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English lm unit 2

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English lm unit 2

  1. 1. i 10 English Learner’s Material Department of Education Republic of the Philippines Celebrating Diversity through World Literature This book was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education at action@deped.gov.ph. We value your feedback and recommendations.
  2. 2. ii Celebrating Diversity through World Literature – Grade 10 English - Learner’s Material First Edition 2015 ISBN: Published by the Department of Education Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, PhD Development Team of the Learner’s Material Consultants: Dr. Edizon A. Fermin and Prof. Marla C. Papango Authors: Liza R. Almonte, Lerma L. Flandez, Angelina Lourdes A. Hermosa, Nedia Lagustan, Liberty A. Mangaluz, Elenita R. Miranda, Paul Anthony B. Mendoza, Lito A. Palomar, Grace B. Annette Barradas-Soriano, and Karen B. Villanueva Reviewers: Ruth Alido, Mara Angelie Banares, Jonalyn T. De la Cruz, Benjamin Hanson S. Juan, Jennifer E. Lopez, Carlo Erba Manalo – Pacinos, Dr. Sterling Plata, Jeanette M. Romblon, Leilani T. Señires, and Dr. Roderick Tadeo Language Editor: Dr. Ma. Antoinette Montealegre Production Team: Dir. Jocelyn DR. Andaya, Dr. Melinda P. Rivera, Mr. Ricardo G. Ador Dionisio, and Ms. Anna Marie B. San Diego Illustrators: Angielyn G. Bariñan, Eric S. De Guia, and Jayson M. Gaduena Layout Artists: Matthew Leysa, Camille Francesca Mondejar, and Jerby Mariano Printed in the Philippines by REX Book Store, Inc. Department of Education-Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (DepEd-IMCS) Office Address: 5th Floor Mabini Bldg., DepEd Complex Meralco Avenue, Pasig City Philippines 1600 Telefax: (02) 634-1054 or 634-1072 E-mail Address: imcsetd@yahoo.com Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties. Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trade-marks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders. DepEd is represented by the Filipinas Copyright Licensing Society (FILCOLS), Inc. in seeking permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. All means have been exhausted in seeking permission to use these materials. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them. Only institutions and companies which have entered an agreement with FILCOLS and only within the agreed framework may copy from this Learner’s Material. Those who have not entered in an agreement with FILCOLS must, if they wish to copy, contact the publishers and authors directly. Authors and publishers may email or contact FILCOLS at filcols@gmail.com or (02) 439-2204, respectively.
  3. 3. vii MODULE 2: Establishing Solidarity Lesson 1: Finding Common Ground YOUR JOURNEY YOUR OBJECTIVES YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1: What You See Is What You Get 117 Task 2: Predict and Expect 117 Task 3: Read Me 119 Task 4: FYI 121 YOUR TEXT Inferno – Canto III – The Vestibule of Hell – The Opportunists by Dante Alighieri Task 5: Think Through 123 Task 6: Read and Imagine 123 Task 7: Sense Chart 129 Task 8: Applying What You Read 129 Task 9: Making Definitions 130 TABLE OF CONTENTS YOUR DISCOVERY TASKS Task 10: Read to Write 131 Task 11: Identify and Classify 134 Task 12: Have Your Say 134 YOUR FINAL TASK Task 13: Express Yourself 136 Task 14: News Writing and Reporting 139 MY TREASURE Lesson 2: Building Ties YOUR JOURNEY YOUR OBJECTIVES YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1: What Do You Perceive 145 Task 2: Listen and Imagine 145 Task 3: Read to Lead 147 Task 4: I Want Pizza 151 YOUR TEXT The Song of Roland Task 5: Read Roland 152 Task 6: Understanding the Song of Roland 156 Task 7: Understanding Theme 157 YOUR DISCOVERY TASK
  4. 4. viii Task 8: Give Your Stand 159 YOUR FINAL TASK Task 9: Say Your Piece 159 MY TREASURE Lesson 3: Being Sensitive to Others YOUR JOURNEY YOUR OBJECTIVES YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1: Pictures Talk 165 Task 2: Mind Your World 165 Task 3: Watch That Label 166 Task 4: Bias Detectives 167 YOUR TEXT From Francisco Petrarch’s, The Canzoniere Featured Sonnets: Laura, The White Doe and Spring Task 5: Love Is Everywhere 169 Task 6: Think about the Poems 173 Task 7: Figure the Meaning 173 Task 8: Sound the Sonnet 174 Task 9: Distinct Sonnets 177 Task 10: Tick Your Fancy 177 YOUR DISCOVERY TASKS Task 11: Listen to a Point 178 Task 12: Agree or Disagree 178 Task 13: Read for Info 178 Task 14: Define Those Words 180 Task 15: Bring in the Source 182 Task 16: Write Your Bibliography 188 YOUR FINAL TASKS Task 17: Try Your Passion 189 Task 18: Speak for Keeps 189 MY TREASURE
  5. 5. ix Lesson 4: Empathizing with Others YOUR JOURNEY YOUR OBJECTIVES YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1: Great Names to Name 196 Task 2: Bias Detectives 2 197 Task 3: Read for Bias 198 Task 4: Think to Solve 199 YOUR TEXT The Decameron’s Federigo’s Falcon by Giovanni Boccaccio Task 5: Background Check 200 Task 6: Think Tank 207 Task 7: TMT (Tone, Mood, Theme) 208 Task 8: Like the Others 208 YOUR DISCOVERY TASKS Task 9: Know Your Heart 210 Task 10: Purpose Galore 215 Task 11: To Affirm or to Negate 217 Task 12: Affirm or Negate for the Country 218 Task 13: Watch for Conventions 221 YOUR FINAL TASKS Task 14: Speak for Keeps 222 MY TREASURE Lesson 5: Accepting Individual Differences YOUR JOURNEY YOUR OBJECTIVES YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1: Exaggerating the Generals! 229 Task 2: People Are People 230 Task 3: I Am What I Am 231 Task 4: Essential Essence 231 YOUR TEXT The Hunchback of Notre Dame by Victor Hugo Task 5: The Oper-Tech System 232 Task 6: Dare to Answer! 234 Task 7: From the Story, We Differ 235 Task 8: Lookout for the Outlook! 236 Task 9: I Agree…She Doesn’t 236 Task 10: My Motion 237
  6. 6. x Task 11: The Explicits and Otherwise 238 Task 12: The Legal Cite 239 YOUR DISCOVERY TASKS Task 13: Varying Groups 242 YOUR FINAL TASKS Task 14: The Battle of Wits 243 MY TREASURE Lesson 6: Embodying Solidarity YOUR JOURNEY YOUR OBJECTIVES YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1: Overdoing the Generals! 248 Task 2: Solid during the Odds 248 Task 3: Making E-Sense 248 YOUR TEXT The Three Musketeers by Alexander Dumas Task 4: I Mean 249 Task 5: From Cover to Cover 249 Task 6: Time for a Check-up! 253 Task 7: Literary Value 253 Task 8: Whip It! 254 Task 9: Agree or Disagree 257 YOUR DISCOVERY TASKS Task 10: The Team in Theme 257 YOUR FINAL TASKS Task 11: Weigh In! 258 MY TREASURE
  7. 7. 109 Establishing Solidarity
  8. 8. 110 PRE-TEST MODULE 2 Generel Directions: Read carefully each item and follow directions as indicated. Write the letter of the most appropriate answer on your answer sheet. 1-2. dentify from the statements the best examples of unsupported generalization and exaggeration. A. Differences in principles foretell chaotic relationship. B. She cried a bucketful of tears when her pet dog passed away. C. The sun rises in the East and sets in the West. D. A family is an entity where no one should be left behind. 3-4. What are the two sides in the Oxford-Oregon debate? A. Rebuttal B. Affirmative C. Proposition D. Negative 5-6. Identify the two aims of a debate program. A. To enhance the students’ intellectual abilities B. To enhance the students’ social/communicative skills C. To enhance students’ locational skills D. To enhance students’ writing skills 7-11. Identify five affirmative expressions from the statements below. A. No doubt about B. Pardon me, but… C. You have a good point, however… D. I have nothing against it E. Definitely F. That is indeed great G. Certainly 12-13. From the choices given above, identify two special expressions in negation. 14. This type of citation uses the author’s last name and the year of publication A. parenthetical citation B. LMA citation C. in-text citation D. paragraph-number citation 15. This type of citation uses the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number A. parenthetical citation B. LMA citation C. in-text citation D. paragraph-number citation
  9. 9. 111 16. This type of speech persuades others through logical reasoning and analysis. A. impromptu speech B. roast speech C. extemporaneous speech D. argumentative speech 17. The text implicitly stated that President Ramon Magsaysay was ________. A. a man of disguise B. a man of principle C. a man of values D. a man of action 18. The statement, “Then you will have the artesian well here right away” as directly stated in the text is a/an A. explicit information B. implicit information C. general information D. firsthand information 19. The purpose of the author in writing the text is to _____. A. inform B. entertain C. persuade D. expose 20. At the beginning of the passage, the mood is ______. A. eerie B. energetic C. quiet D. romantic “Then you will have the artesian well here right away,” he said. He ordered the area commander to get pipes and pumps from the armed forces supply depot, and demanded they should be brought to the spot immediately. He asked the army to bring in bulldozer, troops, and trainees for labor and also organize the civilians. With a deep sigh, Dulce drifted towards the window. In the fading light she could barely see the figure riding up the path. As soon as he sprang from his horse and strode to the front door, Dulce knew it was Lance. Quickly she thrust the letter she had been reading into her dress pocket. The door to the drawing room swung open. “What have you done with our son?” Lance bellowed, his face distorted with rage. “He is in a safe place,” Dulce replied, and with a sudden movement, she yanked at the bell cord to summon the servant.
