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The Natural approach
Module: Methods & approaches
Trainer : Mr.Ahmed Atlagh
Prepared by: Salah Saika
3) Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition.
5) Roles of the teacher and learner.
6) Instructional Materials
8) The Strengths and weaknesses of the Natural approach.
Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell developed the "Natural Approach" in
the early eighties (Krashen and Terrell,1983), based on Krashen's‟ five
theories on second language acquisition.
“Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious
grammatical rules and, does not require tedious drill’.
"Acquisition requires meaningful’’ interaction in the target language –
natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the
form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and
It derives from or can be related to the Direct Method The Natural Approach
came out as a reaction toward Structural methods such as the Audiolingual
Method ,In the Natural Approach, Krashen and Terrell see communication as the
primary function of the language, thus, this approach focuses on teaching
communicative abilities ,This approach is based on the use of language in
communicative situations without recourse to the native language and without
reference to grammatical analysis, drill or any particular grammar theory.
“Language is viewed as a vehicle for communicating meanings and messages”.
Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition:
the monitor model, is a group of five hypotheses of second-language
acquisition developed by the linguist Stephen Krashen in the 1970s
and 1980s. Krashen originally formulated the input hypothesis as just
one of the five hypotheses, but over time the term has come to refer
to the five hypotheses as a group.
The acquisition-learning hypothesis
Non-threatening environment Threatening environment
Leads to fluency Does not guarantee fluency
We use what we acquire to
We use what we learn to correct
our speech and writing
Acquisition happens to you Learning is done to you
According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second
language performance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'.
The monitor hypothesis
The monitor hypothesis is a device that monitor and edit the learner's output:
It is responsible for making correction conscious.
Types of monitor users
The monitor exists only in learning but not in acquisition
The overuse of the monitor hinders learning.
According to Krashen, the role of the monitor is or should be
Are learners who
attempt “monitor "all
Are learners who use the
Are learners who
prefer not to use their
The natural order hypothesis
The natural order hypothesis states that we acquire language in a predictable or a
The language features that are easy to learn are not always the first to be acquired.
Errors are often signs of naturalistic developmental processes.
3rd person singular
The input hypothesis
Input is language that the learner is exposed to through (listening ,reading).
Comprehensible input ‘ is the only true cause of L2 acquisition.
For language acquisition to occur the language input should be comprehensible ,but it
should contain structures beyond the current level of competence (i+1)
According to this hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses along the 'natural
order' when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her
current stage of linguistic competence.
The affective filter hypothesis
The affective filter is an invisible psychological barrier that can either
facilitate or prevents learners from acquiring language even if input is
Affective refers to feeling ,motives, needs, attitudes .
Learning occurs in a anxiety-free environment.
In order to lower the filter the teacher should give positive
reinforcement ,Schedule outdoor activities, Use authentic materials ,
tolerate mistakes and correct them implicitly.
"Focus of instruction is on communication rather than its
“"Speech production comes slowly and is never forced”.
“Early speech goes through natural stages (yes or no
response, one- word answers, lists of words, short
phrases, complete sentences.)”
Roles of the teacher:
Roles of the learner:
Pre-production stage: learners participate in the language activity
without having to respond.
Early-production stage: learners answer questions, with single words
and short phrases.
Speech-emergent stage: learners involve themselves in role plays,
games and other activities.
Act as an authority in the class.
Imitate the first language learning process.
Creatively instruct students to do activities that benefit the
Make classroom activities as meaningful as possible and promote
comprehension, and The primary aim of materials is to promote
comprehension and communication.
Pictures and other visual aids are essential, because they supply
the content for communication.
Materials come from the world of realia rather than from
STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES
There is no grammar instruction in this method.
Reliable as it is widely used
Students acquire the target language in a natural and easy way.
It takes long time and learner can do only elementary things.
It does not suit for those who do not have much time.
The method rarely concerns about correctness.
The Natural Approach belongs to a tradition of language teaching methods
based on observation and interpretation of how learners acquire both first
and second languages in non-formal settings. Such methods reject the
formal (grammatical) organization of language as a prerequisite to
teaching. Therefore, the Natural Approach excels in building a safe
environment for the learner, which may be beneficial in the end for
ultimate second language acquisition.
Richards, Jack C. (2015). Key Issues in Language Teaching. Cambridge
Krashen, S. D., & Terrell, T. D. (1983). The natural approach: Language
acquisition in the classroom. Hayward, Calif: Alemany Press.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and principles in language
teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.