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Algae
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Algae

  1. 1. AlgaeAlgae Md. Saiful IslamMd. Saiful Islam Dept. of Pharmaceutical SciencesDept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences North South UniversityNorth South University Facebook Group: Pharmacy UniverseFacebook Group: Pharmacy Universe YouTube Channel: Pharmacy UniverseYouTube Channel: Pharmacy Universe
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction  Algae belong to the kingdom protistaAlgae belong to the kingdom protista  Algae are eukaryotes (cells have organelles)Algae are eukaryotes (cells have organelles)  Algae contain chlorophyll and are photosyntheticAlgae contain chlorophyll and are photosynthetic  Require moist environment because they lack a waxyRequire moist environment because they lack a waxy cuticle( cuticle prevents water loss in terrestrial plants)cuticle( cuticle prevents water loss in terrestrial plants)  They differ from other green plants in having simple reproductiveThey differ from other green plants in having simple reproductive structures for reproduction.structures for reproduction.  They range from microscopic unicellular forms comparable in sizeThey range from microscopic unicellular forms comparable in size to bcteria to seaweeds that may grow to many feet length.to bcteria to seaweeds that may grow to many feet length.  The study of this unique group of organisms (algae) is calledThe study of this unique group of organisms (algae) is called phycology.phycology.
  3. 3. Occurrence of AlgaeOccurrence of Algae  Thousands of species occur in nature.Thousands of species occur in nature.  They are of great abundance is oceans, seas, saltThey are of great abundance is oceans, seas, salt lakes, freshwater lakes, ponds and streams.lakes, freshwater lakes, ponds and streams.  Plankton: principal food for aquatic animals andPlankton: principal food for aquatic animals and planktons for a large part of the free-floatingplanktons for a large part of the free-floating microscopic life in water.microscopic life in water.  Phytoplankton is made up of plants i.e. algal forms.Phytoplankton is made up of plants i.e. algal forms.  Algae are normally found where there are sufficientAlgae are normally found where there are sufficient light, moisture and simple nutrients to sustain them.light, moisture and simple nutrients to sustain them.
  4. 4. Occurrence of AlgaeOccurrence of Algae  Some special species may grow on ice andSome special species may grow on ice and snow.snow.  Some can grow in hot springs at temperaturesSome can grow in hot springs at temperatures 5555ºC.ºC.  Marine algae can adapt to the variation of saltMarine algae can adapt to the variation of salt concentration of marine environment.concentration of marine environment.  Algae may cause problem in water suppliesAlgae may cause problem in water supplies because they produce undesirable taste andbecause they produce undesirable taste and odor.odor.
  5. 5. Biological andBiological and Economic ImportanceEconomic Importance of Algaeof Algae  Algae as Primary Producers:Algae as Primary Producers:  Algae helps to fix carbon (capture carbonAlgae helps to fix carbon (capture carbon dioxide and change into organic compoundsdioxide and change into organic compounds like sugar) through photosynthesis.like sugar) through photosynthesis.  They are the base of the aquatic food chain -They are the base of the aquatic food chain - photosynthetic organismsphotosynthetic organisms  Algae that are present in soil can help toAlgae that are present in soil can help to increase its fertility.increase its fertility.
  6. 6. Biological andBiological and Economic ImportanceEconomic Importance of Algaeof Algae  Commercial products from algae:Commercial products from algae:  Three important products from algae are: agar , alginicThree important products from algae are: agar , alginic acid and carrageenan which are extracted from theacid and carrageenan which are extracted from the walls of algae.walls of algae.  All three compounds are used either to make gels or toAll three compounds are used either to make gels or to make solutions viscous.make solutions viscous.  Algin- a thickening agent for food processing (brown algae),Algin- a thickening agent for food processing (brown algae), cheese, bakery product, frostings etc.cheese, bakery product, frostings etc.  Carrageenan – foods, puddings, ice cream, toothpaste (redCarrageenan – foods, puddings, ice cream, toothpaste (red algae)algae)  Agar – as solidifying agent for growth media used in researchAgar – as solidifying agent for growth media used in research (red algae)(red algae)
  7. 7. Biological andBiological and Economic ImportanceEconomic Importance of Algaeof Algae Algae as Food:Algae as Food:  red and brown algae are mostly used as food.red and brown algae are mostly used as food.  Red algae is a significant food in china.Red algae is a significant food in china. Algae and DiseasesAlgae and Diseases  A few algae can be pathogenesis to humans in causingA few algae can be pathogenesis to humans in causing systemic and subcutaneous infections as well assystemic and subcutaneous infections as well as bursitis (inflammation of joints).bursitis (inflammation of joints).  Some planktonic algae produce toxins which are lethalSome planktonic algae produce toxins which are lethal to fish and other animals.to fish and other animals.  Shell fish poisoning may occur in humans (bloom ofShell fish poisoning may occur in humans (bloom of dinoflagellates). The victim experience numbing of lips,dinoflagellates). The victim experience numbing of lips, tongue and fingure tips and in serious casestongue and fingure tips and in serious cases respiratory failure can result.respiratory failure can result.