  10. 10. 112 21. At the end of the passage, the mood is ______. A. tense B. humorous C. mysterious D. calm 22. From the passage, it could be implied that A. Dulce and Lance are having disagreement over their son. B. Dulce favors her son’s action. C. Lance doesn’t approve of his wife’s decision. D. All of the above 23. The author of the passage wants us to think that ______. A. a mother knows what is best for her son B. a conflict normally occurs at home C. people vary in disposition D. Lance is very protective of his son 24. The author’s purpose in writing the passage is to ______. A. tell a story about husband and wife B. make people realize about the importance of communication C. describe the setting within the family D. none of the above The lines below were taken from the narrative poem, “The Walam Olum” by Delaware Indian. Choose the graphical representation that best explains the text.
  11. 11. 113 He made them all to move evenly, Then the wind blew violently, and it cleared, and the water flowed off far and strong. And groups of islands grew newly, and there remained 25. 26. 27. Here is a comic strip. Be able to determine the bias reflected in it. Then, answer the questions that follow. 28. To whom is the bias directed in this comic strip? A. boys B. girls C. both boys and girls D. adult girls 29. What is the meaning reflected in this comic strip? A. It assumes that all the girls have difficulty with Math B. It assumes that some girls have difficulty with Math C. It assumes that only girls who are studying have difficulty with Math D. It assumes that boys and girls have difficulty with Math 30. When you are asked to define the weight of an object in terms of the number that appears when that object is placed on a weighing scale, you are actually defining the term _______ A. Operationally B. Technically C. Lexically D. Contextually “At first, in that place, at all times, above the earth,” On the earth, [was] an extended fog, and there the great Manito was. At first, forever, lost in space, everywhere, the great Manito was. He made the extended land and the sky. He made the sun, the moon, and the stars.
  12. 12. 114 Directions: Here are lines from the poem “Three Words of Strength.” Read the poem carefully and answer the questions that follow. Put thou the shadow from thy brow, No night but hath its morn. Know this: God rules the host of heaven, The inhabitants of earth. Not love alone for one. But man, as man thy brothers call, And scatter like a circling sun, Thy charities on all. 31. What is the underlying theme of the poem? A. God loves everyone. B. God loves those who are suffering. C. God loves those who help themselves. D. God loves those who know how to love in return. 32. What elements in the poem helped you in determining its theme? A. Each stanza has a meaning that relates to each other. B. Persona in the poem speaks about the message. C. Rhyme and rhythm add to the culmination of the theme. D. Symbolism in the poem relates with each other to create a unified theme. Directions: Read one of the entries in “Anne Frank’s Diary,” then, be able to determine the literary device present in one of her journal entries. Tuesday, 7th March, 1944 Dear Kitty, I don’t think of all the misery, but of the beauty that still remains. This is one of the things that Mummy and I are so entirely different about. Her counsel when one feels melancholy is: “Think of all the misery in the world and be thankful you are not sharing in it!” My advice is: “Go outside, to the fields, enjoy nature and the sunshine, go out and try to recapture happiness in yourself and in God. Think of all the beauty that’s still left in and around you and be happy!” I don’t see how Mummy’s idea can be right, because then how are you supposed to behave if you go through the misery yourself? Then you are lost. On the contrary, I’ve found that there is always some beauty left – in nature, sunshine, freedom, in yourself; these can all help you. Look at these things, then you find yourself again, and God, and then you regain your balance. And whoever is happy will make others happy, too. He who has courage and faith will never perish in misery! Yours, Anne
  13. 13. 115 33. After reading the diary entry, what feeling or mood is conveyed by the author? A. Optimism B. Bitterness C. Pessimism D. Determination 34. How does the author send the message to her readers? A. By citing philosophical context in presenting her ideas B. By sharing her personal belief and comparing it with another C. By giving examples of other people’s experiences D. By opposing the views of other people 35. Given this information about the author and based on the author’s diary entry, what do you think is the author’s purpose in writing her diary? A. To strengthen her faith in God and to unify her family B. To communicate her thoughts with friends, family, and the government C. To keep her occupied during the times that she and her family were hiding D. To share her thoughts and feelings about the strength of the human spirit and God’s goodness 36. “Animals have emotions and personalities.” How would you show politeness even though you disagree on the issue? A. ”You’re wrong!” B. “I respect you for that, but I do not agree with you.” C. “You talk nonsense.” D. “That is outrageous!” 37. Do not compare yourself to others for there will always be lesser and greater persons than you are - Desiderata. Take your stand and affirm with the statement. A. “That’s absolutely correct!” B. “I respect you for that, but…” C. “No doubt about it” D. Both A and C 38-41. Arrange the steps on how we plan and draft a speech. A. Identify your audience. B. Consider how to grab your listeners’ attention. C. Find support for your position. D. Clarify your position. E. Decide how to present your arguments. Directions: (42-50) Compose an argumentative essay employing different techniques (e.g., analogy, comparison and contrast, definition and analysis) The author, Anne Frank, was a 13-year-old Jewish girl who chronicled her experiences in a secret attic during the Second World War. She’s a Jew who was among those hunted by the Nazi during the Holocaust – systematic killing of about six million Jews. The diary was found by friends and given to her father after her death in a concentration camp.
  14. 14. 116 Module 2 LESSON 1 ______________________________________________________________ Finding Common Grounds YOUR JOURNEY Have you had conflicts with others? How did you feel about it? What did you do? There must have been times when you jump into a solution without knowing and analyzing the cause of misunderstanding we have with others. Searching for signals which may be subtle is a way of recognizing the root of the conflicts and disagreements. “I think in most relationships that have problems, there’s fault on both sides. And in order for it to work, there has to be some common ground that’s shared. And it’s not just one person making amends.” - Steve Carell YOUR OBJECTIVES For you to follow the path of your journey, you have to: • assess the effectiveness of the ideas presented in the material viewed, taking into account its purpose • switch from one listening strategy to another to extract meaning from the listening text • transcode information from linear to non-linear texts and vice versa • explain illustrations from linear to non-linear texts and vice versa • give technical and operational definitions • express appreciation for sensory images used • observe correct grammar in making definitions • employ appropriate pitch, stress, juncture, intonation, in oral delivery • identify parts and features of argumentative essays • formulate claims of fact, policy, and value Be reminded that at the end of the module, you are expected to deliver an argumentative speech emphasizing how to resolve conflicts among individuals or groups. Your final output in this lesson is to present a news report.
  15. 15. 117 YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1 WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET! Observe the picture below and identify details that symbolize the things to consider in resolving conflicts. Do you think the persons in the picture are trying to make amends to resolve a conflict? Discuss with a partner. Task 2 PREDICT AND EXPECT A. You will listen to a song entitled “Common Ground” by Kodaline. Predict words or phrases that you expect to hear from the song through its title. Write your answer in the box. Do this in your notebook.
  16. 16. 118 B. Listen to the song, then check the words or phrases you listed. It's easy to win, It's harder to lose To admit that you're wrong When you've got something to prove. You said it was easy I tell you they are wrong. So get busy learning, are you already gone? People will tell you What you want to hear But the people who know you well Can make it all clear. Life isn’t easy, You got to be strong. So get busy learning, Are you already gone? And all will be forgotten And we all fall apart, Yeah all will be forgotten But the common ground, It’s a good place to start. Sure all will be forgotten, Yeah we will all be forgotten, fall apart. We will all be forgotten, But common ground, Is a good place to start. Common ground is a good place to start. COMMON GROUND by Kodaline
  17. 17. 119 C. Pencil In While listening to the song for the second time, sketch in the box an object you visualize in the song. Explain and discuss with a partner afterwards. D. What’s in the song? Analyze and answer. QUESTIONS ANSWERS 1. What is the song all about? 2. How did you feel while listening to the song? 3. What advice is given in the song? Do you agree with it? Why/Why not? 4. Would you follow the advice given? Why or why not? 5. Explain what is emphasized in the song. Task 3 READ ME The family is the smallest unit of` society and it is everything. Yet there is no such thing as a “perfect family.” Can you recall one unforgettable misunderstanding that happened in your family? How did your family cope with the tension it caused? Read the text about the causes of conflicts in a family.
  18. 18. 120 4 Causes of Family Conflict by K. Lee Banks Family harmony provides a sense of belonging and a feeling of security unlike many other types of relationships. When conflict arises, it threatens that security. Whether the disharmony initiates from within the family unit or from external sources, individual family members and the family as a whole can experience a range of negative emotions and consequences. Unresolved conflict may irreparably damage a marriage and the entire family, if family members do not seek help. One major source of family conflict is within the area of finances-specifically, the lack of enough money to pay bills, maintain the mortgage or rent, buy sufficient food and other necessities and have any remaining money for recreation, job or career may contribute to conflict within a family. If a parent’s job keeps him/her away from home most of the time, the spouse at home with the children often feels neglected or overwhelmed. Conversely, if the parent becomes unemployed, this causes its own form of stress and conflict, as finances dwindle and uncertainty sets in about the future. Another cause of family conflict is the inevitable rivalry that occurs between siblings. Children typically seek their parents’ attention and approval, even if this requires tattling on, or sometimes causing harm to a sibling. Whether a child expresses jealousy of a sibling, competes with him/her or teases him/her non-stop, it is destined to cause conflict. Each child deserves an equal amount of parental love and acceptance, yet sometimes a parent may favor one child over another. This merely intensifies the conflict. While mutual agreement on the subject of child discipline is crucial, the lack of consensus opens up another potential area for family conflict. If one parent acts as the “disciplinarian,” the other parent typically becomes the “consoler” to whom the children turn - this often pits one parent against the other. Jokes and movies abound regarding conflict with in-laws (especially mothers-in-law); however, when you actually become involved in disagreements with your in-laws or extended family, it is no laughing matter. While it is preferable to respect your elders-parents and grandparents on both sides equally-this can prove to be challenging. If relatives routinely interfere in your family’s decisions and lifestyle, conflict frequently results.
