Testing Grammar

S
Testing    Grammar,[object Object],Jonathan Magdalena,[object Object]
What are we trying to MEASURE?,[object Object],“English grammar is chiefly a system of ,[object Object],                  syntax that decides ,[object Object],	   the order and ,[object Object],              patternsin which ,[object Object],	words are arranged,[object Object],	        	into sentences.”(Close, 1982),[object Object]
Why should we test grammar?,[object Object],Linguisticor communicative competence?,[object Object],Structures or functions?,[object Object],Usage or use?,[object Object],Prescriptive or descriptive?,[object Object]
Howshould we test grammar?,[object Object],Separated from skills?,[object Object],Discrete point or integrative items?,[object Object],Focus on grammar or meaning?,[object Object]
What are the most common test formats for testing grammar?,[object Object],RECOGNITION,[object Object],Multiple choice items (Liu, 121),[object Object],Error-recognition items (Liu, 129),[object Object],True/False (Baxter, 35) ,[object Object],Pairing and matching items,[object Object],Cloze/Modified Cloze (Hughes, 144),[object Object]
What are the most common test formats for testing grammar?,[object Object],Production,[object Object],Completion items (Hughes, 143) ,[object Object],Transformation items (Liu, 131),[object Object],Paraphrase (Hughes, 143),[object Object],Rearrangement,[object Object],Editing,[object Object],Combination and addition items,[object Object],Items involving the changing of words,[object Object]
When should we go for grammarrecognition?,[object Object],When…,[object Object],More material needs to be covered. ,[object Object],You want to test different levels of learning. ,[object Object],You have little time for scoring. ,[object Object],You are not interested in evaluating how well a test taker can formulate a correct answer. ,[object Object],You have a large number of test takers. ,[object Object]
When should we go for grammarproduction?,[object Object],When…,[object Object],You want to evaluate a person’s ability to formulate a correct answer. ,[object Object],You have more time to score the items,[object Object],You want to test a persons ability to apply concepts and information to a new situation. ,[object Object],You have a clear idea of the aspects and concepts that should be tested. ,[object Object]
True/False,[object Object],Is this sentences true or false?,[object Object],“He works from Monday to Friday”,[object Object],Does not demonstrate broader knowledge ,[object Object],Difficult to construct in higher levels  ,[object Object],Encourages guessing due to 50/50 chance  ,[object Object],Difficult to test attitudes toward learning ,[object Object]
Multiple Choice,[object Object],John usually ______from Monday to Friday,[object Object],a. works    b. worked   c. has worked   d. is working ,[object Object],They can be tricky or too picky   ,[object Object],Difficult to test attitudes towards learning ,[object Object],Knowledge is limited to options provided ,[object Object],Difficult to construct at higher levels ,[object Object],Encourages guessing (25% chance) ,[object Object],More than one option may be possible,[object Object],All options must be grammatically possible,[object Object]
Gap-Filling,[object Object],John usually ______(work) from Monday to Friday,[object Object],They must be part of a broader context   ,[object Object],More than one option may be possible,[object Object],First gap may be offered as a sample,[object Object],Difficult to test attitudes towards learning ,[object Object],Knowledge is limited to options provided ,[object Object],Limitations result in negative backwash,[object Object],Focus should be on the aspect assessed.,[object Object]
Cloze/C-test,[object Object],John is new in town. He moved here for two reasons. First, ______ found a job in a food company ______ is established here; secondly, he desperately wanted ______ be closer to his girlfriend, Susan Sommers, ______ recently moved  to our neighboring town.,[object Object],Tests student’s understanding of the whole language   ,[object Object],More than one option may be possible,[object Object],First letter may be offered as a sample,[object Object],Some words may be impossible to guess ,[object Object],Can test student’s IQ rather than language proficiency,[object Object]
Sentence Building,[object Object],Friday/usually/to/John/Monday/work,[object Object],Tests recognition and/or production  ,[object Object],More than one option may be possible,[object Object],Capital letters and punctuation may interfere in the production of the answer,[object Object],It gives no context as reference to grammar use. ,[object Object],It actually challenges knowledge of syntax,[object Object]