  8. 8. Biological andBiological and Economic ImportanceEconomic Importance of Algaeof Algae  Production of biofuel:Production of biofuel:  BiofuelBiofuel is a type of fuelis a type of fuel whose energy is derivedwhose energy is derived from biological carbonfrom biological carbon fixation.fixation.  Can produce high yields ofCan produce high yields of  Lipids for biodieselLipids for biodiesel  starch / polysaccharides forstarch / polysaccharides for ethanolethanol
  9. 9. Characteristics ofCharacteristics of AlgaeAlgaeMorphologyMorphology  Wide range of shape and size are availableWide range of shape and size are available  May occur as single cells as spherical, rod-May occur as single cells as spherical, rod- shaped, club-shaped or spindle shaped.shaped, club-shaped or spindle shaped.  Others are multicellular and includeOthers are multicellular and include membranous colonies, filaments grouped singlymembranous colonies, filaments grouped singly or in clusters, branched or unbranched etc.or in clusters, branched or unbranched etc.  In most species cell wall is thin and rigid.In most species cell wall is thin and rigid.  Motile algae have flexible cell membranes calledMotile algae have flexible cell membranes called periplasts.periplasts.  Algae contain discrete nucleus.Algae contain discrete nucleus.  Chlorophyll and other pigments are found inChlorophyll and other pigments are found in membrane bound organelles called chloroplasts.membrane bound organelles called chloroplasts.  Other inclusions include starch grains, oilOther inclusions include starch grains, oil droplets and vacuoles.droplets and vacuoles.
  10. 10. Structure of algaeStructure of algae
  11. 11. Characteristics ofCharacteristics of AlgaeAlgae Algal pigmentsAlgal pigments  Chlorophylls: Lipid soluble pigment. Helps inChlorophylls: Lipid soluble pigment. Helps in photosynthesis and there are 5 types of chlorophyllphotosynthesis and there are 5 types of chlorophyll present in different species of algae. Produces greenpresent in different species of algae. Produces green color.color.  Carotenoids: Lipid soluble pigment. There are twoCarotenoids: Lipid soluble pigment. There are two types of carotenoids: carotenes and xanthophylls. Givetypes of carotenoids: carotenes and xanthophylls. Give rise to orange color.rise to orange color.  Biloproteins (phycobilins): Water soluble pigments.Biloproteins (phycobilins): Water soluble pigments. They are present in two algal divisions. There are 2They are present in two algal divisions. There are 2 types of phycobilins: phycocyanin (blue pigment) andtypes of phycobilins: phycocyanin (blue pigment) and phycoerythrin (red). Their proportion can varyphycoerythrin (red). Their proportion can vary considerably with changes in nature.considerably with changes in nature.
  12. 12. Characteristics ofCharacteristics of AlgaeAlgae MotilityMotility  Motile algae or swimming algae have flagellaMotile algae or swimming algae have flagella that occur singly, in pairs or in clusters at thethat occur singly, in pairs or in clusters at the anterior or posterior of the cell.anterior or posterior of the cell.  Some algae have no means of locomotion andSome algae have no means of locomotion and are carried by tides, waves and currents.are carried by tides, waves and currents.  A small red or orange body (eyespot) isA small red or orange body (eyespot) is present near the anterior end of motile algae.present near the anterior end of motile algae. Other algae contain knobs on their exteriorOther algae contain knobs on their exterior which may be anchored to some object.which may be anchored to some object.
  13. 13. Characteristics ofCharacteristics of AlgaeAlgae  ReproductionReproduction Most reproduce both sexually and asexuallyMost reproduce both sexually and asexually  Most sexual reproduction is triggered byMost sexual reproduction is triggered by environmental stressenvironmental stress  Asexual Reproduction: By production ofAsexual Reproduction: By production of unicellular spores (zoospores: have flagellaunicellular spores (zoospores: have flagella and are motile; aplanospores: non-motile).and are motile; aplanospores: non-motile).  Sexual Reproduction:Sexual Reproduction: Spirogyra reproduceSpirogyra reproduce sexually by conjugation.sexually by conjugation.