  19. 19. 121 Transcode Me Fill in the diagram with causes of family conflicts. Write a short description of each conflict. Answer the questions below. 1. From the given conflicts, which of these have you experienced with your family? Why? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. What did you do to resolve the said conflict in your family? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Task 4 FYI A. Survey to Convey Conflict situations arise among teenagers on a daily basis. Many times, minor conflict and disagreements can result in violence. Below are common conflict situations among teenagers: Family Conflicts
  20. 20. 122 • Form a group consisting of 10 members. • Conduct a survey about the common conflict situations in your group. • Ask each member in the group who experienced the conflict. From the responses, rank the conflict from the most number of persons to the least who experienced it. • Graph the results of the survey you conducted in your group. • Write your interpretation of the graph in the box. B. Conflict Prevention One must consider how to avoid conflicts. Complete the table below by writing ways to prevent each common conflict situation. Conflict Situations Prevention CYBERBULLYING CYBERBULLYING
  21. 21. 123 YOUR TEXT Task 5 THINK THROUGH In the box is a pool of words you will come across in the text. Read each definition and then choose the defined word from the pool. Write your answer in your notebook. primordial retrograde lamentation throng blaspheme scourge omnipotence coil 1. existing from the beginning 2. a series of loops; spiral 3. an agency or force of unlimited power 4. to speak of or address with irreverence 5. to crowd together in great numbers 6. a crying out in grief 7. to beat as if by blows of a whip 8. being or relating to the rotation of a satellite in a direction opposite to that of the body orbited Task 6 READ AND IMAGINE Have you ever been to a house of horrors? Have you seen a horror movie? What are the things that shocked or frightened you? Read the excerpt below from the Divine Comedy-Inferno. Note the frightening things Dante wrote to illustrate hell. INFERNO Dante Alighieri translated by John Ciardi primordial retrograde lamentation throng blaspheme scourge omnipotence coil
  22. 22. 124 CANTO III The Vestibule of Hell The Opportunists The Poets pass the Gate of Hell and are immediately assailed by cries of anguish. Dante sees the first of the souls in torment. They are THE OPPORTUNISTS, those souls who in life were neither for good nor evil but only for themselves. Mixed with them are those outcasts who took no sides in the Rebellion of the Angels.They are neither in Hell nor out of it. Eternally unclassified, they race round and round pursuing a wavering banner that runs forever before them through the dirty air; and as they run they are pursued, by swarms of wasps and hornets, who sting them and produce a constant flow of blood and putrid matter which trickles down the bodies of the sinners and is feasted upon by loathsome worms and maggots who coat the ground. The law of Dante’s Hell is the law of symbolic retribution. As they sinned so are they punished. They took no sides, therefore they are given no place. As they pursued the ever-shifting illusion of their own advantage, changing their courses with every changing wind, so they pursue eternally an elusive, evershifting banner. As their sin was a darkness, so they move in darkness. As their own guilty conscience pursued them, so they are pursued by swarms of wasps and hornets. And as their actions were a moral filth, so they run eternally through the filth of worms and maggots which they themselves feed. Dante recognizes several, among them POPE CELESTINE V, but without delaying to speak to any of these souls, the Poets move on to ACHERON, the first of the rivers of Hell. Here the newly arrived souls of the damned gather and wait for monstrous CHARON to ferry them over to punishment. Charon recognizes Dante as a living man and angrily refuses him passage. Virgil forces Charon to serve them, but Dante swoons with terror, and does not reawaken until he is on the other side. I AM THE WAY INTO THE CITY OF WOE. I AM THE WAY TO A FORSAKEN PEOPLE. I AM THE WAY INTO ETERNAL SORROW.
  23. 23. 125 SACRED JUSTICE MOVED MY ARCHITECT. 5 I WAS RAISED HERE BY DIVINE OMNIPOTENCE, PRIMORDIAL LOVE AND ULTIMATE INTELLECT. ONLY THOSE ELEMENTS TIME CANNOT WEAR WERE MADE BEFORE ME, AND BEYOND TIME I STAND. ABANDON ALL HOPE YE WHO ENTER HERE. 10 These mysteries I read cut into stone Above a gate. And turning I said: “Master, What is the meaning of this harsh inscription?” And he then as initiate to novice: “Here must you put by all division of spirit 15 And gather your soul against all cowardice. This is the place I told you to expect. Here you shall pass among the fallen people, Souls who have lost the good of intellect.” So saying, he put forth his hand to me, 20 And with a gentle and encouraging smile He led me through the gate of mystery. Here sighs and cries and wails coiled and recoiled On the starless air, spilling my soul to tears. A confusion of tongues and monstrous accents toiled 25 In pain and anger, voices hoarse and shrill And sounds of blows, all intermingled, raised Tumult and pandemonium that still Whirls on the air forever dirty with it As if a whirlwind sucked at sand. And I, 30 Holding my head in horror, cried: “Sweet Spirit, What souls are these who run through this black haze?” And he to me: “These are the nearly soulless Whose lives concluded neither blame nor praise. They are mixed here with that despicable corps 35 Of angels who were neither for God nor Satan, But only for themselves. The High Creator Scourged them from Heaven for its perfect beauty, And Hell will not receive them since the wicked Might feel some glory over them.” And I:
  24. 24. 126 40 “Master, what gnaws at them so hideously their lamentation stuns the very air?” “They have no hope of death,” he answered me, “and in their blind and unattaining state Their miserable lives have sunk so low 45 That they must envy every other fate. No word of them survives their living season. Mercy and Justice deny them even a name. Let us not speak of them: look, and pass on.” 50 I saw a banner there upon the mist, Circling and circling, it seemed to scorn all pause. So it ran on, and still behind it pressed A never-ending rout of souls in pain. I had not thought death had undone so many As passed before me in that mournful train. 55 And some I knew among them; last of all I recognized the shadow of that soul Who, in his cowardice, made the Great Denial. At once I understood for certain: these Were of that retrograde and faithless crew 60 Hateful to God and to His enemies. These wretches never born and never dead Ran naked in a swarm of wasps and hornets That goaded them the more the more they fled, And made their faces stream with bloody gouts 65 Of pus and tears that dribbled to their feet To be swallowed there by loathsome worms and maggots. Then looking onward I made out a throng Assembled on the beach of a wide river, Whereupon I turned to him: “Master, I long 70 To know what souls these are, and what strange Usage makes them as eager to cross as they seem to be In this infected light.” At which the Sage:
  25. 25. 127 “All this shall be made known to you when we stand On the joyless beach of Acheron.” And I 75 Cast down my eyes, sensing a reprimand In what he said, and so walked at his side In silence and ashamed until we came Through the dead cavern to that sunless tide. There, steering toward us in an ancient ferry 80 Came an old man with white bush of hair, Bellowing: “Woe to you depraved souls! Bury Here and forever all hope of Paradise: I come to lead you to the other shore, Into eternal dark, into fire and ice. 85 And you who are living yet, I say begone From these who are dead.” But when he saw me stand Against his violence he began again: “By other windings and by other steerage Shall you cross to that other shore. Not here! Not here! 90 A lighter craft than mine must give you passage.” And my Guide to him: “Charon, bite back your spleen: This has been willed where what is willed must be, And is not yours to ask what it may mean.” The steersman of that marsh of ruined souls, 95 Who wore a wheel of flame around each eye, Stifled the rage that shook his woolly jowls. But those unmanned and naked spirits there Turned pale with fear and their teeth began to chatter At sound of his crude bellow. In despair 100 They blasphemed God, their parents, their time on earth, The race of Adam, and the day and the hour And the place and the seed and the womb that gave them birth.
  26. 26. 128 But all together they drew to that grim shore Where all must come who lose the fear of God. 105 Weeping and cursing they come for evermore, And demon Charon with eyes like burning coals Herds them in, and with a whistling oar Flails on the stragglers to his wake of souls. As leaves in autumn loosen and stream down 110 Until the branch stands bare above its tatters Spread on the rustling ground, so one by one The evil seed of Adam in its Fall Cast themselves, at his signal, from the shore And streamed away like birds who hear their call. 115 So they are gone over that shadowy water, And always before they reach the other shore A new noise stirs on this, and new throngs gather. “My son,” the courteous Master said to me, “all who die in the shadow of God’s wrath 120 Converge to this from every clime and country. And all pass over eagerly, for here Divine Justice transforms and spurs them so Their dread turns wish: they yearn for what they fear. No soul in Grace comes ever to this crossing; 125 Therefore if Charon rages at your presence You will understand the reason for his cursing.” When he had spoken, all the twilight country Shook so violently, the terror of it Bathes me with sweat even in memory: The tear-soaked ground gave out a sigh of wind 130 That spewed itself in flame on a red sky, And all my shattered senses left me. Blind, Like one whom sleep comes over in a swoon, I stumbled into darkness and went down.
  27. 27. 129 Thinking about the Text 1. What is Virgil’s advice to Dante as spoken at the Gate of Hell? 2. Who are the souls tortured in this Canto? 3. What is Charon’s reaction to Dante’s attempt to cross the river of Acharon? 4. How does Virgil silence Charon? Task 7 A SENSE CHART In Canto III, Dante begins his description of Hell, which becomes an assault on the senses of the readers. As we read his harrowing descriptions of the sounds, sights, and even smells of Hell, we come to share in Dante’s repugnance of the horrible experience the poet encounters. List the details from the Canto for each sense in its proper column. Topic____________________________________________ Eye Ear Hand Lip Nose B. Use your Senses Form 4 groups. Perform the task assigned in your group. 1. Eye Group – Make a poster of what hell looks like based on the text. 2. Ear Group – Record sounds of hell based on the details from the text or use your voice and other materials available in producing the sounds. 3. Hand Group – Show an interpretative dance to reflect the movements of tormented souls. 4. Lip Group – Present a speech choir about doing good to avoid being in hell (based on the text).
