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transfer of learning CC3.pdf

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1
Oriental Education Society
ORIENTAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, SANPADA
F.Y. B.Ed. (2020-2022)
Course Name: Core Course 3
Subj...
2
TRANSFER OF LEARNING
The process of learning begins from the birth of the child and continues till
his death. When the c...
3
According to Smith (1962), ‘learning is the acquisition of new behaviour or the
strengthening or weakening of old behavi...
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transfer of learning CC3.pdf

  1. 1. 1 Oriental Education Society ORIENTAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, SANPADA F.Y. B.Ed. (2020-2022) Course Name: Core Course 3 Subject Name: Learning and Teaching Assignment Topic: Transfer of Learning Submitted for the fulfilment of Two Year Bachelors’ degree of Education For the year 2021 (SEM-II) Submitted to: Ms. Renu Chaudhury Submitted by: Santoshini Sahu Roll No. 47 Date: 28th July 2021
  2. 2. 2 TRANSFER OF LEARNING The process of learning begins from the birth of the child and continues till his death. When the child is born, his mind is just like a clean slate. As soon as he comes in contact with his environment, he starts reacting and in this process of interaction of the individual and his environment, the foundation of learning are laid down. LEARNING Temporary change in behaviour is not learning. • Not only the modification of behaviour by acquiring good things as per the social norms is learning but even behaviour modification by acquiring bad things comes under ‘learning’. In other words, learning leads to change in behaviour but this does not necessarily mean that these changes always bring about improvement or positive development. Learning is an interaction wherein when any situation acts upon the learner, he reacts and modifies his behaviour. E.g. A child touches the flame of a candle, and immediately withdraws his hand. He has learnt how it feels to get scalded.
  3. 3. 3 According to Smith (1962), ‘learning is the acquisition of new behaviour or the strengthening or weakening of old behaviour as the result of experience’. Melvin H. Marx defines learning in the following words: “Learning is a relatively enduring change in behaviour which is a function of prior behaviour (usually called practice).” Thus four attributes of learning as a process. 1. Learning is a permanent change in behaviour. 2. Learning is not directly observable. 3. Learning that is result in same change of in behaviour. 4. Learning depends upon practice and experience. TRANSFER OF LEARNING One of the important characteristics of learning is that the acquisition of skills, habits, knowledge and attitudes, influences the acquisition of new learning due to some kind of carry-over effect. The carrying over of feelings, habits, skills, and knowledge from one learning area to another is called transfer of learning. According to the older view, transfer of learning implies that training in one faculty of the mind may help in the functioning of older faculties as well various faculties of mind - memory, reasoning, judgment, observation etc. - are directed or trained through various academic subjects. Languages and mathematics give training to the mind which helps in learning other subjects. A person who possesses a good knack for language, can learning and retain any fact easily. DEFINITION OF TRANSFER OF LEARNING According to Crow and Crow, “The carryover of habit, thinking, feeling, working of knowledge or of skills from one learning area to another usually it referred as transfer of training.” According to Sorenson, “Transfer refers to the transfer of knowledge training and habits acquired in one situation to another situation.” According to Peterson, “Transfer is generalization, for it is extension of idea to a new field.” Transfer of learning is the dependency of human conduct, learning, or performance on prior experience. The notion was originally introduced as transfer of practice by Edward Thorndike and Robert S. Woodworth. They explored how individuals would transfer learning in one context to another, similar context- or
  4. 4. 4 how “improvement in one mental function” could influence a related one. Their theory implied that transfer of learning depends on how similar the learning task and transfer task are, or where “identical elements are concerned in the influencing and influenced function”, now known as the identical element theory. Today, transfer of learning is usually described as the process and the effective extent to which past experience affect learning and performance in a new situation. However, there remains controversy as to how transfer of learning should be conceptualized and explained, what its prevalence is, what its prevalence is, what its relation is to learning in general, and whether it exists at all. Transfer of learning stands for the carryover from one act of learning to another or transfer of learning means person’s learning in one situation influences his learning and performance in other situation. TYPES OF TRANSFER OF TRAINING 1. Positive Transfer: - When learning of one activity facilitates the learning of another activity. E.g. Playing badminton will help to pick up tennis faster. 2. Negative Transfer: - When previously learnt activity interferes with the learning of another activity. E.g. Substances contract while changing state from liquid to solid due to decrease in temperature but ice expands enormously. 3. Zero Transfer: - When learning of one activity neither facilitates nor transfers with learning of a new tasks. E.g. Training in Music will not affect training of History in either positive or negative way. WHY IS TRANSFER OF LEARNING IMPORTANT?  Assumption of education: what is taught in a course will be used in relevant situations in other courses, in the workplace and out of school.  Because the learning situation often differs from the context of application, the goal of training is not accomplished unless transfer occurs.  All new learning involves transfer based on previous learning.  If there were no transfer, students would need to be taught every act that they would ever perform in any situation.
  5. 5. 5 BILATERAL TRANSFER OF LEARNING Human body is divided into two laterals left and right when training is imparted to one lateral automatically it gets transferred to other lateral it is known as bilateral transfer of training it can be proved. Bilateral Transfer of Learning, from many experiments it appeared clear that skill acquired in a particular task by practice on one hand can often be carried over to the other hand (Woodworth and Scholsberg, 1971). This Process is known as Bilateral Transfer. For instance, once a person has learned to shoot a basketball with their right hand it is not difficult to transfer that learning to the left hand. This transfer of learning is made possible by the two-way information traffic that exists through the corpus callosum, the band of fibres in the brain that allows the two hemispheres to communicate and transfer information. A useful and helpful application is that following brain damage some skills and knowledge can be transferred from one area of the brain to another.
