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Applied science and applicability of science : some reflexions

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Inaugural lecture for Full Professor nomination at Institut Mines Telecom Business School

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Applied science and applicability of science : some reflexions

  1. 1. Saïd Assar – March28th, 2019 Science appliquée et applicabilité des sciences Quelques réflexions Applied science and applicability of science Some reflections
  2. 2. I. Motivations … • To stress the importance of academic practices and traditions … • To recall my research path … • To share experience and knowledge … • To contribute to the ongoing debate in relation with – research projects with industrial partners (e.g. CIFRE funding scheme) – research development (e.g. more PhD students) – research enhancement (e.g. more publications in top journals) Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 2
  3. 3. AGENDA I. Motivations … II. Research path … III. Inspirations … IV. What is applied science? V. Applied science as reflective practice VI. Applied science and management VII. So what ? 3Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019
  4. 4. • Model-driven Engineering • Service Oriented Architecture Information System in the Digital Age II. Research path – multidisciplinary endeavors 4 • ICT based teaching and learning • E-government development • Defect management in software projects • CASE tools for IS design • Methods for IS design IS design methods (Semi-)formal research methods Empirical research methods
  5. 5. To reason on artifacts capable of concrete and abstract calculations To build useful artifacts that fit with usage context Information System in the Digital Age Science of the artificial II. Research path – a framework Formal science Factual science 5 To understand and explain phenomena related to the production and usage of artifacts Slides from HDR defense : https://tinyurl.com/assar2017hdr
  6. 6. AGENDA I. Motivations … II. Research path … III. Inspirations … IV. What is applied science? V. Applied science as reflective practice VI. Applied science and management VII. So what ? 6Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019
  7. 7. III. Inspiration … Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 7 Ilkka Niiniluoto – univ. of Helsinki, Finlande Practical utility vs. epistemic utility Erkenntnis, 38(1), 1993. Applied science vs. application of science
  8. 8. III. Inspiration … Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 8 Mario Bunge – Mc Gill university, Canada Technological rule vs. scientific law Technology and Culture, 7(3), 1966. Know-how vs. conceptual knowledge
  9. 9. III. Inspiration … Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 9 Alan Hevner – univ. South Florida, USA  Problem relevance  Design evaluation : utility, quality, efficacy, novelty, generality, significance …  New foundation for design (i.e. design methods)
  10. 10. III. Inspiration … Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 10 Roel Wieringa – univ. Twente, NL Practical problem vs. knowledge problem 4th Int. Conf. on Design Science Research in IS and Technology (DESRIST’09), 2009 Artifacts in context
  11. 11. III. Inspiration … Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 11 Donald A. Schön – MIT's School of Architecture and Planning, USA Evidence-based action vs. technical rationality Reflection-in-action vs. reflection-on-action
  12. 12. AGENDA I. Motivations … II. Research path … III. Inspirations … IV. What is applied science? V. Applied science as reflective practice VI. Applied science and management VII. So what ? 12Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019
  13. 13. IV. What is applied science? • Knowledge production vs. knowledge application (i.e. utilization) – 1st example Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 13 Certain elements (e.g. Silicon) have semi-conducting properties Observation Deduction Intuition Experimentation … Knowledge production • Response to a “knowledge problem” • Epistemic utility Descriptive Explanatory ? Predictive ? • Truth value
  14. 14. IV. What is applied science? • Knowledge production vs. knowledge application (i.e. utilization) – 2nd example Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 14 In certain conditions, human subjects can act unresponsively and obey blindly to authority Observation Deduction Intuition Experimentation … Knowledge production • Response to a “knowledge problem” • Epistemic utility Descriptive Explanatory ? Predictive ? • Truth value [Milgram experiment, 1963]
  15. 15. IV. What is applied science? • Knowledge production vs. knowledge application (i.e. utilization) – 3rd example Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 15 Observation Deduction Intuition Experimentation … Knowledge production • Response to a “knowledge problem” • Epistemic utility Descriptive Explanatory ? Predictive ? • Truth value
  16. 16. IV. What is applied science? • Knowledge production vs. knowledge application (i.e. utilization) Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 16 Silicon has semi- conducting properties Innovation Creativity Experimentation Opportunism … Knowledge application • Response to a practical problem • Design of an artifact • Practical utility • Multiple “truth values” : efficiency, ease of use, etc. • Technological rule An artifact (technical)
  17. 17. IV. What is applied science? • Research & Development (R&D) ? Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 17  Design and construction of an artifact  Knowledge application (?)  Knowledge production (?)
  18. 18. IV. What is applied science? • Artifact production vs. knowledge production Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 18 Applied science Technology Engineering Innovation
  19. 19. IV. What is applied science? • Artifact production vs. knowledge production Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 19 Knowledge production • Procedure to build a transistor • Electronic properties of the transistor and of transistors’ circuits • Factors and conditions for technical, industrial and economic feasibility of transistor construction • Technical and economic eco-system • Impact on industry and economy • …