  28. 28. 130 Task 8 APPLYING WHAT YOU READ In “Canto III” of “Inferno” by Dante, Charon tells the souls to “Bury here and forever all hope of Paradise.” Explain your answer. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Task 9 MAKING DEFINITIONS Definitions are a core part of any dictionary. Writing basic definitions requires skill, practice, and sometimes help. Read the basic guidelines to follow when writing a definition: Is hope necessary in resolving conflicts? 1. Just the (dictionary) facts • A definition should contain the information about the word and what the word refers to. Do not include usage notes in a definition. Get to the point. Clarity, brevity, and conciseness are better when writing definitions. 2. Avoid complicated terms • Avoid terms that are more complicated or more technical than the term being defined. The purpose of a definition is to clarify meaning. 3. Avoid specific terms • Use conventional English words in explanations whenever possible. The more widespread a term is, the more users will benefit. • Stay away from jargon. Highly technical terms will most likely require a user to look up many terms in the definition just to understand what it says. Although there are cases which involve the use of a technical term in a specialized field, it should be minimal. 4. Avoid circularity • It is not good to define a word with that same word in the definition. Use different terms. • Avoid defining a term solely using etymologically or morphologically related terms. Adverbs are especially prone to being defined by the adjective from which they derive.
  29. 29. 131 5. Make it simple • Write with simple grammatical structures rather than complex ones. Place key terms and short explanations near the start of the definition. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Help:Writing_definitions Define Me • Alphabetize the words. • With your group, go over the other unfamiliar words in your main text. • Make definitions of these unfamiliar words by following the guidelines. Word Definition YOUR DISCOVERY TASK Task 10 READ TO WRITE! Read an example of an argumentative essay below. Have you ever taken a ride in a public transportation with an aggressive driver? How did you feel? What did you do? Did you argue with the driver? Aggressive Driving Should Be Avoided Aggressive driving is a phenomenon, which has only recently got the public worried. The National Highway Traffic Safety Council (NHTSC) defines aggressive driving as the “operation of a motor vehicle in a manner that endangers or is likely to endanger persons or property.” Actions such as running red lights, improper passing, overtaking on the left, improper lane change, failing to yield, improper turns, running stop signs, tailgaiting, careless driving, and speeding are examples of aggressive driving. Such actions are dangerous to other road users. Aggressive driving should be avoided because it causes crashes, injuries and fatalities.
  30. 30. 132 The first reason why aggressive driving should be avoided is it causes crashes. According to NHTSC, between 78 percent (excessive speed) and 100 percent (improper passing) of the cases of aggressive driving resulted in traffic crashes and 96 percent of the drivers cited for “following too closely” or tailgaiting caused crashes as a result of their aggressive driving. Moreover, “running red light,” “improper passing,” and “overtaking on the left” topped other categories of aggressive driving in contributing to traffic crashes. Another reason why aggressive driving should be avoided is it causes injuries. NHTSC states that the percentages of the injuries caused by aggressive driving are, in almost all categories of aggressive driving, above 100 percent. Aggressive driving also causes fatalities. “Overtaking on the left” appears to be the most important contributing factor in traffic fatalities as it relates to aggressive driving. “Improper lane change,” “running stop sign,” and “running red light” rank second through four in terms of their contribution to traffic fatalities. The above evidence shows that aggressive driving causes crash injuries and fatalities. Hence, aggressive driving should be avoided. Since the opening on the North-South Highway, the number of kilometers of roads in the country has increased by one percent while the number of vehicle miles driven has increased by 35 percent. More cars and more drivers are also on the road leading to more aggressive drivers. http://learnenglishessay.blogspot.com/2011/12/argumentative-essay.html A. Reason Out! Inside the box provided below, give three reasons why aggressive driving should be avoided. Write your explanation opposite the box. • __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________________________ • __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________________________ • __________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________________________
  31. 31. 133 B. I Saw the Sign! With your group, create a friendly reminder / signage on motorists’ safety while driving. Write it in the box. Present the signage to the rest of the class. What you just read is an example of an argumentative essay. To know more about it, read the following details. An argumentative essay tries to change the reader’s mind by convincing the reader to agree with the writer’s point of view. Characteristics of an Argumentative Essay An argumentative essay attempts to be highly persuasive and logical. It usually assumes that the reader disagrees with the writer, but it should be noted that the reader is no less intelligent than the writer. Hence, an argumentative essay should be written objectively and logically. An argumentative essay has the following characteristics: • presents and explains the issue or case • gives reasons and supports these reasons to prove its point • refutes (proves wrong) opposing arguments. Parts 1. Introduction First is the introductory paragraph. It introduces the problem and gives the background information needed for the argument and the thesis statement. 2. Body The body of the essay contains the reasons. Each paragraph talks about one reason. The reason is included in the topic sentence and is supported by details or materials. These supporting materials can be examples, statistics, personal experiences, or quotations. 3. Conclusion The conclusion restates the main claim and gives one or two general statements which exactly summarize the arguments and support the main premise.
  32. 32. 134 Task 11 IDENTIFY AND CLASSIFY! From the model argumentative essay, identify its parts by rewriting the essential statements in the box. Aggressive Driving Should Be Avoided Introduction: Body: Conclusion: Task 12 HAVE YOUR SAY! Do you have any trouble addressing any topic given to you? What measures do you take to overcome your difficulty? A. Examine some sample questions that appeared in essay exams. 1. How do telenovelas affect your life? Discuss. 2. Should the death penalty be imposed? Discuss. 3. Why do many people believe in ghosts? Discuss. All of these are asking for either your opinion or your experience. Remember, your opinion cannot be wrong. The only way you can mess up is to poorly support your opinion. The topics lead to your opinion by asking three specific types of questions: questions of fact, value, and policy.
  33. 33. 135 B. Formulate your own! Form five groups then formulate your own claims of fact, policy, and value based on your chosen topic from the list provided. Use the organizer below to present your claims. 1. Resolving Conflicts 2. Unity in Diversity 3. Harmonizing Relationship with Others 4. Recognizing Interpersonal Convergence 5. Bridging the Gap Questions of Fact are those which ask you to answer whether or not something is. These questions are always answered with either “Yes” or “No” and then you must construct paragraphs to support the facts. Example: Is the wall blue? (Yes or No, and then your evidence) Questions of Value address the relative merit (goodness or badness) of something. Here you are usually asked to choose between things, ideas, beliefs, or actions and explain why you did so. Example: Which is more valuable, love or money? (Which and then why?) Questions of Policy ask the writer to explain what they would do. The key word in these topics is usually “should” as in “what should we do...?” The question asks the writer to make a plan of action to solve some sort of problem. The answer is a breakdown of the plan and a justification that it fixes the problem. Example: What should be done to combat the drug problem? (Plan and justify.) http://www.keithmurphy.info/1102/question.htm List of Topics 1. Resolving Conflicts 2. Unity in Diversity 3. Harmonizing Relationship with Others 4. Recognizing Interpersonal Convergence 5. Bridging the Gap
  34. 34. 136 TOPIC ________________________________________ Claim of Fact Claim of Policy Claim of Value YOUR FINAL TASK Task 13 Express Yourself! Intonation matters! Do you know that intonation affects the meaning of a sentence? Intonation – the sound changes produced by the rise and fall of the voice when speaking, especially when this has an effect on the meaning of what is said Juncture – the manner in which words come together and a connection is made Stress – accent, the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note Pitch – the property of sound with variation in frequency of vibration
  35. 35. 137 Below are the commonly used expressions. These are necessary words to be respected and accepted. A. Form a group and perform the intonation activities for oral fluency. Group 1 Say “Hello” in the following situations: • to a friend • to a friend you haven’t seen for a year • to your teacher • to a six-month old baby • to someone you found doing something they shouldn’t • to someone you’re not sure is still on the other end of the phone Group 2 Say “How are you?” in the following situations: • to someone you meet for the first time • to someone you haven’t seen for 3 years • to someone who just recovered from sickness • to someone who has recently lost a member of the family Group 3 Say “Thank you” to the following people: • someone who helped you carry your bag • someone who gave you a present • someone who opened the door for you • your boss for allowing you to take a leave Group 4 Say “Please” in the following situations: • when you’re requesting for something • when you make an order • when you are offering something • when you give a command Group 5 Say “Excuse me” in the following situations: • when you want to interrupt in a conversation • when you want to clarify something • when you are correcting someone • when you want to get a person’s name • when you’re asking for directions
  36. 36. 138 Performance Rubric Excellent (5 points) Good (4 points) Fair (3 points) Poor (2 points) Unacceptable (1 point) A perfect center of pitch, stress, juncture, and intonation are maintained ALL of the time in different situations. No tendency towards sharping or flatting note. A
perfect center
of
 pitch, stress, juncture, and intonation are
 maintained
 MOST
of
 the time in different situations.
 Students
 tend
to
 sharp
or
 flat
in
 extreme
 registers
or
 vocal
 “breaks.”
 A
perfect
 center
of
 pitch, stress, juncture, and intonation are
 maintained
 SOMETIMES in different situations.
 Student
 tends
to
 sharp
or
 flat
 throughout
 their
vocal
 range
at
 times.

 
 A
perfect
 center
of
 pitch, stress, juncture, and intonation are
 maintained
 OCCASIONALLY in different situations.
 Students sharp
or
 flat
 consistently with some
 moments
of perfect
 pitch.

 A
perfect center
of
 pitch, stress, and juncture does
NOT
 occur in different situations. Students
 have little
sense
of
 intonation.
 It’s your turn! This time say the following statements correctly and determine if you are going to use a rising or a falling intonation. 1. It’s unbelievable! 2. That’s great! 3. Oh, sure I will. 4. You must be kidding! 5. Really? That’s good! 6. Don’t worry, I understand. 7. You shouldn’t have. 8. I think I will. 9. Keep it up! 10. It’s okay.