  14. 14. Examples of AlgaeExamples of Algae Rhodophycophyta (red algae):Rhodophycophyta (red algae):  4000 species of4000 species of RED AlgaeRED Algae  Are some of the oldest eukaryotic on earth (2 billionAre some of the oldest eukaryotic on earth (2 billion year old fossils)year old fossils)  Most are marine; abound in tropical, warm watersMost are marine; abound in tropical, warm waters  Smaller than brown algae and are often found at aSmaller than brown algae and are often found at a depth of 200 meters.depth of 200 meters.  Act as food and habitat for many marine speciesAct as food and habitat for many marine species  Structure from thin films to complex filamentousStructure from thin films to complex filamentous membranesmembranes  Contain chlorophyll a and c as well as phycobilinsContain chlorophyll a and c as well as phycobilins which are important in absorbing light that canwhich are important in absorbing light that can penetrate deep into the waterpenetrate deep into the water
  15. 15. Examples of AlgaeExamples of Algae  Red algae used as foodRed algae used as food  Have cells coated in carageenan which is used inHave cells coated in carageenan which is used in cosmetics, gelatin capsules, ice cream, jellies, syrups,cosmetics, gelatin capsules, ice cream, jellies, syrups, breads and some cheeses.breads and some cheeses.  Also used for lotions, toothpaste, pharmaceutical jelliesAlso used for lotions, toothpaste, pharmaceutical jellies  Agar – extracted from cell walls of red algaeAgar – extracted from cell walls of red algae
  16. 16. Examples of AlgaeExamples of Algae Chlorophycophyta (green algae):Chlorophycophyta (green algae):  7000 diverse species7000 diverse species  Largest and most diverse group of algaeLargest and most diverse group of algae  Found mostly in fresh waters and on landFound mostly in fresh waters and on land  Float in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, creeksFloat in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, creeks  Can also live on rocks, trees, soilCan also live on rocks, trees, soil  Both green algae and land plants have chlorophyll a and b asBoth green algae and land plants have chlorophyll a and b as well as carotenoids and store food as starchwell as carotenoids and store food as starch  Both have walls made of celluloseBoth have walls made of cellulose  Structure of green algae from singles, filaments, colonies, thalliStructure of green algae from singles, filaments, colonies, thalli (leaf like shape)(leaf like shape)
  17. 17. Examples of AlgaeExamples of Algae Phaeophycophyta (brownPhaeophycophyta (brown algae):algae):  1500 species of1500 species of BrownBrown algaealgae  Mostly marine and includeMostly marine and include seaweed.seaweed.  Rocky coasts in temperateRocky coasts in temperate zones or open seas (coldzones or open seas (cold waters)waters)  All are multicellular and largeAll are multicellular and large (often reaching lengths of(often reaching lengths of 147 feet)147 feet)  Cooler areas of oceanCooler areas of ocean  Used in cosmetics and mostUsed in cosmetics and most ice creamsice creams
  18. 18. LichensLichens  Lichens are composite organisms ofLichens are composite organisms of algae or cyanobacteria inalgae or cyanobacteria in association with fungi.association with fungi.  They grow on rocks and tree barks.They grow on rocks and tree barks.  Many lichens are able to grow at lowMany lichens are able to grow at low temperatures found at high altitudestemperatures found at high altitudes and in polar environments. E.g.and in polar environments. E.g. reindeer mosses.reindeer mosses.  The colors of lichens vary from whiteThe colors of lichens vary from white to black through shades of red,to black through shades of red, orange, yellow and green.orange, yellow and green.
  19. 19. LichensLichens  Morphology: a simple lichen is made up of a top layer ofMorphology: a simple lichen is made up of a top layer of tightly woven layer of tightly woven fungal mycelia, below thistightly woven layer of tightly woven fungal mycelia, below this is a layer of photosynthetic cells and below that another layeris a layer of photosynthetic cells and below that another layer of fungus.of fungus.  Reproduction: Both sexual and asexual.Reproduction: Both sexual and asexual.  Lichens grow slowly because of their slow metabolic rate.Lichens grow slowly because of their slow metabolic rate. (45000 years for some species in the arctic region).(45000 years for some species in the arctic region).
  20. 20. LichensLichens Symbiotic nature:Symbiotic nature:  Algae or cyanobacteria provides the fungusAlgae or cyanobacteria provides the fungus with food (carbohydrates produced fromwith food (carbohydrates produced from photosynthesis and with vitamins).photosynthesis and with vitamins).  Fungi absorb and store and supplies water andFungi absorb and store and supplies water and minerals as well as carbon dioxide. They alsominerals as well as carbon dioxide. They also provide a moist sheltered supportingprovide a moist sheltered supporting framework for its photosynthetic partner.framework for its photosynthetic partner.
  21. 21. LichensLichens Chemical interactions:Chemical interactions:  Contains unusual fats and phenolicContains unusual fats and phenolic compounds.compounds.  Litmus (a well known indicator) is obtainedLitmus (a well known indicator) is obtained from lichens.from lichens.  Lichen pigments can be used to color clothes.Lichen pigments can be used to color clothes.  Essential oils from some species of lichens areEssential oils from some species of lichens are used as perfumes.used as perfumes.

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