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Sociology AQA Beliefs in Society Revision Notes

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Sociology AQA Beliefs in Society Revision Notes

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Sociology AQA Beliefs in Society Revision Notes

  1. 1. SOCIOLOGY SCLY3- BELIEFS IN SOCIETY By Sarah Jones
  2. 2. DEFINITIONS OF RELIGION A01 A01 EXPLANATION A02 EVALUATION Substantive Definition Focus on content & substance. Max Weber- superior supernatural power that is above nature and can’t be explained scientifically. They are exclusive with a clear line between religious and non-religious. It also says that religion must include a belief in God or supernatural.  Leaves no room for belief & practice that perform similar functions to religions not involving God. - Accused of Western bias as it excludes religions such as Buddhism. Functional Definition Define religion in terms of the social/psychological functions it performs for in individual/society. Emile Durkheim- the contribution it makes to social integration rather than any specific belief in God. Yinger- functions of religion is for the individual eg. Answering the ‘ultimate questions’ about the meaning of life.  Inclusive- allowing a wide range of beliefs & practices as don’t specify a belief in God an so there is also no Western bias.  Just because it helps integrate, doesn’t make it religious eg. foot ball matches. Social Constructionist Definition This is an interprevists approach which focuses on how members of society define religion. It’s not possible to produce one universal definition as each individual sees religion differently. Alan Aldridge- members of scientology believe it is a religion they are taking part in whereas, legally, it isn’t seen as such.  Doesn’t assume it involves God/ supernatural.  Scientology= good case study to support definition  Impossible to generalise and so therefore lacks validity as a definition for religion.
  3. 3. FUNCTIONALISM A01 A01 EXPLANATION A02 EXAMPLE A02 EVALUATION Durkheim: Totemism (sacred & profane) Central Australian Arunta tribe of Aborigines who went through the ritual of totemism. This is where a totem is a sacred object that is worshipped and is a symbol of the group/society and so when worshipping the totem their worshipping society. It acts as the social glue. Durkheim also found that not all religion is a belief in gods but a distinction between sacred and profane which is found in all religions. Worship for good harvest & create social solidarity. Sacred= cross/bible Profane=TV, social media, music  Worley- no sharp division between sacred & profane e.g. Great Wall of China  method issues- secondary sources  No longer use religion to enforce solidarity. Collective Consciousness Sacred symbols represent society’s collective conscience which is shared norms, values and beliefs. Shared rituals reinforce collective conscience and maintain social integration preventing any damaging social change. Rituals e.g. wedding, Christmas. Hymn singing remind that they’re part of community.  Social Change- Rationalisation Cognitive Functions of Religion Durkheim also sees religion as a source of intellectual/cognitive capacities. Religion is the origin of concepts we need for reasoning and communication within our world. Religion is the origin of human thought, reason and science.  Post Modern society- no longer look to religion to understand world with a technological worldview(Bruce) Malinowksi: Life Crises Religion reinforces norms and values promoting social solidarity and provides explanations for events that were hard to explain. Also provides security when faced with uncertainty. Researched Trobriand Islanders who used religion where the outcome is uncertain and in times of life crises. Use to cope with emotional stress with afterlife offering hope.  Secularisation- religion is outdated and no longer used in life crises as people look to friends and counsellors.  Marxist- idea of the afterlife is used as an opiate e.g. Hindu Caste System Parsons: Value & Meaning Religion provides and underpins core values of any culture and social norms which regulate people’s behaviour. Ideas are deeply ingrained through socialisation. 1. Legitimates society’s central values 2. primary source of meaning Killing results in a guilty conscience & prevents anomie -10 commandments  Religion no longer acts as agent of social control. More likely dissuaded from crime due to media or surveillance. Bellah: Civil Religion Sacred qualities are attached to aspects of society without religious rituals and ceremonies but performs similar functions. Religion unifies society even in multi-faith societies and they are unified by the Civil Religion- faith in America. American’s share common values over the importance of the American way of life Pledge allegiance & have own sacred objects e.g. White House.  Not all identify with Civil Religion e.g. Muslims swear allegiance to Allah.  Doesn’t always unify e.g. 9/11 & Boston Bombings were religiously motivated- creates conflict not unity.  Religion is conservative force- Marx & fem agree.