  37. 37. 139 Task 14 NEWS WRITING AND REPORTING NEWS What makes a good news story? Brainstorm the characteristics of a good news story with a partner (3 minutes). Key Components of a Good News Story • Attention-getting headline • A strong lead containing 5 Ws and H (who, what, when, where, why, and how) • Use of quotes • Real facts (truth and accuracy matter) • A strong summary • Organization of the news (presenting information from most to least important) What makes a story newsworthy? Some key elements when considering “newsworthiness” are: • Timing:  If it happened today, it’s news, if it happened last week, it’s not; with 24-hour news access, “breaking” news is important. • Significance: How many people are affected? • Proximity:  The closer a story hits home, the more newsworthy it is. • Prominence: When famous people are affected, the story matters (i.e., car accident involving your family vs. a car accident involving the President). • Human Interest: Because these stories are based on emotional appeal, they are meant to be amusing or to generate empathy or other emotions. They often appear in special sections of the newspaper or at the end of the newscast as a “feel good” story or to draw attention to something particularly amusing, quirky, or off-beat. http://www.pbs.org/now/classroom/lessonplan-05.html A. News.. News… News… Bring a newspaper. With your partner, evaluate one article from the newspaper if it contains the key components of a good story. Is the article a good news story? Explain. B. Write a News With a partner, write a news story on resolving conflicts that happened in your school or community. Fill up the chart to help in writing the first paragraph or the lead.
  38. 38. 140 Title of the News Lead Other Details Summary Organize the information of your news story from the most important to the least. Then, rewrite the final news story on a short bond paper. Who is/are involved? What happened? When did it happen? Where did it happen? Why did it happen? How did it happen?
  39. 39. 141 C. Report News Tips on Presenting Your News • Use an introduction. Make sure these sentences are easy to understand and should be delivered no longer than 20 seconds. • Check if you are saying the names of people and places correctly. • When you read your introduction, speak clearly and be enthusiastic. • You can emphasize important words by pausing before you say them or saying them a little louder. Mark these words on your script so you won’t forget. • Speak in a normal voice. You don’t have to shout and you shouldn’t whisper. • Stand or sit up straight. Be natural. Try not to move too much or it will distract your audience. • Practice with the camera and microphone to get used to what it feels like to present a news. • Have fun and enjoy yourself! http://splashlive.abc.net.au/res/mtn/sr/w5/TSS-5.1.pdf 1. Practice to Polish With a small group, practice reporting and presenting the news story written. Follow the tips on presenting a news report. 2. Present Your News With the rest of the class, present your news report with ease and confidence. Be guided with the rubrics on the next page for a successful news report presentation. Note: The outstanding news presentation will be uploaded in YouTube. What makes a story clear, audible, and understandable?
  40. 40. 142 Oral News Report Rubric Very Good Good Fair Poor Topic Choice Topic is of high interest and educational value; teaches new ideas and information. Topic is of interest to audience; teaches some new information. Appropriate topic Inappropriate topic Content Highly detailed; well organized; shows a strong understanding of the topic Reports all the basic facts in an organized way Reports some of the basic facts Incomplete, reports few details, too brief, disorganized or confusing Voice and Manner Loud, clear, and relaxed with few pauses; well prepared Loud, clear, with some pauses to gather thoughts; seems well prepared; somewhat nervous Varies from loud and clear to difficult to understand; seems prepared; may have some nervous and distracting behavior Difficult to hear or understand; seems unprepared or has body movement which significantly distracts listeners Eye Contact Consistent eye contact with many members of the audience; rarely looks at notes Eye contact mainly with the teacher or one member of the audience; occasionally refers to notes Sometimes looks at the audience; often looks at notes or elsewhere Little or no eye contact with the audience On Time Ready on assigned date One day late Two days late Not ready until following week Audience Listens attentively & participates in discussions Listens and participates Listens but doesn’t participate Does not listen nor participate in discussions
  41. 41. 143 MY TREASURE I like to see myself as a bridge builder, that is me building bridges between people, between races, between cultures, between politics, trying to find common ground. T. D. Jakes Summing up what I learned in my journey through this lesson: I learned that _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ I realized that _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ I promise to _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/ quotes/t/tdjakes488835.html#d25Glhr KtcfXArKH.99
  42. 42. 144 Module 2 LESSON 2 ______________________________________________________________ Building Ties YOUR JOURNEY Conflicts happen everywhere. It happens in the family, among friends, in the classroom, or around the corporate conference table. The good news is that it doesn’t have to damage family relationships, friendships, or business deals. Knowing how to resolve conflict, wherever it happens, creates confidence and eases pressure and stress. Building ties is one of the best ways in resolving conflicts. There must be a connection between and among people even in this diverse world. Remember that we do not find the meaning of life by ourselves alone - we find it with other people. “We cannot live only for ourselves. A thousand fibers connect us with our fellow men; and among those fibers, as sympathetic threads, our actions run as causes, and they come back to us as effects.” - Herman Melville YOUR OBJECTIVES For you to follow the trail of your valuable journey, you have to: • present information using tables, graphs, and maps • assess whether the speaker’s purpose is achieved or not • assess the effectiveness of the ideas presented in the material viewed taking into account its purpose • explain how the elements specific to a selection build its theme • explain how the elements specific to a genre help in developing the theme of the selections • use the correct sound of English when delivering impromptu and extemporaneous speeches • observe correct grammar in making definitions • use patterns and techniques of developing an argumentative claim Be reminded that at the end of this lesson, you are expected to deliver an extemporaneous speech.
  43. 43. 145 YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1 WHAT DO YOU PERCEIVE? Observe this picture by paying attention to its details. What is the person trying to do? Do you think he’s doing the right thing? Discuss with a partner. If you were the person in the picture, would you do the same thing? Explain your answer. Task 2 LISTEN AND IMAGINE Are you a dreamer? Do you keep your dreams only to yourself? Or do you share your dreams with others? A. Before you listen to the song “Imagine” by John Lennon, complete its lyrics by filling-out the lines with the correct word using the pictures below as clues.
  44. 44. 146 Imagine by: John Lennon Imagine there’s no heaven  It’s easy if you try No hell below us  Above us only 1.) ________ Imagine all the people  Living for today Imagine there’s no countries  It isn’t hard to do  Nothing to kill or die for  And no religion too  Imagine all the people  Living life in 2.) ________ You may say I’m a 3.) ________ But I’m not the only 4.) ________ I hope someday you’ll join us  And the 5.) ________ will be as 6.) _________ Imagine no possessions  I wonder if you can  No need for greed or 7.) ________ A 8.) ________ of man  Imagine all the people  Sharing all the 9.) ________ You may say I’m a 10.) ________ But I’m not the only 11.) ________ I hope someday you’ll join us  And the 12.) ________ will live as 13.) ________ B. Check your answers with a partner while you listen to the song. C. Listen to the song for the second time and try to understand its message. Go over the words with the whole class. D. Analyze the questions provided then answer them. Imagine by John Lennon Imagine there’s no heaven  It’s easy if you try No hell below us  Above us only 1.) ________ Imagine all the people  Living for today Imagine there’s no countries  It isn’t hard to do  Nothing to kill or die for  And no religion too  Imagine all the people  Living life in 2.) ________ You may say I’m a 3.) ________ But I’m not the only 4.) ________ I hope someday you’ll join us  And the 5.) ________ will be as 6.) _________ Imagine no possessions  I wonder if you can  No need for greed or 7.) ________ A 8.) ________ of man  Imagine all the people  Sharing all the 9.) ________ You may say I’m a 10.) ________ But I’m not the only 11.) ________ I hope someday you’ll join us  And the 12.) ________ will live as 13.) ________
  45. 45. 147 Questions Answer 1. What does the title mean? 2. What is Lennon’s vision of peace? Give examples. 3. What is your vision of peace? Is it the same with the author? Explain. 4. What do you wish for? 5. What are you afraid of? 6. What kind of world will it be if we all live in peace? E. With your group, interpret the message of the song through a painting or drawing. Make your output colorful and creative. Task 3 READ TO LEAD A. KWL Before you read the speech of Lourdes R. Quisumbing entitled “Values Education for Human Solidarity,” accomplish the first two columns of the chart on what you know and what you want to know about the topic. K (What I know) W (What I want to know) L (What I learned) B. What’s the Word? Supply the correct letters to complete the missing word based on the meaning. The first and last letters are given as clues. 1. I c belonging to the essential nature of a thingl c
  46. 46. 148 2. I e very important 3. h n r s regarded as belonging fundamentally to all persons 4. e s rules of behavior based on ideas about what is morally good and bad 5. p e an unfair feeling of dislike for a person or group because of race, sex, religion, etc. VALUES EDUCATION for HUMAN SOLIDARITY Lourdes R. Quisumbing President, Asia-Pacific Network for International Education and Values Education Former Secretary of Education, Philippines First and foremost, human solidarity is founded on mutual respect of each other’s uniqueness, and a deep sense of appreciation of our common humanity - that we are individuals with intrinsic self-worth, and that we are sisters and brothers within one human family inhabiting planet EARTH, our home and our heritage. While new trends, particularly globalization, link cultures ever more closely and enrich the interaction among them, they may also be detrimental to our cultural diversity and cultural pluralism. Thus, the need for mutual respect becomes all the more imperative. Dialogue between cultures appears to be one of the fundamental cultural and political challenges for the world today. It is an essential condition of peaceful coexistence (International Conference on Cultural Policies for Development, Stockholm, Sweden, 1998). Thus, “To learn how to avoid cultural diversity resulting to the clash of cultures but rather to intercultural harmony and peace,” is a challenge to us, peace educators (Our Creative Diversity, de Cuellar’s World Commission on Culture and Development Report to UNESCO, 1995). Onecannotunderestimatetheroleofeducationforinternationalandintercultural understanding, which consists not merely in knowing more about different peoples and their cultures - their geography, history, economy, government, value-systems - but more in understanding and gaining insight into the factors and motivations underlying their behavior and appreciating their cultural patterns, traditions, customs, values, and beliefs. Human solidarity is likewise fostered by the realization and strengthening of the ties that bind us together in our common humanity: our human nature and the human condition, our common habitat and destiny, our universally-shared values.
