• Transcultural Nursing is a specialty with in
Nursing focused on the comparative study
and analysis of different cultures and sub-
• Various groups are examined with respect to
their caring behavior, nursing care, health and
3. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES
• In 1950’s Dr . Madeleine Leininger noted cultural differences
between patients and nurses while working with emotionally
•The transcultural nursing has its roots in early 1990’s. during
the 19th century the civilization or culture was something
achieved by the society.
4. PURPOSE OF TRANSCULTURAL NURSING
To make growing awareness acceptance of diversity and
willingness to maintain and support ethnic and cultural
To give competent and sensitive health care.
To provide holistic and comprehensive approach in client
CULTURE- broadly defines a set of values , belief
and traditions that are held by a specific group of
people and handed drown from generation to
Culture is also belief , habits , likes , dislikes ,
customs , and rituals learn from one’s family
6. RELIGION – it is a set of belief in a divine
or super human power to be obeyed
and worshipped as the creator and
ruler of the universe .
Ethical values and religion system of
belief and practices , difference within
the culture and across culture are
8. MATERIAL CULTURE –
It refers to an objects ( dress , art , religious
It refers to belief , custom , languages , social
It is composed of people who have distinct
identity but are related to a large cultural group .
a person who crosses two cultures , lifestyles ,
and sets of values .
It refers to fact or state of being different .
Diversity can occur between culture and
within a cultural group.
Group which shares a common social and cultural
heritage that is passed on to successive generation.
E .g. - Indian culture , American culture .
The classification of people according to shared biologic
characteristics , genetic makers , or features . Not all
people of the same race have the same culture.
e. g. – Indian race , American race
11. •Madeleine Leininger
The founder of the theory of Transcultural Nursing /
Culture Care Theory
Her theory has now developed as a discipline in
nursing. Evolution of her theory can be understood
from her books: Culture Care Diversity and
Transcultural Nursing (1995)
Transcultural Nursing (2002)
Theoretical framework is depicted in her modelcalled the Sunrise Model(1997).
Human caring is a universal phenomenon, but the
expressions, processes, structural forms, and patterns of
caring vary among cultures.
Caring acts and processes are essential for human birth,
development, growth, survival, and peaceful death.
14. Care has a biophysical, cultural, psychological, social and
environmental dimension, and the concept of culture
provides the broadest means to know and understand care.
Nursing is a transcultural phenomenon as nurses interact
with clients, staff, and other groups, and requires that nurses
identify and use intercultural nurse-client and system data
15. Care behaviors, goals, and functions vary transculturally because of
the social structure, worldview, and cultural values of people from
Self and other care practices vary in different cultures and in different
folk and professional care systems.
Care is largely culturally derived and requires culturally based
knowledge and skills for satisfying and efficacious nursing practices.
There can be no curing without caring but there can be caring
18. • The upper half of the circle represents a part of the whole socio-cultural
structure and world view factors.
• These factors influence the care, patterns and expressions towards health
and well-being of an individual, families, groups and institutions
through language and environment.
• The same factors also influence folk and professional nursing, bridged by
the nursing subsystem which can be seen in the lower half of the model.
With the aid of the three types of nursing care, decisions and actions
cultural congruent nursing care can be possibly achieved which is
meaningful, beneficial and satisfying to people.
19. HEALTHPRACTICES IN DIFFERENT CULTURES
USE OF PROTECTIVE OBJECTS-Protective objects can be worn or carried or
hung in the home- charms worn on a string or chain around the neck, wrist, or
waist to protect the wearer from the evil eye or evil spirits.
USE OF SUBSTANCES . It is believed that certain food substances can be
ingested to prevent illness. E.g. eating raw garlic or onion to prevent illness or
wear them on the body or hang them in the home.
20. RELIGIOUS PRACTICE -Burning of candles, rituals of
redemption etc.. Religion strongly affects the way people
attempt to prevent illness , and it plays a strong role in rituals
associated with health protection.
TRADITIONAL REMIDIES -The use of folk or traditional
medicine is seen among people from all walks of life and
cultural ethnic back ground.
HEALERS- Within a given community, specific people are
known to have the power to heal.
IMMIGRATION - Immigrant groups have their own cultural
attitudes ranging beliefs and practices regarding these areas.
21. GENDER ROLES-In many cultures, the male is dominant figure
and often they take decisions related to health practices and
treatment. In some other cultures females are dominant. In
some cultures, women are discriminated in providing proper
treatment for illness.
BELIEF ABOUT MENTAL ILLNESS-Mental illnesses are caused
by a lack of harmony of emotions or by evil spirits. Problems in
this life are most likely related to transgressions committed in
a past life.
22. ECONOMIC-FACTOR- such as unemployment
underemployment, homelessness, lack of health insurance
poverty prevent people from entering the health care system.
TIME ORINTATION -It is varies for different cultures groups.
PERSONAL RESPECT-Respect the client's personal space
when performing nursing procedures. The nurse should also
welcome visiting members of the family and extended family.
23. NURSING PROCESS AND ROLE OF NURSE
Determine the client's cultural heritage and language skills.
Determine if any of his health beliefs relate to the cause of the
illness or to the problem.
Collect information that any home remedies the person is taking
to treat the symptoms.
Nurses should evaluate their attitudes toward ethnic nursing
24. Self-evaluation helps the nurse to become more comfortable
when providing care to clients from diverse backgrounds.
Understand the influence of culture, race ðnicity on the
development of social emotional relationship, child rearing
practices & attitude toward health.
Collect information about the socioeconomic status of the
family and its influence on their health promotion and
25. Identify the religious practices of the family and their influence
on health promotion belief in families.
Understanding of the general characteristics of the major
ethnic groups, but always individualize care.
The nursing diagnosis for clients should include potential
problems in their interaction with the health care system and
problems involving the effects of culture
Nurses need to be aware of and sensitive to the cultural needs of
clients. The practice of nursing today demands that the nurse identify
and meet the cultural needs of diverse groups, understand the social
and cultural reality of the client, family, and community, develop
expertise to implement culturally acceptable strategies to provide
nursing care, and identify and use resources acceptable to the client