  4. 4. MARXISM(CONFLICT THEORY) A01 A01 EXPLANATION A02 EXAMPLE A02 EVALUATION Opium of the people Religion is used as a form of consolation to alienation suffered. The W use religion like a drug hence “opium of the people”. This suggests that religion is there to make them feel better about their poor lives on earth. Religion masks the pain by promising rewards in the afterlife. Lenin- “Religion is a spiritual gin”  Neo-Marxists- not an opiate but a force for social change such as counter hegemony.  Functionalist- ignores positive functions of religion where religion unifies society into shared values and goals. Religion & Ideology Reinforces the power and profit of RC and make the WC feel exploitation is fair. Religion is a belief system that distorts perception. Religion= ideological weapon to justify suffering with being poor being celebrated in Religion. This creates a false class consciousness. Hindu Caste System- previous life determines where they are in society due to belief in pre- destination Religion Justifies position Justifies power and privilege of RC by making their position appear divinely ordained. The Divine Right Of Kings says the King’s chosen by God not the people with king being a representation of God on Earth and so if you disobey the king, you disobey God. Religion is just another way to manipulate and control the proletariat.  Post modernism- no single ideology controlling WC as they’re free to choose their own religious identity (Leger & Spiritual Market place) Alienation Not only exploited but also suffer alienation as they don’t own what they produce, have no control over work and can’t express their true human creative personalities. Religion is a product of alienation as it’s used by WC as a form of consolation to their exploited, alienated, working class lives. Religion legitimises both the suffering of WC and RC privileges WC jobs= repetitive, simple and no freedom e.g. factory jobs are the same again and again.
  5. 5. FEMINISM A01 A01 EXPLANATION A02 EXAMPLE A02 EVALUATION Religious Organisations Organisations are mainly male dominated. Karen Armstrong- women’s exclusion from priesthood is marginalisation of women. Catholicism forbid women from becoming priests. Karen Armstrong- not always been subordinate as women used to be centre about 6000 years ago. The rise of monotheism has led to religion becoming patriarchal. Nawal El Sadawi- Religion isn’t a direct cause of subordination. Patriarchy began to influence and reshape religion and now it contributes to oppression. Places Of Worship Segregated sexes and marginalised women such as sitting behind screens with men central to place of worship. Jean Holm- the devaluation of women in contemporary religion Menstruating women in Islam are not allowed to touch the Qur’an as they are seen as dirty.  Jean Holm- subordination in religion of religion with teachings stressing the inequality but rarely happens or tries to change. E.g. Buddhist monks are superior to nuns, Extreme Muslims ban women from Mosques, Christianity has male domination. Sacred Texts Largely feature male Gods and written/interpreted by mean. Stories also include anti-female stereotypes Eve who caused humanity to fall from grace and the expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Woodhead- Traditional religions are patriarchal but not true of all. There are “Religious forms of feminism” with women using religion to gain freedom and respect. Gender differences show more women take part in religions such as the holistic milieu to gain autonomy. Religious Laws & Customs May give women fewer rights with divorce and marriage as well as giving a dress code. Influence cultural norms such as genital mutilation or punishments for sexual transgressions. It legitimates female’ traditional domestic role. Woodhead- exclusion of women from priesthood is evidence of the unease about the emancipation of women generally. Catholics banning abortion and contraception  Woodhead- hijab is a symbol of resistance not oppression as they wear to escape confines of home and enter education and employment- symbol of liberation.  Helen Watson- veiling benefits women and is a reaction against Western style. It is also seen in men who reject too by not wearing ties. It’s the rejection of western cultural imperialism. Religion is a patriarchal institution that reflects women’s inequality. Religion functions as a patriarchal ideology and legitimates female subordination