  47. 47. 149 Indeed, there are VALUES which transcend the barriers of culture, race, gender, and creed; of social class, economic status, or political persuasions, because such values are rooted in our common humanity. They are our common treasures, our “birthright” (They could form the core of a new global ethics). The articulation of human rights has set for the modern world a “common standard of morality,” and an appreciation of individual moral claims that are regarded as “universal, inviolable and inalienable.” (Antonio J. Ledesma, S.J. “Forging a Culture of Peace: Hope for Coming Generations, 1998). They are our basic human rights and fundamental freedoms: the worth and dignity of the human person, our innate human goodness, our capacity for love and compassion, the sacredness of our person and identity; the right to truth and justice, the freedom to choose and decide for oneself, to believe, to love and to act freely according to one’s values and convictions; freedom from ignorance, fear, prejudices poverty, cruelty and abuses; the right to peace, happiness and development. “We have but one world, or none at all;” words from Jerry and Pat Mische, founders of GEA, Global Education Associates, when they came in the early 80s and founded the PCGE, Phil. Council for Global Education. I can hear them now and feel their presence among many of us. Their messages of global solidarity, global spirituality, and our common humanity, our interconnectednesss (and interrelationships) with each other and with our planet Earth and beyond, reaching the future generations, shall remain with us forever. “We either work together to build the EARTH or perish together with it.” We have only one home, one body of waters, one atmosphere, one environment. We live under one sky. What happens in one place, affects all the rest. “Humankind has for the first time, the sophistication to build its future, not on the illusion of a one-sided, ill-conceived ideology, but on a set of universal values which we all share, even if their optimal balance differs from people to people, from religion to religion and from individual to individual, and when there is great respect for such differences (de Cuellar, Creative Diversity, World Commission on Culture and Development Report to UNESCO, 1995). This calls for a paradigm shift in our educational philosophy and practice. Instead of a rigid and compartmentalized knowledge-based curriculum, we should adopt a more holistic view of education which aims at the development of the faculties and powers of the whole person – cognitive, affective, emotional, aesthetic, volitional, behavioral; a teaching-learning approach which does not stop at knowledge and information at developing skills and competence, but proceeds to understanding and gaining insights, that educates the heart and the emotions and develops the ability to choose freely and to value, to make decisions and to translate knowledge and values into action. The heart of education is the education of the heart. But by values education we do not mean merely teaching about values but rather learning how to value, how to bring knowledge into the deeper level of understandings and insights; into the affective realm of our feelings and emotions, our cherished choices and priorities into loving and appreciating, and how to internalize and translate them into our behavior. Truly, values education is a holistic process and a total learning experience.
  48. 48. 150 In closing, I wish to quote Jacques Delors speaking at the UN Conference on Environment, Rio de Janeiro, 1992: “The world is our village: if one house catches fire, the roofs over all our heads are immediately at risk. If anyone of us tries to start rebuilding, his efforts will be purely symbolic. Solidarity has to be the order of the day: each of us must bear his own share of the general responsibility.” He continues to say: “We need a global ethics to guide us in solving global issues, in strengthening our global interdependence and solidarity.” The issues have been raised and the challenges presented in many a forum, but our answers and our plans have yet to galvanize into a determined and collective action. In the last analysis, it is not in knowing alone, but in valuing and caring deeply; not in merely planning but in willing strongly TOGETHER that we can make things happen. http://www.humiliationstudies.org/documents/QuisumbingSolidarity.pdf Accomplish the last column in the KWL chart. What did you learn after reading the speech? C. TWOgether! Work with a partner and list down the important words or phrases from the speech that may be related to Human Solidarity. Human Solidarity Why do you think are these words necessary to build a harmonious relationship? Share your answer with the rest of the class.
  49. 49. 151 D. My Point of View With your group, brainstorm and discuss about the important statements included in the speech. Develop your chosen lines into a five-sentence paragraph expressing your belief and disbelief of the statement. Deliver the five-sentence paragraph by group with conviction. Task 4 I WANT A PIZZA! What values and qualities must people possess to attain harmony and solidarity? Discuss with a partner and write these values on the slices of the pizza. Explain to the rest of the class why you came up with such values. The world is our village. TOGETHER we can make things happen. We have but one world or none at all. The heart of education is the education of the heart.
  50. 50. 152 YOUR TEXT Task 5. R2 Read Roland “The Song of Roland” is an epic poem and, as such, deals with the heroic deeds of great men. It was written in the Medieval Period A. D. 450-1300 The Emperor Charlemagne, so the 900-year old French epic poem, The Song of Roland, relates, has driven the Saracens from Spain. It is only in Saragosa that King Marsilion still rules. He sends a message to Charlemagne, falsely promising that he will become a Christian if only the Emperor will leave Spain. But Charlemagne does not trust him and decides an envoy must go to the king. His valiant nephew Roland offers to go, so does Roland’s friend Oliver. Charlemagne refuses, so Roland suggests his step-father, Count Ganelon, who becomes engaged and accuses Roland of trying to bring out his death. But he accepts the Emperor’s command and prepares to go. Ganelon decided that, as he had to go, he would start at once. After he had been given a letter by Charlemagne, he girded on his sword, and mounted his horse. His knights had been saddened by his rage at the Court, for they honoured him, and offered to go with him. But he waved them away. Count Ganelon rode furiously to catch up with King Marsilion’s messenger, Blancadrin, who had left Charlemagne’s court before him. When he found him, the two rode along talking carefully to test out each other’s loyalty. “Your Emperor now has a vast Empire. Why does he want Spain as well?” asked Blancardin when the two men are resting. “Is he never satisfied?” “Never,” answered Count Ganelon. “He is ill-advised by the French, then?” said Blancadrin cunningly, for there was more of a question than a statement in the manner he spoke. There was silence for a moment, then Ganelon replied. “It is the Emperor’s nephew Roland who gives him advice,” said Ganelon bitterly. “I remember a day when Charlemagne was resting and Roland arrived hot and dusty from battle. Roland plucked an apple and said to the Emperor: “Take it, Sire. I give it you as I give you all the crowns I have taken from kings all over the earth.”
  51. 51. 153 As a result of their conversation, the two men plotted how they might be rid of Roland, for Ganelon had convinced his companion that if Roland were dead, the French would desert Charlemagne, who was now old and feeble. When they arrived at Saragosa, Blancadrin brought Count Ganelon before King Marsilion, saying: “Sire, the Emperor Charlemagne gave us no message, but sent back with us Count Ganelon to give you his answer.” “Let the Count speak then,” replied the willy ruler of Saragosa. Instead of handling over his letter, Count Ganelon insolently said: “Sire, my Emperor says, that if you become a Christian you shall have half of Spain. If not you will be taken, and carried to Aix and shamefully put to death.” The King raised a javelin he had in his hand. His courtiers held him back, while Ganelon retreated to a tree and put his hand on his sword. He spoke again. “You wrong me. Half Spain is yours if you turn Christian the other half he will give to Count Roland!” The rearguard of Charlemagne’s Army, led by Count Roland, had been treacherously attacked by King Marsilion’s Saracens at the urging of the traitor Ganelon, who hated Roland. With the battle going against the outnumbered French, Roland decided to sound his horn for help, but his friend Oliver rode up and said: “Do not sound it. Before the battle it would have been prudent: now it would be the act of a coward.” Oliver continued: “Sound your horn and you shall never marry my sister Aude, your betrothed.” Roland was dismayed, but up rode Archbishop Turpin and said “Let Roland blow the horn. It is too late, for Charlemagne is too far away. He will come and find us all dead and see how we held the Pass. And he will bury us.”
  52. 52. 154 So Roland blew his great horn Olifant. He gave one long blast. The veins stood out on his brow but he blew on and the sound of his horn echoed through the mountain pass and carried far away. The great horn call reached Emperor Charlemagne and all his company. “Roland calls!” cried Charlemagne. “He must be in battle.” One of his nobles, the Duke of Nalmon, sighed deeply. “That horn, that long, long call, is blown by a brave but desperate man, with all his remaining strength,” he said grimly. “Count Roland must need our aid.” The traitor Ganelon approached the Emperor and sneered. “You are growing old and childish, Roland is probably hunting and blowing to show his skill. No Saracen would dare fight him. Let us ride on. France is near.” “You are wrong,” said Namion. “It is a call of agony.” C h a r l e m a g n e believed Namion. He ordered his men to answer the call with trumphets, to tell Roland he was returning. His men prepared for battle then galloped back the way they had come eager to fight. Charlemagne, convinced that Ganelon had betrayed Roland, ordered his master cook to guard Ganelon as he would a murderer. So, Ganelon was chained and put upon a packhouse in greatest dishonor, with cooks to guard him. The master cook, whose name was Besgun, took his post. Meanwhile, Emperor Charlemagne and his men sped on their way to rescue Roland. There was anger in Charlemagne’s heart, anger and fear that he might be too late. He ordered his trumpetors to keep blowing still, so that Roland and his men might hear the blasts and be given hope.
  53. 53. 155 Count Roland was the last man left alive of all the valiant French who had held the pass against the Saracens. Soon the Emperor Charlemagne and the rest of the army would return, summoned by a mighty blast on Roland’s horn, but it would be too late. All they could do would be to bury the dead and mourn them and see that the traitor Ganelon was punished, for it was he who had betrayed Roland and his men to King Marsilion and his Saracen hosts. Roland had thought himself alone on the battlefield, but suddenly some Saracens rushed by, and one he thought dead, rose up and tried to steal his sword. He felled him with his horn, smashing the rim. Now Roland’s strength was at an end. He tried to shatter his great sword on a rock so that no-one else should use it, but failed. Falling down, he raised his battle glove to heaven and prayed. Then he fell back dead. Too late the Emperor arrives on the battlefield. The Saracens had fled, but not one Frenchman was left alive. While Charlemagne stood in proud grief, his fighting men gathered around him, eager to avenge Roland. “Look, my Lord,” cried Duke Damion, one of his nobles. “Beyond, there is a cloud of dust where the Saracens are flying. Let us ride them down, showing them no mercy.” Charlemagne rode on.