  6. 6. 6 Experiment conduct on Bilateral Transfer of Learning AIM: Transfer of Learning OBJECTIVE: To study Bilateral Transfer of Learning METHOD: Trial and Error method (It is characterized by repeated, varied attempts which are continued until success, or until the practitioner stops trying.) MATERIAL REQUIRED: • Mirror Drawing Task handout • A mirror that is able to stand vertical or tilt forward (a mirror that only tilts backward will not work). • Cardboard to block direct viewing of your hand while tracing. • Pencil for tracing and recording results • Tape to hold paper in place while tracing • Clock, watch or stopwatch for keeping time (optional) INSTRUCTIONS FOR MIRROR DRAWING TASK: • Place your paper in front of your mirror. • Position your cardboard between you and your paper so that you cannot see your hand. Your partner can hold the cardboard in place. • Look into the mirror. You should be able to see your hand and the star only through the mirror. Adjust if necessary. • Trace the star, beginning at the “s” • Have your partner time how long it takes you to complete the star. • Circle all of the points where the tracing touches the edge of the star. Count how many circles you drew (each time your tracing touches the edge of the star counts as one error) • Record your findings in the table provided.
  7. 7. 7 OBSERVATION OF MIRROR DRAWING: LH LH RH RH RH RH RH RH No of Trial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Time (Sec) 209 200 150 181 122 128 121 109 No of Error 11 14 7 11 12 7 8 9 RH RH RH RH RH RH LH LH No of Trial 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Time (Sec) 136 111 110 119 95 90 167 88 No of Error 9 6 6 5 6 6 10 9 ANALYSIS: Recent study on bilateral transfer suggests that imagery training can facilitate the transfer of motor skill from a trained limb to that of an untrained limb above and beyond that of physical practice. To further explore this effect, the present study examined the influence of practice duration and task difficulty on the extent to which imagery training and physical training influences bilateral transfer of a Mirror drawing of Star shape. It was found that on 1st trail tracing star with life hand looking into mirror was time consuming plus coordination between hand and mind was not effective count was error was more, same goes with 2nd trail too, even from right hand coordination of hand and brain was not that. After doing practice again and again till trial count 8th , 9th (time in sec 136 & error 9) direction from brain was not that effective but understanding level was improved. From trial no 10 it improved a lot in count of error (6) and time taken (111sec) as we can see in table. It was consistent till trial 14. Even from left hand trail no 15 error count was high but it was improve from previous, in trail 16 left hand was also able to act like right hand, error count(9) and time consumption(88) was very less. In a subsequent bilateral transfer test using our non-dominant arm and dominant arm. Results indicated that physical practice is more effective at facilitating bilateral transfer compared to training with imagery. Interestingly, significant bilateral transfer was only observed for transfer from the non-dominant to the dominant arm with no differences observed between performing the task in an original or mirror ordered task. Overall, these findings suggest that imagery training may benefit bilateral transfer primarily at the initial stages of learning, but with extended training, physical practice leads to larger influences on transfer.
  8. 8. 8 Educational Implication 1. We have seen that transfer of learning takes place because of similarity of content technique, method or because of generalisation. If a student fails to detect the two similarity between two situations, transfer will not take place. Remember that transfer of learning does not take place automatically. We have to teach with transfer in mind. 2. Teachers many times teach specific facts, without getting meaningful generalizations. In the teaching of geometry students are generally taught bisecting a single angle in a particular position, many of them fail to bisect the three angles of a triangle simple because they are acquainted with the bisection of an angle in one particular position. Teacher should provide varied experiences. Problems in algebra should not be worked out only with unknowns such as x and y but also with other unknowns such as m,n,a, b, p,q and so on. 3. Make the learning experiences as much as possible similar to life like situations. If democratic way of life is accepted by the society, it should be practiced in the school through activities such as the election of a student’s council. 4. Sometimes, opportunities for transfer are lost because teachers do not alert students to look for relationships and to see how material which is being learned can be of future usefulness. In studies of transfer value of foreign languages it has been found that the greatest effect of English vocabulary occurs when relationship between English words and their Latin, French, or Spanish roots are shown as a planned part of the teaching procedure. In the teaching of regional languages, teachers should show how many of the words are derived from regional Sanskrit roots. 5. Bad habits of work may transfer from one situation to another and may have a detrimental effect on learning. Students develop faulty habits of study in the early years of schooling which they carry over at a later stage even when they join a college. Many college students use fingers for counting while adding two numbers. Teachers should pay attention to the development of proper methods of study and habits of work. 6. It is now well established that greater transfer from subject matter can be achieved by changing the methods of teaching. If the subject matter is taught in isolation from the problems of daily life, the utility of the knowledge gained is extremely limited. In one study 16% increase in transfer was obtained by simply telling the student that the material they were learning would be useful in other situation.
  9. 9. 9 7. Emphasis should be given on developing ideals and attitudes. If a child is brought up to practice fair play and to accept it as the proper way of behaviour, it is likely that the child may display it in all is dealings in adult life. 8. If the teacher does not encourage critical thinking on the part of students and if he does not emphasis understanding of principles but encourage mere rote learning, students fail to adapt to new situations. A student can learn to multiply fractions without understanding the procedure. He may do well on task like – Multiply: ( 3/4 x4/5) 0r (7/12x12/17). Reference • https://www.slideshare.net/arihantcollege9/transfer-of- learning-66335414 • https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.po ne.0152228 • http://www.igntu.ac.in/eContent/BEd-02Sem- DrShikhaBanarji-teaching%20and%20learning.pdf
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