  6. 6. SOCIAL CHANGE A01 A01 EXPLANATION A02 EXAMPLE A02 EVALUATION Weber: Calvinism & Capitalism Calvinists believe in pre-destination meaning God has already decided whether they’re going to heaven and they’d be rewards for sticking to religious principles through economic success. Calvinism encouraged asceticism and so while they weren’t spending money so invested it leading to the rapid accumulation of Capital and a Calvinist Capital Class emerged. Religion has encouraged social change of Capitalism.  Hinduism- ascetic but not this worldly  Confucianism- this worldly but not ascetic  Scotland- Calvinist but no capitalism- skilled workforce?  Other influences- piracy slavery etc. Steve Bruce: Religion & Social Protest Martin Luther King- Respected Reverend with the black clergy being the back bone to the CRM. He provided beliefs and practices believer could draw upon and respected his message of being equal in the eyes of God. He was able to use religion to bring around social change.  The New Christian Right- aim to “take America back to God” seeing homosexuality as a sin, should teach creationism & ban sex ed. Views not supported- no social change occurred. NEO MARXISM Otto Muduro: Liberation Theology Combination of Christianity and Marxism has encouraged people to actively change society in Central America. It’s essential that the poor themselves organise and overthrow the oppressive regimes that exploit them. Archbishop Oscar Romero- fighting for justice in El Salvador led to him being shot in the middle of mass. Gramsci: Hegemony Religion is a force of hegemonic control which is similar to RC ideology but won’t influence everyone as works through religion. It’s the same with the WC influence and maybe the reason WC has largely rejected religion. MORE INFO NEEDED!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!  Engel- Religion has a dual character where it can inhibit change or challenge the status quo and encourage social change.  Turner- RC don’t use religion due to secularisation. Fear of money is enough to control. Billings: Coal Miners Vs Textile Workers Both were WC protestant but experienced different levels of striking. Miners= militant and benefitted from leader of preachers who were also miners. They used independent churches which offered supportive sermons to keep their morale high. Textile workers= uncomplaining an accepting of status quo. They lacked leadership and lacked pace remaining in company churches. Workers that engaged in union activity were branded as communist. This case study shows religion is an important factor in the struggle and shows the same religion can both defend status quo and/or change it.
  7. 7. SECURALISATION A01 A01 EXPLANATION A02 EXAMPLE A02 EVALUATION Crockett: Statistics 1851 census= 40% attend church. 1960s= 10-5% now=5-6%. Average age increased, baptisms and weddings decreased, decrease in traditional beliefs & greater religious diversity. Bruce: whatever way measure, there’s a steady decline Wilson- undergoing long term process of secularisation- starting to lose social significance. Smaller religions rising but not enough to counterbalance. Martin- remove term from sociology. Weber: Rationalisation Rational ways of thinking are replacing traditional one after 16th Cent. Protestant reformation. It undermines religious narrative & leads away from supernatural beliefs. It’s the start of “disenchantment”. Rather than god regularly interferes, he just works through nature & laws leaving room for science. Only pray when science has no answer. Bruce: technological world view- no longer blame evil spirits for disasters.  Lyon- religion has just become disembedded- re-enchantment is actually taking place.  Voas & Crockett- whether measure attendance or belief, religion is declining Parsons: Structural Differentiation Process of specialisation that occurs with development of industry. Society is compartmentalised and religion performs a smaller role- “disengagement”. Bruce: privatisation of religion. Religion is deemed second to secular state.  Davie- Believing without belonging.  Feminism- still transmits patriarchal ideology & legitimises female subordination Bryan Wilson: Social & Cultural Diversity Change to an industrialised society has seem religion as having less of a hold over people in diverse communities. Bruce: Cultural Diversity with increased social and geographical mobility leads to increase understanding of multiple beliefs and leading original beliefs to be weakened.  Woodhead- Holistic milieu & evangelical churches- shift to new age but doesn’t take into account all decline.  Global context- rising Berger: Religious Diversity More religions have led to secularisation due to the sacred canopy being broken & there no longer being a monopoly of the truth. The breakdown has caused a crisis in credibility and people questioning their religion Catholicism in Britain. Criticises himself- diversity actually stimulates interest and religious participation. Byrant: The Golden Age At one time, the Catholic church could rival kings. It employed 1 in every 30 men and providing stain glass windows for illiterate. The church however, lost its control with priesthood halving and schools becoming secular. .  Myth of the Golden Age  Functionalism- still influence society e.g. Parsons/10 commandments.