  20. 20. IV. What is applied science? • Patterns of knowledge production in R&D and applied science – general case Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 20 Knowledge production • How to • Feasibility • Benefits • Drawbacks • Impact and side effect • New problems related to … • … Multiple perspectives:  Technical  Economic  Industrial  Organizational  Financial  Managerial  Social  Ethical  Environmental  …
  21. 21. IV. What is applied science? Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 21 Organizational & managerial • Impact and side effect • New problems related to … • Patterns of knowledge production in applied science – an example A socio-technical artifact Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 23(6), 2018.
  22. 22. IV. What is applied science?  Applied science is to investigate knowledge with the goal to apply it, i.e., to use it as a base for action, to solve problems and/or construct new artifacts …  Applied science investigates knowledge that has both epistemic and practical utility  In design science, knowledge is created thru the design and usage of an artifact  Theoretical knowledge in design science is about artifacts in context Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 22
  23. 23. AGENDA I. Motivations … II. Research path … III. Inspirations … IV. What is applied science? V. Applied science as reflective practice VI. Applied science and management VII. So what ? 23Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019
  24. 24. V. Applied science as reflective practice Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 24 Tapio KORJUS Athlete, Olympic gold medal in Seoul 1988 (Finland) SOURCE I. Niiniluoto, “The aim and structure of applied research,” Erkenntnis, 38(1), 1993.
  25. 25. V. Applied science as reflective practice Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 25 Maryan CAVICCI Doctor, gastroenterology, (Créteil – France)
  26. 26. V. Applied science as reflective practice Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 26 PhD projects : ICT based teaching A-L. Franzoni-Velázquez, “A Proposed Method for Adapting and Integrating Student Learning Style, Teaching Strategies and Electronic Media”. PhD thesis, 2009. Observation Deduction Intuition Experimentation … Technology Engineering Innovation
  27. 27. V. Applied science as reflective practice Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 27 PhD projects : ICT based teaching Yaneli Cruz, “Learning Styles Effect on Mobile Learning Acceptance: A Continuance Intention Approach” PhD thesis, 2014. Kolb LS model Continuance to use  “Effort expectancy” and “Social influence” are the only variables that are moderated by users’ LS Observation Deduction Intuition Experimentation …
  28. 28. V. Applied science as reflective practice Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 28 Research project : Serious games to teach IS modeling O. Chourabi, D. Lang, I. Boughzala (LITEM / IMT-BS) IBM City One Observation Deduction Intuition Experimentation … Technology Engineering Innovation Serious games for education
  29. 29. AGENDA I. Motivations … II. Research path … III. Inspirations … IV. What is applied science? V. Applied science as reflective practice VI. Applied science and management VII. So what ? 29Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019
  30. 30. VI. Applied science and management Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 30 Observation Deduction Intuition Experimentation …
  31. 31. VI. Applied science and management Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 31 Organizational & managerial • Impact and side effect • New problems related to … International Review of Social History 42, 1997
  32. 32. VI. Applied science and management Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 32 Jack Welsh CEO, General Electric “His honest, be-the-best style of management became the gold standard in business, with his relentless focus on people, teamwork, and profits.” • Response to “practical problems” • Practical utility • Truth value ? • Scientifically validated knowledge?
  33. 33. VI. Applied science and management Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 33 Michel Kalika Professor, IAE Lyon & univ. Paris Dauphine  Executive Doctorate in Business Administration …  ... la demande de managers d'entreprises ayant envie de devenir eux-mêmes des producteurs de connaissance …  … positionnement ancré dans les pratiques managériales qui privilégie la formation de Docteurs de Pratique en Management … SOURCE https://www.furet.com/fr/la-creation-de-connaissance-par-les-managers-1006075.html
  34. 34. VI. Applied science and management Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 34 https://www.strayer.edu/online-degrees/bachelors/applied-science-in-management … lets you transfer your community college technical or applied science associate’s degree into an exceptional bachelor’s degree program- one that recognizes specific technical skills … … that creates an immediate connection between theory and practice, so you can learn it today and use it tomorrow :
  35. 35. Applied science Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 35 So what ?
  36. 36. • About R&D projects and CIFRE thesis – Practical problem or knowledge problem? – Balance between practical and epistemic utility – Avoid “overselling” … • About publications in top journals – Relevance for science and for practice … – Scientific rigor … – Knowledge production is fundamental ! • Conceptualization • Contribution of theory • Contribution to theory • Generalization • About teaching – Importance of scientific – conceptual – theoretical knowledge – Learning by doing : know-how, practice, apprenticeship, etc. • Reflective practices can be a fabulous source for research ! – Reflective practices in teaching – Reflective practices in student’s internals and apprenticeships Saïd Assar – March 28th, 2019 36 VII. So what?

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