  54. 54. 156 http://bearalley.blogspot.com/2011/03/song-of-roland-part-3.html Task 6 UNDERSTANDING THE SONG OF ROLAND A. Describe the following characters in the epic. Roland Charlemagne Ganelon B. Answer the following questions and discuss with a partner. 1. What are the characteristics of the ideal knight according to “The Song of Roland”? 2. Why was Ganelon very angry at Roland? 3. How do you feel about King Charlemagne? Is he a wise king? Explain. Back in his palace, Marsilion lay dying, with his weeping queen beside him. Behind her were some of those warriors who had attacked the French, but failed to vanquish them. Outside were the broken Saracen survivors. Charlemagne arrived in triumph, but treated Marsilion’s widow with great courtesy. Then he returned to France where Ganelon was tried. By law, if Ganelon could find a champion who could defeat any challenger in single combat, he would be spared. One Pinabel agreed to help the traitor. Count Thierry, a friend of Roland’s, challenged Pinabel and felled him with his lance. So Ganelon paid the penalty for his crimes. Then Charlemagne set off for the wars again, but without Roland, who now belonged to legend and song.
  55. 55. 157 4. How do you feel about Roland? Why does he not sound the Olifant to call King Charlemagne’s army for help at the very beginning?Why do you think so? 5. What causes the death of Roland? C. Reader’s Response Think of a time when you, like Roland, were reluctant to ask for help as he was during the attack. What part did pride play in your hesitancy? Did you now regret not turning to someone for help? Share this experience with your group. Task 7 Understanding the Theme The theme of a work of literature is the insight it gives into life. “The Song of Roland” may be considered an epic which deals with the theme of betrayal. Within the confines of medieval society, betrayal of one’s lord or vassal was considered the greatest violation of the feudal code. With your group, think of a situation when betrayal happens in our society. Then discuss with your group the best solution for this, emphasizing how to build ties. Present this through a short dramatization. Rubrics Message------------------ 40% Acting --------------------- 30% Dialogue ----------------- 20% Teamwork --------------- 10% _______ 100% YOUR DISCOVERY TASK Have you experienced presenting an argument? Was it successful? Here are some techniques on how to develop your argument. Developing an Argument When you develop your argument, you are confirming your own position and building your case. Use empirical evidence, such as facts and statistics to support your claims. Appeal to your audience’s rational and logical thinking. Argue using your evidence and research. Your list of strengths and weaknesses can help you develop your argument.
  56. 56. 158 Techniques on Appealing to Your Readers The success of your argument depends on your skill in convincing your reader through sound reasoning, persuasion, and evidence. There are three fundamental types of appeal in presenting an argument: reason, ethics, and emotion. Write Your Conclusion Your conclusion should state your conviction strongly. Review your main points and tell your audience what action you would like them to take; address and resolve the main points in your introduction. Basic Components of an Argument • The claim (typically answers the question: “What do I think?”) • The reasons (typically answer the question: “Why do I think so?”) • The evidence (typically answers the question: “How do I know this is the case?”) Suggested Organization for a Classic Argument 1. Introduction: Give the context and background of your issue. Establish the style, tone, and significance of your issue. 2. State Your Case: Clarify your issue here. Give any necessary background for understanding the issues. Define important terms or conditions here. 3. Proposition: State your central proposition. Be sure that your hook presents an issue that is open to debate. Present the subtopics or supportive points to forecast your argument for your reader. 4. Refutation: Analyze the opposition’s argument and summarize it; refute or address the points; point out faulty reasoning and inappropriate appeals. 5. Substantiation and Proof: Present and develop your own case. Carefully plan your disclosure; avoid logical fallacies. Rely primarily on reasoning for your appeal and use emotional appeals carefully; use examples, facts, experts, and statistics. Develop your argument using the appropriate prose strategy, e.g., causal analysis, comparison, analogies, or definitions. 6. Conclusion: Conclude with conviction. Review your main points and state your claims strongly. Make a strong plea for action, or invite your readers to refute your argument. http://www.umuc.edu/writingcenter/onlineguide/chapter8-09.cfm
  57. 57. 159 Task 8 GIVE YOUR STAND! With your group, present an argument on this issue. Be able to follow the tips given. YOUR FINAL TASK Task 9 SAY YOUR PIECE! A. Speak Up! There are times when we are asked to say a few words about a topic we have no intention of speaking about. Has this ever happened to you? Here are some tips you can use the next time you are called to speak extemporaneously or to make an impromptu speech. 1. Decide quickly what your one message will be. 2. Do not try to memorize what you will say. 3. Start off strong and with confidence.  4. Decide on your transitions from one point to the other.  5. Maintain eye contact with the audience. 6. Occasionally throw in an off-the-cuff remark.  7. Finally, have a good conclusion. B. YouTube Sensation! With your group, watch a sample of impromptu or extemporaneous speeches in YouTube. Take note of what makes the speaker deliver his/her speech well. Here are some of the websites: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vp4gBmjsH74 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xGfukDMuhdQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bh6xvg_rEUI Impromptu, derived from a Latin phrase meaning “in readiness,” is applied to a speech given, a poem recited, or a song sung without advance notice or warning. Extemporaneous is especially applied to an unmemorized speech given from notes or an outline. Is global solidarity possible?
  58. 58. 160 Below is a checklist for a well-delivered speech. Check YES if you observed it in the video and NO if not. OBSERVATION YES NO 1. The speaker showed confidence. 2. The speaker maintained good posture and eye contact. 3. The speaker conveyed his/her ideas well. 4. The speaker gave an interesting introduction. 5. The speaker gave a good conclusion. 6. The speaker used facial expressions and proper gestures. 7. The speaker had good pronunciation and maintained a well- modulated voice. C. Stand and Deliver! Choose one quote given by famous authors and deliver a five-minute extemporaneous speech. Follow the tips given to deliver your speech successfully. “Let’s create an integrated global community where we have shared benefits and responsibilities and we don’t fight because of our differences.” - Bill Clinton “When we have inner peace, we can be at peace with those around us. When our community is in a state of peace, it can share that peace with neighboring communities.”  - The Dalai Lama “We have all known the long loneliness and we have learned that the only solution is love and that love comes with community.”  - Dorothy Day
  59. 59. 161 “With all my heart I believe that the world’s present system of sovereign nations can only lead to barbarism, war and inhumanity, and that only world law can assure progress towards a civilized peaceful community.”  - Albert Einstein http://www.betterworld.net/quotes/community-quotes.htm Extemporaneous Evaluation Rubrics Fair (1 point) Good (2 points) Very Good (3 points) Excellent (4 points) Points Topic Topic is too challenging or too easy for speaker’s age and skill level. Topic could be more challenging for speaker’s age and skill level. Topic is appropriate for speaker’s age and skill level. Topic is challenging for speaker’s age and skill level. Subject Knowledge and Coverage Not enough information is presented to judge speaker’s knowledge. Adequate knowledge of subject is demonstrated. In-depth knowledge of subject is demonstrated. . Full subject knowledge (more than required). Organization Speech is unorganized. Speech follows a logical progression. Speech shows skill and creativity in organization. Speech shows a strong structure and structure enhances effect of speech.
  60. 60. 162 Voice Volume, pronunciation, or vocal variation needs improvement. Voice and language are adequate for the delivery of the speech. Voice and language are skillful and effective. Volume, tone, timing, inflection, and language are used to enhance speech. Manner and Appearance Appearance, body language, or gestures need improvement. Appearance and mannerisms are appropriate. Appearance and mannerisms are presented with business like conduct and style. Appearance and mannerisms are presented with a professional demeanor and personal style. Closing Closing is missing or unclear. Closing is clear and organized. Closing is well-organized and effective. Closing is creative and contributes to a unified and cohesive presentation. Effectiveness More practice is needed to maintain audience interest. Audience interest is maintained. Effort is shown to enhance audience interest and involvement. Multiple techniques are used to artfully and successfully create audience interest. https://www.google.com.ph/webhp?source=search_app&gfe_ rd=cr&ei=v6W6U768O8zLkAXRhIDACQ&gws_rd=ssl#q=impromptu+evaluation+rubric Comments: ___________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Scoring: Total Points:_______ 18-28 Points – Gold 11-17 Points – Blue Below 10 Points - Red 18 points minimum to advance to next level / competition
  61. 61. 163 MY TREASURE Underneath We’re All the Same He prayed--it wasn’t my religion. He ate--it wasn’t what I ate. He spoke--it wasn’t my language. He dressed--it wasn’t what I wore. He took my hand--it wasn’t the color of mine. But when he laughed--it was how I laughed, and When he cried--it was how I cried. Amy Maddox, I6 years old Franklin Community H.S. Spring. 1995 We can learn to see each other and see ourselves in each other and recognize that human beings are more alike than we are unalike. – Maya Angelou Make a pledge by completing the statement below. My Resolution In the past, I have been intolerant of other people’s ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Now that I have learned the value of tolerance, I will become ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
  62. 62. 164 Module 2 LESSON 3 ______________________________________________________________ YOUR JOURNEY “We cannot be more sensitive to pleasure without being more sensitive to pain.” – Alan Watts Being sensitive to others means understanding their joy, their pain, their situation, and where they are coming from. The test of our sensitivity then is when we understand other people without bias or prejudice. Let the activities here help you develop a caring attitude for others. This week’s lesson tells about one man’s undying devotion to his muse and other historical trivia during the age of rebirth – the Renaissance. Our featured literary piece is a poem rich in poetic elements. You will also get the chance to understand more about bias that thrives in our society. Using correct grammar in making definitions and acknowledging citations in preparing a bibliography will help you effectively deliver an impromptu speech at the end of the lesson. YOUR OBJECTIVES For this lesson, here are the objectives to help you as you go through the different activities. • scan for needed information • evaluate listening texts in terms of accuracy, validity, adequacy, and relevance • detect bias and prejudice in the material viewed • give technical and operational definitions • explain how the elements specific to a genre contribute to the theme of a particular literary selection • explain the literary devices used • use the correct sound of English when delivering impromptu speech • use words and expressions that affirm or negate • acknowledge citations by preparing a bibliography Being Sensitive to Others
  63. 63. 165 YOUR INITIAL TASKS Let’s begin your lesson by working on the activities provided here. Task 1 PICTURES TALK Look at the photos below. What do they reveal about men, women, and children? Write your answers in your notebook. A. B. C. 1. With your partner, describe each picture. What do they reveal about men and women? 2. Should women always be pictured as doing household chores and men as warriors? Why? Task 2 MIND YOUR WORD Find out the message conveyed by the comic strip and be ready to share your ideas in class.