  8. 8. RELIGIOUS CHOICE A01 A01 EXPLANATION A02 EXAMPLE A02 EVALUATION Davie: Believing without belonging Religion is becoming more privatised as no longer feel the need to go to church to worship. We no work through a vicarious religion where there’s a smaller number of priests to a larger number of people. We are drawn back to religion in times of tragedy. Bibby: 25% Canadians attend church with 80% saying they believe. Modern tech- bible apps and mass on TV  Malinowski- use religion in times of life crisis.  Bruce- tech advancements have caused secularisation. Leger: Spiritual Shopping Religion is personal choice. There has been as cultural amnesia where less children are being socialised into religious ways and can choose themselves. Religion is based on consumerism and we are now spiritual shoppers. 1) Pilgrims- self-discovery 2)converts- religions that offer sense of belonging e.g. evangelical  Heelas & Woodhead- increase in holistic doesn’t compensate tradition decline.  Voas & Crockett- however measured, religion is declining. Lyon: Jesus in Disneyland Shifted to post modernity where increased globalisation and increased interconnectedness has led to growth of consumerism. Religion has become disembedded. There’s a decline in meta- narratives but re-enchantment took place. Harvest day parade no just in church but Disney land.  Nancy Ammeram- American’s are use different churches for different reasons at the same time.  Weber & Disenchantment. Stark & Bainbridge: Market theory/ Rational choice theory Secularisation is Eurocentric and religion is thriving in America. People maybe naturally more religious and so demand remains and/or it’s human nature to seek rewards. Religion offers rewards and goes through a cycle where some religions decline while some grow depending on needs. Religion is now a competition to offer best “goods” which is unlike Europe that’s dominated by C of E  Berger- diversity causes the spiritual canopy to shatter and less and less believe. Norris & Inglehart: Existential Security theory More religious if have lower levels of security as it makes them feel safe and secure. Poor societies have more risks of famine, disease & disaster and are more religious. Rich societies have a higher standard of living but less risk. The USA is still divided and unequal with very poor communities and lack of healthcare and so lack of security. There are natural disasters especially in the South states.  China- high levels of poverty and insecurity and risks of natural disasters but are a non-religious country. Religion isn’t declining but growing. There are no absolute truths and believe in a number of ideologies
  9. 9. RELIGION ON A GLOBAL CONTEXT A01 A01 EXPLANATION A02 EVALUATION Meera Nanda: God & Globalisation in India Increased wealth in India was due to globalisation with MC, wealthy Indians not becoming less religious but actually more as they want to defend beliefs and keep Hinduism superior. Hinduism is traditionally ascetic but wealth is now used in ceremonies to stop guilt as turn away from tradition- give spiritual balance & modern tele gurus saying wealth is part of God’s plan.  Norris & Inglehart- extistential security theory is the reason as experience natural disasters.  Bruce- cultural defence as next to nuclear armed Pakistan Hindu Ultra- Nationalism 93% Indians agreed that “our people aren’t perfect but our culture’s superior” Their global success has led to their superiority & the worship of Hindu God’s has become the worship of one state (Civil Religion).  Negatives of Hinduism- nationalistic feelings could cause more instability, risk & fear ( Bauman) with conflict more likely to happen with Pakistan and China. Berger: Pent. In Latin America Pentecostalism acts as functional equivalent for Weber’s Calvinism- gets people out of poverty. They encourage an ascetic lifestyle which creates wealth. Because of Pentecostalism and this worldly asceticism, South Brazil’s becoming more wealthy and prosperous with a MC developing. Religion is part of the process of aiding development  Marxism- this is just creating more wealth for the Bourgeoisie that they don’t need. Lehmen: Pentecostalism global & local Christianity has globalised itself by moving to other countries like South America & Africa. Christianity is imposed of population to supress local religion and Pent. & Christ. Spreads as found useful. Pent. Has grown and found followers and it’s able to ‘plug into’ local beliefs- adapt to fit universal ideas preached. It develops differently in various regions. Religion seems to decline & countries re more secular but in some countries, development & globalisation go hand in hand.
