  Herringbone gears are mostly used on heavy machinery.
  • 12. RACK AND PINION  Rack and pinion gears are used to convert rotation (From the pinion) into linear motion (of the rack)  A perfect example of this is the steering system on many cars
  • 13. CLASSIFICATION OF GEARS  Intersecting Shafts Two non-parallel or Intersecting shafts are connected by, 1) Bevel Gears Bevel Gears can be Straight Bevel Gears or Spiral Bevel gears
  • 14. BEVEL GEARS  Bevel gears are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed  The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or hypoid  They are usually mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well  Applications include: locomotives, marine applications, automobiles, printing presses, cooling towers, power plants, steel plants, railway track inspection machines, etc.
  • 15. STRAIGHT AND SPIRAL BEVEL GEARS
  • 16. CLASSIFICATION OF GEARS  Intersecting Shafts Two non-parallel or non-Intersecting shafts are connected by, 1) Skew Bevel gears or Spiral gears 2) Worm and Worm Wheel
  • 17. WORM AND WORM WHEEL  Used when large gear reductions are needed. It is common for worm gears to have reductions of 20:1, and even up to 300:1 or greater  These drives are not reversible i.e. The worm can easily turn the gear, but the gear cannot turn the worm  Worm gears are used widely in material handling and transportation machinery, machine tools, automobiles etc
  • 19. GEAR TRAINS  Two or more gears are made to mesh each other to transmit power from one shaft to another. Such a combination is called a Gear train.  The nature of a train depends upon the velocity ratio required and the relative position of the axes of the shafts
  • 20. TYPES OF GEAR TRAINS 1. Simple Gear Train 2. Compound Gear Train 3. Reverted Gear Train 4. Epicyclic OR Planetary Gear Train  In the first three types of gear trains, the axes of the shafts over which the gears are mounted are fixed relative to each other.  But in case of epicyclic gear trains, the axes of the shafts on which the gears are mounted may move relative to a fixed axis.
  • 21. SIMPLE GEAR TRAIN  When the distance between the two shafts is small, the two gears 1 and 2 are made to mesh with each other to transmit motion from one shaft to the other  The teeth of this type can be spur, helical or herringbone.  Since the gear 1 drives the gear 2, therefore gear 1 is called the driver and the gear 2 is called the driven or follower.  It may be noted that the motion of the driven gear is opposite to the motion of driving gear.
  • 22. ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE GEAR TRAIN  Let N1 = Speed of gear 1(or driver) in r.p.m., N2 = Speed of gear 2 (or driven or follower) in r.p.m., T1 = Number of teeth on gear 1, and T2 = Number of teeth on gear 2.
  • 23. VELOCITY RATIO, TRAIN VALUE  The Speed ratio (or velocity ratio) of gear train is the ratio of the speed of the driver to the speed of the driven or follower  Ratio of speeds of any pair of gears in mesh is the inverse of their number of teeth, therefore,  It may be noted that ratio of the speed of the driven or follower to the speed of the driver is known as train value of the gear train. Mathematically,
  • 25. COMPOUND GEAR TRAIN  When there are more than one gear on a shaft, as shown in Fig., it is called a compound train of gear.
  • 26. CONTINUED..  The advantage of a compound train over a simple gear train is that a much larger speed reduction from the first shaft to the last shaft can be obtained with small gears.  Usually for a speed reduction in excess of 7 to 1, a simple train is not used and a compound train or worm gearing is employed.
  • 27. ANALYSIS OF COMPOUND GEAR TRAIN
  • 28. REVERTED GEAR TRAIN  When the axes of the first gear (i.e. first driver) and the last gear (i.e. last driven or follower) are co- axial, then the gear train is known as reverted gear train as shown in Fig.
  • 29. ANALYSIS OF REVERTED GEAR TRAIN  Let T1 = Number of teeth on gear 1, r1 = Pitch circle radius of gear 1, and N1 = Speed of gear 1 in r.p.m.  Similarly T2, T3, T4 = Number of teeth on respective gears, r2, r3, r4 = Pitch circle radii of respective gears, and N2, N3, N4 = Speed of respective gears in r.p.m.  Since the distance between the centres of the shafts of gears 1 and 2 as well as gears 3 and 4 is same, therefore, r1 + r2 = r3 + r4
  • 30. CONTINUED…  Also, the circular pitch or module of all the gears is assumed to be same, therefore number of teeth on each gear is directly proportional to its circumference or radius. ∴ T1 + T2 = T3 + T4 or,
  • 31. EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN  In an epicyclic gear train, the axes of the shafts, over which the gears are mounted, may move relative to a fixed axis.  A simple epicyclic gear train is shown in Fig., where a gear A and the arm C have a common axis at O1 about which they can rotate.  epi. means upon and cyclic means around.
  • 32. CONTINUED…  The epicyclic gear trains are useful for transmitting high velocity ratios with gears of moderate size in a comparatively lesser space.  The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobiles, hoists, pulley blocks, wrist watches etc.