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The Natural approach

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This a very detailed presentation about the Natural approach, which can help English Language teacher and applied linguistics students.

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The Natural approach

  1. 1. The Natural approach Module: Methods & approaches Trainer : Mr.Ahmed Atlagh Prepared by: Salah Saika
  2. 2. Outline:  1) History  2) Introduction  3) Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition.  4) PRINCIPLES  5) Roles of the teacher and learner.  6) Instructional Materials  7) Techniques  8) The Strengths and weaknesses of the Natural approach.  9) Conclusion  10)References
  3. 3. History:  Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell developed the "Natural Approach" in the early eighties (Krashen and Terrell,1983), based on Krashen's‟ five theories on second language acquisition.  “Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules and, does not require tedious drill’.  "Acquisition requires meaningful’’ interaction in the target language – natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding.
  4. 4. Introduction:  It derives from or can be related to the Direct Method The Natural Approach came out as a reaction toward Structural methods such as the Audiolingual Method ,In the Natural Approach, Krashen and Terrell see communication as the primary function of the language, thus, this approach focuses on teaching communicative abilities ,This approach is based on the use of language in communicative situations without recourse to the native language and without reference to grammatical analysis, drill or any particular grammar theory. “Language is viewed as a vehicle for communicating meanings and messages”.
  5. 5. Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition: the monitor model, is a group of five hypotheses of second-language acquisition developed by the linguist Stephen Krashen in the 1970s and 1980s. Krashen originally formulated the input hypothesis as just one of the five hypotheses, but over time the term has come to refer to the five hypotheses as a group.
  6. 6. The acquisition-learning hypothesis Acquisition Learning subconscious Conscious Natural Unnatural Non-threatening environment Threatening environment Leads to fluency Does not guarantee fluency We use what we acquire to communicate We use what we learn to correct our speech and writing Acquisition happens to you Learning is done to you According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second language performance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'.
  7. 7. The monitor hypothesis  The monitor hypothesis is a device that monitor and edit the learner's output:  It is responsible for making correction conscious. Types of monitor users Over users Optimal users Under users  The monitor exists only in learning but not in acquisition  The overuse of the monitor hinders learning.  According to Krashen, the role of the monitor is or should be minor.(Krashen, 1982) Are learners who attempt “monitor "all the time Are learners who use the "monitor” appropriately. Are learners who prefer not to use their conscious knowledge.
  8. 8. The natural order hypothesis  The natural order hypothesis states that we acquire language in a predictable or a “Natural” order.  The language features that are easy to learn are not always the first to be acquired.  Errors are often signs of naturalistic developmental processes. (Ing) progressive Irregular past Regular past Plural 3rd person singular
  9. 9. The input hypothesis  Input is language that the learner is exposed to through (listening ,reading).  Comprehensible input ‘ is the only true cause of L2 acquisition.  For language acquisition to occur the language input should be comprehensible ,but it should contain structures beyond the current level of competence (i+1)  (Comprehensible known)  According to this hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses along the 'natural order' when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence.
  10. 10. The affective filter hypothesis  The affective filter is an invisible psychological barrier that can either facilitate or prevents learners from acquiring language even if input is available .  Affective refers to feeling ,motives, needs, attitudes .  Learning occurs in a anxiety-free environment.  In order to lower the filter the teacher should give positive reinforcement ,Schedule outdoor activities, Use authentic materials , tolerate mistakes and correct them implicitly.
  11. 11. PRINCIPLES  "Focus of instruction is on communication rather than its form.  “"Speech production comes slowly and is never forced”.  “Early speech goes through natural stages (yes or no response, one- word answers, lists of words, short phrases, complete sentences.)”
  12. 12. Roles of the teacher: Roles of the learner:  Pre-production stage: learners participate in the language activity without having to respond.  Early-production stage: learners answer questions, with single words and short phrases.  Speech-emergent stage: learners involve themselves in role plays, games and other activities.  Act as an authority in the class.  Imitate the first language learning process.  Creatively instruct students to do activities that benefit the language learning.
  13. 13. Instructional materials  Make classroom activities as meaningful as possible and promote comprehension, and The primary aim of materials is to promote comprehension and communication.  Pictures and other visual aids are essential, because they supply the content for communication.  Materials come from the world of realia rather than from textbooks.
  14. 14. TECHNIQUES  pictures, objects  Mime/ commands  Body language  Audio-visual aids  Memorizing games
  15. 15. STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES Strengths :  There is no grammar instruction in this method.  Reliable as it is widely used  Students acquire the target language in a natural and easy way. Weaknesses :  It takes long time and learner can do only elementary things.  It does not suit for those who do not have much time.  The method rarely concerns about correctness.
  16. 16. CONCLUSION The Natural Approach belongs to a tradition of language teaching methods based on observation and interpretation of how learners acquire both first and second languages in non-formal settings. Such methods reject the formal (grammatical) organization of language as a prerequisite to teaching. Therefore, the Natural Approach excels in building a safe environment for the learner, which may be beneficial in the end for ultimate second language acquisition.
  17. 17. References:  Richards, Jack C. (2015). Key Issues in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.  Krashen, S. D., & Terrell, T. D. (1983). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. Hayward, Calif: Alemany Press.  Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and principles in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.