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Greek civilization

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Greek civilization

  1. 1. Let’s Review First!
  2. 2. The Greek Civilization
  3. 3. Geography Una sa mga klasikong kabihasnang nakilala sa mundo. Matatagpuan sa dulong-timog na bahagi ng Balkan Peninsula sa timog-silangang Europa. Ang coastline ng bansang ito ay irregular at nagtataglay ng magagandang baybayin.
  4. 4. The Hellenic Age ( 800 B.C.E.-338 B.C.E.) • Tinatawag ng mga Griyego ang kanilang mga sarili na `Hellenes’. (Hellas- isang lugar sa hilagang-kanluran ng bansa) • Olympics - games in honor of Zeus.
  5. 5. Polis • Mga lungsod-estado. • May kanya-kanyang paraan ng pananampalataya ang bawat polis. • Pinamumunuan ng isang hari(monarchy) o ng iilan (oligarchy) ang bawat isa. • Kadalasang hindi nagkakasundo ang iba’t-ibang polis maliban kung magtutulungan ang mga ito sa panahon ng kagipitan o problema. • Sparta at Athens- dalawang pinakamalaking polis sa bansa.
  6. 6. Bahagi ng Polis • Acropolis- pinakamataas na bahagi sa isang polis; dito matatagpuan ang mga templo nila. • Agora- sentro ng isang polis; pamilihan at kung anu-anong pampublikong establisyemento ang matatagpuan dito. • Polis- lugar panirahan ng mga sinaunang Griyego.
  7. 7. SPARTA AND ATHENS Sparta: A Military Polis “Raise good soldiers for the good of the city-state.” Athens : A Democratic Rule Implemented direct democracy
  8. 8. ATHENS SPARTA VS.
  9. 9. Wars happened in Greece: I. Greek-Persian War (also known as Marathon War-490 B.C.E.) II. Thermopylae War III. Salamis War IV. Peloponnesian War V. Macedonian Empire Conquest After this conquest, the Hellenistic tradition that Alexander the Great imposed spread.
  10. 10. Contributions of Greek Civilization • Science and Mathematics Pythagoras: Pythagorean Theorem(geometry) Archimedes: Circumference of a circle; Principle of Gravity Euclid: Father of Geometry Aristarchus: discovered that the Earth revolved around the sun while rotating on its axis Eratosthenes: estimated the circumference of the world; first man to draw the latitude and longitude lines on the map of the world
  11. 11. Contributions: • Architecture Goal: Honor their gods. Style:  Doric- simplest; no base while the capital or the top portion of the column is simple  Ionic- more slender; its capital is decorated with scrolls  Corinthian- has the most elaborate decorations Parthenon
  12. 12. • Drama  At first, it was part of their ritual during feasts in honor of Dionysus, the god of Wine, but starting from the 6th century B.C.E, it changed. Most of their dramas were classified as tragedy and comedy. Famous writers: Tragedy : Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides Comedy : Aristophanes Contributions:
  13. 13. Contributions • Painting -Showed their skill in painting in their beautifully- painted pottery. Common Design: daily work of the people like singing, dancing, playing a musical instrument, taking a bath and other activities • Sculpture - Many of the creations were made of marble or copper; highlighted the beauty of human form ( favorite subject: young, nude males) - Famous sculptors: Phidias(Parthenon) ; Praxiteles (statue of Hermes)
  14. 14. Contributions • Medicine  Hippocrates- established a school for the study of medicine where the cause of an illness was investigated and where the sick was treated based on observation and a curative method; “Every disease has a natural cause.” Herophilus- Father of Anatomy Erisastratus- Father of Physiology
  15. 15. Contributions • Writing of History History- first used by Herodotus when he wrote the History of the Persian Wars, an account of the war between Greece and Persia. Herodotus- Father of History; believed that the defeat of Persia was a punishment of the gods on men who are too proud. Thucydides- wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War; did not believed that fate or the work of the gods could explain what was happening to man
  16. 16. Contributions • Religion - Polytheism Their Gods:  Zeus- god of the heavens  Hera- goddess of marriage  Aphrodite- goddess of love  Apollo- god of the sun  Ares- god of war  Artemis- goddess of hunting and nature  Athena- goddess of wisdom and war  Demeter- goddess of grain and harvest  Dionysus- god of wine and plants  Hephaestus- god of metal works  Hermes- messenger of news from the gods  Poseidon- god of the sea
  17. 17. Contributions • Philosophy Socrates “ The unexamined life is not worth living” Plato “Law must supposed to be for all and not for the strong and the rich only.” Aristotle “There should be leaders who have the capability to lead, the men of virtue.”

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Sparta- at the age of 13 years old, all boys were required to attend the military training until they reach the age of 20 where they will be officially soldier of the said city-state. Athens- most of the well-known philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates came from this city-state. They focused on education rather than military aspect. The democratic system is originated from this polis., which on latter part copied or been the base of many government system we have at the modern time.

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