  64. 64. 166 Discussion Points: 1. What is the character in the comic strip prejudiced/biased for? against? 2. What could be the reason for the prejudice/bias? 3. Is it right to have prejudices or biases? 4. Can you think of words that you could associate with prejudice/bias? Write them in the word web below. Task 3 WATCH THAT LABEL A. Here’s a video featuring a Filipina actress who claims that it’s not right to put a label on anyone. Watch it and find out the label attached to her. www.youtube.com/watch?v=xYsvcKfq8E 1. What is the “label” attached to the woman in the video? 2. Do you agree with what the woman said? Why? 3. When you put a “label” on someone, are you also being biased? Explain. 4. What advice would you give to the woman in the video? 5. What comments do you hear from other people about women in the same situation as the actress? How should you react to them? B. Have you heard and seen examples of bias around you? Fill out the table below for more examples of bias and prejudice you have experienced around you. Work on it with your partner. In the second column, write examples of advertisements and in the last column, write the bias found in each example. Examples Biased on… Advertisements C. Can biases be avoided? How? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Prejudice Bias
  65. 65. 167 Task 4 BIAS DETECTIVES Source: http://www.sadker.org/curricularbias.html According to a group of researchers there are Seven Forms of Bias in Instructional Materials.They are as follows: 1. Invisibility: What You Don’t See Makes a Lasting Impression The most fundamental and oldest form of bias in instructional materials is the complete or relative exclusion of a group. With an attempt for inclusion after 1960, many of today’s textbooks are improved, but far from perfect. Women, those with disabilities, gays, and homosexuals continue to be missing from many of today’s texts. 2. Stereotyping: Shortcuts to Bigotry Perhaps the most familiar form of bias is the stereotype, which assigns a rigid set of characteristics to all members of a group, at the cost of individual attributes and differences. While stereotypes can be positive, they are more often negative. Some typical stereotypes include: Men portrayed as assertive and successful in their jobs, but rarely discussed as husbands or fathers. Women as caregivers. 3. Imbalance and Selectivity: A Tale Half Told Curriculum may perpetuate bias by presenting only one interpretation of an issue, situation, or group of people. Such accounts simplify and distort complex issues by omitting different perspectives. A text reports that women were “given” the vote, but does not discuss the work, sacrifices, and even physical abuse suffered by the leaders of the suffrage movement that “won” the vote. Literature is drawn primarily from western, male authors. Math and Science courses typically reference European discoveries and formulas. 4. Unreality: Rose Colored Glasses Many researchers have noted the tendency of instructional materials to gloss over unpleasant facts and events in our history. Another example is the notion that technology will resolve persistent social problems. 5. Fragmentation and Isolation: The Parts Are Less than the Whole Fragmentation emerges when a group is physically or visually isolated in the text. Often, racial and ethnic group members are depicted as interacting only with persons like themselves, isolated from other cultural communities. While this form of bias may be less damaging than omission or stereotypes, fragmentation and isolation present non-dominant groups as peripheral members of society.
  66. 66. 168 6. Linguistic Bias: Words Count Language can be a powerful conveyor of bias, in both blatant and subtle forms. Linguistic bias can impact race/ethnicity, gender, accents, age, (dis)ability, and sexual orientation. Such words as forefathers, mankind, and businessman serve to deny the contributions (even the existence) of females. 7. Cosmetic Bias: “Shiny” covers The relatively new cosmetic bias suggests that a text is bias free, but beyond the attractive covers, photos, or posters, bias persists. An example is a science textbook that features a glossy pullout of female scientists but includes precious little narrative of the scientific contributions of women. Pretend that you are a group of detectives. Using the seven forms of bias discussed here, review your school’s English reference books/textbooks and identify if it has any of those forms of biases. Write the title of the book and put a check mark on the form of bias you have discovered in the book(s). Title of the Book Invisibility Stereo- typing Selectivity Unreality Fragmentation Linguistic Bias Cosmetic Bias
  67. 67. 169 This time, suggest ways on how to avoid these biases in your English textbook. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ YOUR TEXT Task 5 LOVE IS EVERYWHERE A. Being sensitive to others is one way of showing love and concern. Whose love story do you consider special and worth emulating? Here are photos from some romantic films. Match the description of the characters in the movie to the photos. Danielle, the only daughter of a deceased French nobleman, is made a servant by her stepmother. She also has two stepsisters, one quite kind but the other one really terrible. Still, Danielle grows up to be a happy and strong-willed young lady, and one day her path crosses that of handsome Prince Henry, who has fallen in love with her. Despite some troubles, Danielle and the Prince end up together with the help of the nice Leonardo da Vinci. Rebellious high school student Landon Carter is threatened with expulsion unless he performs in the drama club’s spring musical. At this function, he is forced to interact with quiet Jamie Sullivan who has helped him with his lines. During the play, Jamie surprises Landon and the entire audience with her beauty and voice. While their friendship and admiration for each other grows deeper, Jamie’s cancer gets worse. In 1912 Southampton, 17-year-old first- class passenger Rose DeWitt Bukater who is engaged to be married against her will plans to jump off the ship. Jack Dawson, a penniless artist, convinces her not to. This incident started their friendship which later on develops into a romantic love affair.
  68. 68. 170 B. Can you name other movies that speak of great love? Girls, in the future when a man courts you, how would you want him to do it? Boys, how do you plan to win the heart of your ladylove someday? • List down what you dream of in a courtship. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ • Read about the courtship during the middle-ages. Compare it with your “ideal” courtship. Chivalry and Romantic Ideals (Middle Ages, 1100-1500) The knights and troubadours (traveling poets and musicians) of medieval times opened doors, pulled out chairs, and let their ladyloves order first. These men knew their ladies wants and desires, it always came first and foremost in love; winning ladies’ hearts was their ultimate goal. Wealthy knights won women’s hands through brave deeds, while the poets won them over through their use of words and songs. These ideas were inspired by “courtly love,” which was a highly idealized and extravagant forbidden affair (mostly among the noble class) whose core beliefs were the superiority of the lady, the instability of desire, and the ennobling power of love. See more at: http://www.match.com/magazine/article/12357/#sthash.GSRJcl6o.dpuf • When one is in love, one has the tendency to be biased. Name an incident when you did something in the name of love. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Love has been around us from the very beginning. During the 14th century, an Italian poet named Francesco Petrarch celebrated his love for his forever muse- Laura through a collection of poems called “Canzoniere.” The English called him the greatest Italian poet of the 14th century by setting a pattern for lyric poetry. This was also the time when people were starting to reconnect their relationship with God and other men and women brought about by the rediscovery of the classics. This period is called the Rebirth or the Renaissance.
  69. 69. 171 • Here are poems from Petrarch’s Canzoniere. Read enjoy the rhyme and rhythm, and discover the message of each poem. • Before you start reading, think about this: How would you describe someone you are passionately in love with? LAURA Translated by Morris Bishop She used to let her golden hair fly free For the wind to toy and tangle and molest; Her eyes were brighter than the radiant west. (Seldom they shine so now.) I used to see Pity look out of those deep eyes on me. (“It was false pity,” you would now protest) I had love’s tinder heaped within my breast; What wonder that the flame burned furiously? She did not walk in any mortal way, But with angelic progress; when she spoke, Unearthly voices sang in unison. She seemed divine among the dreary folk Of earth. You say she is not so today? Well, though the bow’s unbent, the wound bleeds on. The White Doe Translated by Anna Maria Armi A pure-white doe in an emerald glade Appeared to me, with two antlers of gold, Between two streams, under a laurel’s shade,
  70. 70. 172 At sunrise, in the season’s bitter cold. Her sight was so suavely merciless That I left work to follow her at leisure, Like the miser who looking for his treasure Sweetens with that delight his bitterness. Around her lovely neck “Do not touch me,” Was written with topaz and diamond stone, “My Caesar’s will has been to make me free.” Already toward noon had climbed the sun, My weary eyes were not sated to see, When I fell in the stream and she was gone. Spring Translated by Morris Bishop Zephyr returns, and scatters everywhere New flowers and grass, and company does bring, Procne and Philomel, in sweet despair, And all the tender colors of the Spring. Never were fields so glad, nor skies so fair, And Jove exults in Venus prospering. Love is in all the water, earth and air, And love possesses every living thing.
  71. 71. 173 But to me only heavy sighs return For her who carried in her little hand My heart’s key to her heavenly sojourn, The birds sing loud above the flowering land; Ladies are gracious now – Where deserts burn The beasts still prowl on the ungreening sand. Task 6 THINK ABOUT THE POEMS In your group, answer the questions about the three poems. Laura 1. In the poem “Laura,” how was Laura described by the speaker? 2. In Laura’s “present and past,” what are the common details the speaker remembers about Laura? 3. How does Laura seem to have changed? 4. Though years passed,what aspects in the poem “Laura” remain unchanged? The White Doe 1. What details in the “The White Doe” tell about time and season? 2. What is a doe? 3. How is the doe described in the poem? 4. To whom is the “white doe” compared in the poem? 5. What emotion does the last stanza evoke in you? Spring 1. “Spring” is written after Laura’s death. What does the speaker emphasize about the spring? 2. What makes the speaker describe differently the springtime scene? 3. What does the ending of the poem reveal about the speaker? 4. Who is referred to in the three poems? 5. Petrarch was a fourteenth-century writer. In his poems, what are the situations or feelings that you could relate to? On the other hand, in what ways are the situations or feelings in the poem outdated?

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