  10. 10. GLOBALISATION: FUNDAMENTALISM A01 A01 EXPLANATION A02 EVALUATION Giddens: Fundamentalists & Cosmopolitans Fundamentalists= traditional, intolerant, one true world view & believe in literal word of scripture. Cosmopolitans= embrace modernity, tolerant, reflexive way of thinking. Post modernity crates risk and fear with tradition undermined. People become fundamentalists to give them the answers.  Bauman- fundamentalism is a response to post modernity as they retreat to these beliefs for certainty. Castells: Restistant & Project Identities Resistant= defensive reaction where people turn to fundamentalism Project= forward looking view where people engage in new ideas Both are responses to globalisation  Beckford- ignores hybrid groups, doesn’t differentiate between fundamentalists & ignores it’s a reaction to society and a reflexive way of thinking  Haynes- not globalisation but due to failures of local governments to better living standards Bruce: Monotheism & Fundamentalism Those with traditional views see globalisation as a threat. Monotheistic religions create fundamentalism as believe in one hly book and one God. Polytheistic religions don’t. Hindu led terror- polytheistic but bomb blasts set by ultra-nationalists in Muslim areas of India which killed & injured many. Bruce: 2 Fundamentalists Fundamentalism can lead to cultural defence but not always the other way round. 1) Western fundamentalists- reaction to progressive changes e.g. gay marriage 2) Third world- reaction to change forced upon them. React against western values and turn to fundamentalism. e.g Islamic revolution: Islam showed resistance to westernisation leading to the Iranian revolution. Jackson- stereotypes eastern people & Muslims (orientalism)  Casanova- ignores divisions between groups e.g. Sunni & Shia  Horrie & Chippendale- grossly misleading as suggests the whole of Islam is the enemy  Karen Armstrong- hostility to the West is created by foreign policy so if political conflict not religious  Norri & Inglehart- whatever religion, most want democracy. The real ‘clash’ I attitudes towards sex & tradition. Samual Huntington: Clash of Civilisations The fall of communism has led to religious conflicts intensifying. Globalisation has caused civilisation to clash and religious conflict is now more common. The west is under threat from Islam as they compete for economic & military power. The west must be assertive in dealing with problems. e.g. Paris attacks, 9/11, 7/7 attacks)
  11. 11. RELIGIOUS ORGANISATIONS CHURCH Ernst Troeltsch:  stable,formal organisation with hierarchy and paid officials.  Beliefs are widely accepted  Relationship between state & monarchy  Linked to higher classes  Large organisations- millions of members  Claim monopoly of the truth  Worship=formal & ritualised SECT Ernst Troeltsch:  Join through free will  Led by charismatic leader- chosen ones who have been ‘saved’  Appeal to poor and oppressed  Claim monopoly of the truth- conflicts society’s beliefs  Strong claims on loyalty  Repress individuality  Members given new names & restricted contact to family  Strict rules DENOMINATION Neihbur:  Midway between church & sect e.g. Methodism  Beliefs & values widely accepted but no state connection  Worship= less formal & less developed hierarchies  Impose minor restriction e.g. alcohol  Not strict  Don’t claim a monopoly of the truth & tolerant of others CULTS  Similar to sects but achieve some practical end  Individualistic & usually small grouping around some shared themes  Exclusive belief system  Tolerant  Don’t demand strong commitment AO2 Support: Wallis- churches and sects claim a monopoly of the truth where denominations and cults don’t. SECTS & CULTS Sects = result of schism-splits in existing organisations- a group choose to breakaway from church usually due to a disagreement. Cults= new religion all together e.g. scientology & Christian science. Don’t usually challenge norms and usually appeal to the social privileged STARK & BAINBRIDGE:TYPES OF CULTS Audience Cults = unorganised e.g. astrology Client cults= unorganised but proved a service Cultic movements= organised and demand stronger commitment e.g. moonies. These has the most enthusiastic followers
  12. 12. NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS New Religious Movements (A01) Why The Growth? (A01) A02 Evaluation Roy Wallis- three groups World Rejecting- reject secular world and see as corrupt. They abandon world & attempt to transform e.g. Moonies. Reject materialism & encourage asceticism. They have a clear notion of God and are highly critical of outside world. They believe you must break away from old life and live communally e.g. Jones Town World Accommodating- neither fully accept values and goal nor entirely reject. Exist on margin of church and denominations. Response to increasing secularisation. Members lead conventional lives e.g. Pentecostalism & Methodism World Affirming- accept values & goals but aim to provide new means to achieve. They’re not highly organised and accept world as it is and are