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  1. 1. 1 How to Learn English as a Foreign Language Confidently Presenter: Lin, Shin-Chung Ph.D. Chair of Applied Foreign Languages National Pingtung Institute of Commerce Address: 51 Min Sheng E. Road, Pingtung900 Tel: (08)7238700-3300 Fax: (08)7239277 E-mail: linsc@npic.edu.tw October. 06, 2004
  2. 2. 2  Why are you going to learn English as a foreign language?  Why so many learners are suffering from learning English?  How to learn English as a foreign language confidently—independent study concerned?  How to learn English as a foreign language confidently—life-time learning concerned?  Conclusion
  3. 3. 3 1. Why are you going to learn English as a foreign language? For what purpose are you going to learn English as a foreign language? A. Instrumental motivation B. Integrative motivation C. The facts about English
  4. 4. 4 A. Instrumental motivation (1) To get a better job or a promotion. (2) To pass a required examination. (3) To study in an English-speaking country. (4) To present a research paper in an international conference. (5) To help your students learn English well.
  5. 5. 5 B. Integrative motivation (1) To be interested in integrating into the target language group. (2) To know more about the culture of the target language group. (3) To be able to know another quarter of the population in the world.
  6. 6. 6 C. The facts about English I (1) 80% of the world’s electronically stored information is in English. (2) Three-quarters of the world’s mail is written in English. (3) 80% of Internet users communicate in English. (4) English is the main language of books, newspapers, airports, and air-traffic control, international business and technology, diplomacy, sport, international competitions, pop music, and
  7. 7. 7 C. The facts about English II (5) English has official or special status in at least 75/ 195 countries, with a total population of over 2 billion. (6) English is spoken as a first language by around 345 million, and as a second language by around 300 million people in the world. From the British Council Website English Worldwide
  8. 8. 8 2. Why are so many learners suffering from learning English? A. The different processes in first and second language acquisition. B. The different nature of Chinese and English. C. The conflict between English learning and expectation. D. The impractical orientation of language learning.
  9. 9. 9 A. The different processes in first and second language acquisition. (1) Exposure time (2) For surviving / as a tool only (3) Effort and effortless (4) First language interferes the acquisition of second language a. Interfered by different sound systems. Tones / stress / ending consonants / intonation b. Interfered by different language functions. Auxiliary / transitive V / adj clause / wh-movement / tense etc. c. Interfered by different usage. ( 用、借、開 etc.)
  10. 10. 10 Ex1: The different usage of interrogative sentences 1. Are you a student? 2. Is your father a doctor? 3. Were you there? 4. Was he angry? 5. Do you watch TV everyday? 6. Did you watch the TV program “Sex and the City” last night? 7. Does he walk to school everyday? 8. Have you done your homework? 9. Will you have done your homework by then? 10. Had he been waiting for you long before you met him?
  11. 11. 11 Ex: The different usage of tenses 1. 當他來的時候,我正在看電視。 2. 明天這個時候你將會做什麼? 3. 我等了你大約有二十分鐘了。 4. 我遇見她的時候,她已經等你很久了。 5. 當他到達的時候,我們練習將滿兩個小時。 6. 昨晚九時孩子們全都睡了。 Only 46.8% passed the test.
  12. 12. 12 Answers to the usage of tenses • When he came, I was watching TV. • What will you be doing at this time tomorrow? • I’ve been waiting for you about 20 minutes. • When I met her, she had been waiting for you a long time. • When he arrives, we’II have been practicing for two hours. • The children had all gone to bed at nine last night.
  13. 13. 13 B. The different nature of Chinese and English. (1) Ideographic language ( 表意文字語言 ) vs. alphabetic language ( 字母拼音語言 ). (2) Limited vs. increasing number of the words. E.g. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) / tofu / kung fu / Internet / e-mail 愛滋病 ( 後天性免疫不全症候群 ) / 叩應 / 電腦 / 手機 / 轟趴 (3) Advanced vs. primary
  14. 14. 14 Asking boy under pine tree. Saying master going picking up herb medicine. In the mountains. Covering under heavy clouds, don’t know where. (22 words used, 56% spared) 松下問童子 言師採藥去 只在此山中 雲深不知處
  15. 15. 15 The possibly acceptable translation I asked a boy under the pine tree. He said that his master is going picking up herb medicine. He is in the mountains. Because the mountains are covered under the heavy clouds, He doesn’t know where his master is. (39 words used)
  16. 16. 16 C. The conflict between English learning and expectation (1) Learning English is to pass the exams not to use the language (2) Learning English is a subject not a language per se. (3) Daily language is hard to be learned in a classroom setting and tested. (4) It costs too much to have a test in speaking ability. * The following is what you are going to be tested.