Sentence Transformation,[object Object],John is a doctor (Is John a doctor?),[object Object],More than one option may be possible,[object Object],It may be too mechanical.  Add elements to make them realistic.,[object Object],It is limited in the provision of context ,[object Object],Few aspects might be assessed (passive, reported, comparatives, conditionals…),[object Object]
Correction/Editing,[object Object],John usually working from Monday to Friday,[object Object],Tests recognition of mistakes,[object Object],Can also test production through corrections,[object Object],More than one correction may be possible,[object Object],Mistakes must be grammatically possible ,[object Object],Backwash may be negative ,[object Object],Context is essential,[object Object]
Five characteristics to measure communicativegrammar,[object Object],The test must provide more context than only a single sentence.,[object Object],The test taker should understand what the communicative purpose of the task is.,[object Object],S/He should also know who the intended audience is.,[object Object],Items should promote a focus on meaning and not just form to answer correctly.,[object Object],Recognition is not sufficient.  The test taker must be able “to produce grammatical responses ” adequate to the communicative situation given- (R. Dickins),[object Object]
Therefore…,[object Object],Have the test taker say or write something of discourse length in order to perform some communicative task for a known audience.,[object Object],What is said or written must make sense.,[object Object]
Sampleactivities,[object Object]
Split Sentences,[object Object],Write out some sentences, and then cut each sentence in half. Place the two halves in two separate columns and ask students to find the matching half. ,[object Object],Students’ abilities in combing sentences,[object Object],Grammar knowledge to all forms of the sentences,[object Object]
Examples,[object Object],If you eat that,[object Object],If you touch the dog,[object Object],If you steal my boyfriend,[object Object],If you go out now,[object Object],If you don’t leave,[object Object],If you don’t book a ticket,[object Object],you’ll be sick,[object Object],it’ll bite you,[object Object],I’ll never speak to you again,[object Object],you’ll get soaked,[object Object],I’ll call the police,[object Object],you’ll be lucky to get a seat,[object Object]
Sentences from pictures,[object Object],Hand out a sheet of pictures.  Ask students to come out sentences from the pictures or ask them to tell a story.,[object Object],Enough grammar knowledge to make sentences by students. ,[object Object],Accuracy,[object Object]
Testing Grammar
Memory Test,[object Object],Give limited time for students to see the picture.  Ask them to describe the picture without seeing it.    ,[object Object],Testing students’ ability of making sentences.(enough grammar knowledge),[object Object],Accuracy,[object Object],The transformation of students’ sentences,[object Object]
Testing Grammar
Picture Dictation,[object Object],A student try to describe the picture to other students who haven’t seen it.,[object Object],Testing if a student can make sentences which can help him/her communicate well.,[object Object],Accuracy,[object Object]
Testing Grammar
Strip Story,[object Object],Give students a text from a strip story.  Ask them to find the order and resolve the problem from the story.,[object Object],See if students can find the time order from the tenses of the sentences.,[object Object],Accuracy,[object Object]
Testing Grammar
Miming an action,[object Object],Ask students to role play in a limited situation.,[object Object],Through acting, it can test students’ ability of thinking of lines.  (which may contains different tenses.),[object Object],Accuracy,[object Object]
Growing Stories,[object Object],Story-building activities,[object Object],Students’ ability of making sentences with different tenses,[object Object]
Testing Grammar
Questionnaires,[object Object],Turn what have taught in class into a questionnaire.  Get students to survey each other.  (does not contain fully-written-out questions.),[object Object],It can see if students’ totally understand what they have learned in class.  Also it can show if students’ can use it well.,[object Object]
Testing Grammar
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Testing Grammar

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