tolerant of others. Most are cults whose followers are customers with financial investment needed e.g. scientology New Age Movements- similar consumer orientated e.g. sell herbal remedies. Contains elements of World Rejecting in the focus on ‘alternatives’ Since 1960s, there’s been a rapid growth in sects and cults with 800 NRMs & over ½ million members. Weber: Marginality- Sects among poor and may develop a ‘theodicy disprivileged’ where religion explains why they’re in the position they’re in and offer the promise of ‘salvation’ e.g. Jones Town & Pentecostalism. Moonies attracted young MC who felt marginalised. Glock & Stark: Relative Deprivation Social Deprivation- lack power e.g. job satisfaction (Mormons) Organismic- physical/mental problems e.g hope to be healed Ethical- World in moral decline & so retreat (People’s Temple) Psychic- search for more dominant value system Social Change- Sects are a product of this and may create anomie as undermine/disrupts tradition. Wilson: world accommodation e.g. Methodist was a reaction to anxieties of industrialisation and rationalisation Bellah: increase in sects due to Mc youth experiencing crisis of meaning. Many turn to drug/pop culture. Moonies recruited large numbers.  Bruce- response to social change in modernisation & secularisation means traditional churches are less attractive as demand too much commitment. Heelas- World affirming NAMs appeal to more affluent, education and generally successful MC groups. Members find something missing in their lives and seek techniques to receptive themselves. Wallis- World affirming e.g. Scientology are likely to appeal to Mc groups as claim to offer knowledge, techniques and therapies that enable people to unlock spiritual powers within themselves. Weber- the world is becoming more rational, spiritual elements have disappeared with Churches and denominations becoming watered down and focus more on worldly issues e.g. poverty Giddens- lack of spiritual meaning in traditional religions has led to many finding comfort and sense of community in smaller religious groups Stark & Bainbridge- World rejecting sects offer deprived the compensation for poor to break away from church and form new sect. The WC turn to world rejecting where the privileged turn to world accommodating.
  13. 13. SECTS & CULTS A01 EXPLANATION A02 EVALUATION Dynamics of Sects & Cults Sects become short lived as over time will turn to denominations or disappear altogether. E.g. Methodist= world rejecting but abandon ideas to become a denomination. Some manage to stay world rejecting e.g. Jehovah’s Witness’ but some do disappear e.g. People’s Temple Why short lived? Barker: Heavy commitment is hard to maintain fro W-Rejecting. Niebuhr: commitment is hard to sustain after first generation. They become less protestant and wither away if don’t become denomination Becker: denomination= sects that’s cooled down- more tolerant & accommodating Aldridge- many sects have existed for a long time while still retaining the same features. Jehovah’s Witness’ still maintain strict standards. Having a successful sect is in the socialisation of the children. Also, not all depend of charismatic leader & many socialise children & maintain strict standards Neihbur: Denomination or Death Sects are W-R and form from schisms. They will die out within the next generation if they don’t become a denomination. This could happen if: Loss of charismatic leader- if they die Second generation- lacks commitment of parents “protestant ethic” effect- those practicing ascetic become more prosperous People’s original reasons for joining e.g. marginalisation may become irrelevant Barker- younger grow older and start to look for normal lives. Why they disappear or become denominations Stark & Bainbridge Organisations move through a cycle: 1) A Schism- tension between needs of deprived & privileged 2) Initial fervour- charismatic leader and great tension between sect & wider society 3) Denominationalism- “protest ethic” effect and coolness of 2nd gen 4) Establishment- sect becomes world accepting & tension reduced Wilson- questions whether W-R can ever survive as denomination. They will have to convert people by going outside the sect which could be a pollution and corrupting experience and would compromise/destroy fundamental beliefs. Wilson: Conservist & Introversionist Rejects disappearance or denomination are the only alternatives. Conversionist sects- most likely to become denomination. They need to convert others e.g Salvation Army Introversionist- Amish believe the only route to salvation is total withdrawal from corrupt influences & trying to covert would corrupt their beliefs Revolutionary- Jehovah’s Witness’ who hold millenarian beliefs believe only their sect will be saved when imminent destruction hit. May try and spread beliefs but no compromise is made otherwise they’re be counted amongst sinners on Judgement Day Wilson- Globalisation will make it harder for sects to keep themselves separate from the outside world. It will also make them open to criticism.