  17. 17. 17 取材自全民英檢初級 • PLEASE WAIT BEHINE WHITE LINE What does this sign mean? A. Stay on the line. B. Drive inside the line. C. Keep the line straight. D. Stand in back of the line Responsible and friendly high school or college student is needed to baby-sit active five-year-old on weekends. Call 2943-6262 after 6:00 Where might a person see this? A. On a menu. B. On street sign. C. In a newspaper. D. In a telephone book.
  18. 18. 18 取材自國中學力測驗 • In summer it is ______ to stay in my parents’ room because it is air- conditioned. A. comfortable B. gentle C. impossible D. serious 6. Mother makes me ______ my homework every day before I can play video games. A. finish B. finished C. finishing D. to finish 9. Elsa: Did Eric buy any vegetables in the market? Bob: No, he didn’t, but he bought ______ fish. A. no B. any C. some D. both 13. Rose: It’s time to go to bed. You have to get up early tomorrow, ___? Nina: Yes, my class is going hiking tomorrow. A. can’t you B. don’t you C. aren’t you D. haven’t you
  19. 19. 19 取材自國中學力測驗 Read Amy’s diary and answer the questions. May 30, 2003 Today I met an American on my way home. He asked me some questions in English, but I couldn’t understand him. I was nervous and couldn’t say a word. I felt so depressed. I study English very hard and I usually get the best grades on the English tests. I am always looking for opportunities to practice speaking English. But when the opportunity comes, I can’t do anything. I think I have to study English much harder. • What does depressed mean in the letter? A. Sad. B. Bored. C. Lucky. D. Excited 16. What can we learn from Amy’s experience? A. It is dangerous to talk to strangers on the streets. B. English is the most difficult subject for most students. C. People who get nervous easily cannot get good grades in English. D. Getting good grades in English does not mean we can use English well.
  20. 20. 20 取材自大學學測 • As the tallest building in the world, Taipei 101 has become a new ______ of Taipei City. A. incident B. geography C. skylight D. landmark 7. Jane usually buys things on ______. Her purchases seem to be driven by some sudden force or desire. A. accident B. compliment C. justification D. impulse 11. If people keep polluting the rivers, no fish there will survive ______. A. at all cost B. for a long while C. in the long run D. by no means
  21. 21. 21 4. 雖然 Lily 生來又瞎又聾,但她從來不氣 餒。 5. 她的故事證明了,我們只要努力必能成 功。 Although Lily was born blind and deaf, she never felt discouraged. Her story has proved that we can succeed so long as we make efforts.
  22. 22. 22 D. The impractical orientation of language learning (1) The starting age mystery. (2) Language is learned effortless. (3) Picked up vs. learned process. (4) The chagrin of environment
  23. 23. 23 3. How to learn English as a foreign language confidently—independent learning concerned? A. Phonetics, phonology, and phonics B. Syntax: pedagogical grammar C. Usage: habit formation
  24. 24. 24 A. Phonetics, Phonology, and Phonics (1) Phonetics ( 語音學 ): The study of the speech sounds that occur in all human language to represent meanings is called phonetics. (2) Phonology ( 音韻學 ): The study of sound patterns in language or as the sound patterns themselves. (3) Phonics ( 聲學,自然發音學 ): A method of teaching beginners to read and pronounce words by learning the phonetic value of
  25. 25. 25 Letter ‘o’ and the Sound it Represents I [dC ] E [nA ] t [no] [D ] v ['w0 ] m0n ['w? ] mDn dog not no of women woman mother Phonetics Represented “o’ in Words
  26. 26. 26 Quiz for you 1. How do you pronounce ‘Yots’—the last name of an American friend? 2. Answer 1. It is pronounced the same as ‘yachts’. 3. Answer 2. [jAts] 4. How do you pronounce ‘entrepreneur’ 5. Answer (looking in a dictionary for [ "]) `AntrDprD'n
  27. 27. 27 The combined ways entrepreneur phonetics [ "] `AntrDprD'n 企業家 phonics entrepreneur
  28. 28. 28 Learning vowels I [ A e i ] o u [ D G 0 ] C ?
  29. 29. 29 Learning vowels I I [ A e ] i o u [ " K D Q $ G 0 ] C ?
  30. 30. 30 Learning consonants H n m Nasals l Lateral w j r Glides tN dI Affricates h N I s z L M f v Fricatives K g t d p b Stops Glottal Velar Alveo- palatal Alveolar Inter- dental Labio- dental Bilabial
  31. 31. 31 Learning the conformation of the phonemes Syllable Combination in English Syllable Combination in Chinese springs CCCVCC plant CCVCC what CCVC cat CVC qua CCV 跨ㄎㄨㄚ ˋ CCV tea CV 替ㄊㄧ ˋ CV eye V 愛ㄞ ˋ V Examples English Examples Chinese Note. V = vowel C = consonant
  32. 32. 32 Exercise 1: One syllable 1 . [ ta0m] 時間 2. [ hGlp ] 幫助 3. [ w"k] 工作 4. [ wik] 星期 Exercise 2: Two syllables 5. [ 'p 0kn0k] 野餐 6. [ b D'liv] 相信 7. [ 'fr0zb i] 飛盤 8. [ hD'lo] 哈囉 Exercise 3: Three or above syllables 9. ['ta0p`r ] a0tQ 打字機 1 0. [ ] 'Gvr0`hwGr 到 處 1 1 .[ 0m'p CrtDnt] 重要的 1 2. [ 'GlDfDnt] 象
  33. 33. 33 Good morning? How are you? What is it? Where are you? Where is John? Exercise 4: Intonation of the sentences 1 . [ hwAt '0z 0t↘ ] 2. [ hwAt 0z j ur 'nem↘ ] 3. [ hwAt 'ta0 0z 0t] 4. [ Ar Me stKd 0H '0HEl0N↗ ] Learning Intonation
  34. 34. 34 Spelling and pronunciation Exercise 1: Diphthongs and vowel letters 1.[let] l __ te 2. [Miz] th __ se 3. [ka0t] k __ te 4. [not] n __ te 5. [kjut] c __ te Exercise 2: Monophthongs and vowel letters 6. [st$nd] st __ nd 7. [pGn] p __ n 8. [p0k] p __ ck 9. [dCE] d __ g 10. [bKs] b __ s
  35. 35. 35 B. Syntax I (1) Moods a. Imperative mood. (Stand up. / Open your book. / Let’s go.) b. Indicative mood. c. Subjunctive mood.
  36. 36. 36 B. Syntax II (2) Nine primary sentence patterns of indicative mood. a. S + be + N / Adj / Adv b. S + Linking V + N / Adj c. S + Intransitive V d. S + Transitive V + O e. S + Transitive V + O1 + O2 f. S + Transitive V + O + OC
  37. 37. 37 B. Syntax III (3) Tenses Simple present / past / future tense Progressive present / past / future e tense Perfect present / past / future tense Perfect Progressive present / past / future tense
  38. 38. 38 B. Syntax IV (4) Tenses and the meaning of subjunctive mood Simple present / past / future tense
  39. 39. 39 Ex: 假如我有時間,我會去看你。 假如我是你,我不會給他錢。 假如你昨天在家讀書 (stud y) ,你就不會 在街上遇到 (m e e t) 她。 If I’ve time, I will visit you. If I had time, I would visit you. If I were you, I wouldn’t give him money. If you had studied at home yesterday, you wouldn’t have met her on the street.
  40. 40. 40 C. Usage I (1) Can I use the credit card? (2) We are peace maker. (3) May I borrow your telephone? (4) I will learn more knowledge after I graduate. (5) I am glad to have the chance to write for you. (6) The birds are on the tree. (7) I slept at nine last night.
  41. 41. 41 C. Usage II (8) The department store is on sale. (9) She pregnant. (10) Did you write your homework? (11) Do you like the movie? Yes, I like. (12) And thank you for the offering on recommendation letter, which I think I will be needing it in the future time.
  42. 42. 42 4. How to learn English as a foreign language Confidently—life-time learning concerned? E. Jot down what you read and heard and make sure that you understand it well. A. Attitude—native like is not possible / you are better than the ones you have to talk in their language if only you can communicate with them. B. Sticks on a TV program or a movie that you like very much. C. Make the note that keeps the track of the usage of the target language. D. Try to have a pen pal who can not read in Chinese to e-mail each other.
  43. 43. 43 5. Conclusion Learning English is like playing a sport, or singing a song. It takes time and effort to achieve the goal. Methods + achievement + tactics + motivation + attitudes + time = success