  14. 14. NEW AGE MOVEMENTS AO1 AO2 Growth of New Age (Heelas): Estimated 2,000 activities & 146,000 practitioner in the UK that are loosely organised, diverse & eclectic. They include beliefs in UFOs, astrology, crystals etc. There are 2 common themes: 1. Self-Spirituality- turn away from tradition and instead look inside themselves 2. Detraditionalisation- rejects spiritual authority of external tradition sources e.g. sacred texts. Values personal experience and believe we can discover the truths from within. Post-Modernist Explanations: Fragmentation of beliefs and wide diversity of religious/spiritual beliefs. Beliefs are purely personal matter and they can g spiritual shopping. They have a greater tolerance of all beliefs today. John Drane: Loss of faith in meta- narrative and monopoly with science. Bruce: NAM= latest featre to modern society not post modern. Modern society values individualism like NA. NA offers softer versions of more demanding Eastern religions e.g. Buddhism- watered down or self-centred Westerners Heelas: New age and modernity link in 4 ways:  Source of identity- individuals have many different roles but little overlap between resulting in fragmented identity.  Consumer culture- dissatisfaction as never get what you want. NA offers an alternative.  Rapid Social Change- disrupts norms and values resulting in anomie. NA provides a sense of certainty  Decline of organised religion- modernity leads to secularisation thereby removing traditional alternatives to NA beliefs
  15. 15. DIFFERENCES IN SOCIAL CLASSES GENDER DIFFERENCES ETHNIC DIFFERENCES AGE DIFFERENCES CLASS DIFFERENCES STATS: women are likely to express interest in religion. 2005 census- 57% female/45% male. More women believe and see as important. STATS: Modood: 11% C of E(white) said religion was more important compared to 71& of protestant. Ethnic minorities= more religious. STATS: old attend more. Brierly- av. Age= 37to 49 no attendees between 15-19 year olds Weber: Theodicy Disprivilege(WC)- explains why they’re marginalised and offers compensation e.g. People’s Temple Miller & Hoffman: Differential socialisation- passive & submissive Structural location- housewife Risk- salvation anxiety John Bird: 1) Origin 2) Community 3) Cultural identity 4) Socialisation 5) Cope with oppression Voas & Crockett: 1. Ageing effect- more religious with age 2. Period effect- period when born 2. Generation effect- progressive decline AO2: post modernity Karl Marx –  Opium of the people  Alienation  False class consciousness AO2: Neo-Marxists Bruce: “when men wish to achieve, women wish to feel”. They are less goal orientated and fit well with spirituality as in the private sphere. Bruce: Cultural Defence- identity in hostile environment. Cultural transition is when they cope with migration. Religious will erode when integrated. Heelas: old face declining health with fear of death. It offers comfort, support and coping. Roy Wallis: MC young turn to religious & NRMs when feel marginalised e.g. moonies Davie: close proximity to birth & death- bring close to ultimate questions about meaning of life. See God as loving and caring not omnipotent. Herberg: religion= means of transition. High participation from Us migrants. No longer will feel isolated e.g. Irish Cath. Young & Religion: technological world view, rationalisation, generational effect, time, work etc. AO2: young feel marginalised World- Affirming movements (MC)- they have the money to spend on religions that need financial investment e.g. Scientology Callum Brown: new age appeals to women wishing for autonomy. Emphasise subjective experience. AO2: fundamentalism- prescribed role. Ken Pryce: Pentecost. Help adapt & offer mutual support. AO2: Rastafarianism- radically reject wider society. Other reasons:  Spiritual market place  Youth have choice  Believe without belonging  marginalisation Relative Deprivation: MC= deprived. Social, organismic, ethical & psychic deprivation can lead to being religious. Glock & Stark: compensation for deprivation- organismic, ethical & social AO2- women now leaving the church faster- dual burden? Rationalisation? Jacobson: young GB Pakistanis in East End, a Muslim identity rather than Asian appealed to younger as provide stability& certainty.
  16. 16. SCIENCE Open Belief System Closed Belief System Science Impact of Science: technological advancement are due to increased faith/understanding of science. Productivity has increased and led to a widespread ‘faith in science’. We have actual evidence science works. However, faith in science has been shaken by too much advancement e.g. nuclear weaponry. Robin Horton: difference between science & religion has many ‘get out clauses’ that prevent beliefs being challenge e.g. evil= God testing us. Make’s knowledge claims that can’t be overturned. Kuhn’s idea’s been adapted by interprevists with all knowledge being socially constructed- limited by facts available at the time. Karin Knorr- Cetina: experiments are too carefully controlled to provide realistic results. Science is limited by tech available at the time e.g. cameras giving better understanding of Pluto. Edward Evans-Pritchard: Azande people believe in witchcraft used the ‘benge’ ritual where if the chicken dies, the person’s a witch. It encouraged neighbourly behaviour. They had an answer for everything causing them to be trapped in own ‘idiom of belief’. Karl Popper: theories are open to scrutiny, criticism and testing by others. Falsification is where people deliberately attempt to disprove others and search for a replacement theory. Knowledge is cumulative and built on previous knowledge. With nothing held sacred. All ideas are subjected to questioning. AO2: Immanuel Velikovsky- “world in collision”- scientists tried to discredit and boycott as the idea was too different from norm and so rejected. Little Green Men: Steve Woolger: ethnomodologists believe scientists are trying to make sense of the world like everyone else. e.g. Cambridge astronomy lab 1976 found results originally interpreted as alien life forms but the realisation would ruin their careers as others would reject so labelled it as a star never been seen as that was more acceptable. Shows scientific fact is a social construction as needs to be believable when accepted Self-sustaining beliefs-Polyani: closed belief systems have 3 devices: 1. circularity- each idea explained by another 2. subsiduary- if oracle falls, it’s incorrect benge 3. Denial-reject alternatives e.g. creationism rejects evolutionists AO2 Evaluation: Feminism- science serves patriarchy rather than being the absolute truth e.g. women in science & bio research. Marxism- research serves the bourgeoisie’s needs to drive profits rather than serve humanity. Postmodernist Jean Francois Lyotard: reject meta- narratives/ big stories that claim one truth. Science should be seen as ONE answer not THE answer. They agree that science is profit driven (techno science) CUDOS Norms: Robert K. Merton. Science can thrive with support from other institutions & values. There is support & funding for practical application and rely on an ethical code. Communism-not private knowledge Universalism-universal, objective criteria. Disinterestedness- committed to stopping fraud Organised Sceptism- no claim of scared knowledge Science as closed system- Thomas Kuhn: science has created a paradigm with science being less devoted to challenging this and more devoted to understanding how it works- ‘problem solving’- those are the ones who are rewarded. If challenged, you’ll be ridiculed. There are some exceptions that are scientific revolutions.
  17. 17. IDEOLOGY AO1 AO1 EXPLANATION Ideology World view/ set of ideas and values which sociologist have a number of meaning for which are often negative. An Ideology offers a distorted, false idea of the world that is biased where ideas conceal the interests of a particular group. Ideologies prevent change by misleading people. They are irrational and closed to criticism. Marxism & Ideology Exploit worker labour. RC Ideology and hegemony prevents WC to believe they can overthrow. This ideology creates a false class conscience. Feminism & Ideology: Pauline Marks Science regular used to exclude women with the education of women seen as unfeminine and makes them unable to raise a family. AO2: some systems benefit women e.g. polytheistic religious (Hinduism) have female deities. Hegemony & Revolution WC= dual consciousness. Needs a political party of intellects o gain through an ant-capitalist struggle. AO2: Abercrombie: economic factors? Ideology & Utopia: Karl Mannheim Belief system is one sided. 1) ideological thought- justify keeping same and maintaining status quo (conservative) 2) Utopian thought- social change Free Floating Intelligensia Academics should seek a better society as a whole fusion of ideologies. AO2: many ideologies that are entirely opposed so with a conflict of interest, they’re be unable to work together.

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