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A wonderful and interesting presentation on Multiple Sclerosis! It includes videos, pictures and great insight into the possible cure for MS. I truly hope whoever downloads it enjoys it as much as I do. Blessings!
A substance called myelin protects the nerve fibres in the central nervous system, which helps messages travel quickly and smoothly between the brain and the rest of the body. In MS, your immune system, which normally helps to fight off infections, mistakes myelin for a foreign body and attacks it. This damages the myelin and strips it off the nerve fibres, either partially or completely, leaving scars known as lesions or plaques. This damage disrupts messages travelling along nerve fibres – they can slow down, become distorted, or not get through at all. As well as myelin loss, there can also sometimes be damage to the actual nerve fibres. It is this nerve damage that causes the accumulation of disability that can occur over time.
MS is complex and can cause many different symptoms, so it&apos;s not easy to diagnose. It&apos;s hard to pinpoint exactly when MS begins, and the early signs and symptoms are different for everyone. It is not uncommon for a diagnosis to take several months, and frustratingly it can take even longer. A range of other possible causes need to be explored and many different tests need to be carried out.
Relapsing remitting MS is the most common type of MS, affecting around 85 per cent of everyone diagnosed. It means that symptoms appear (a relapse), and then fade away, either partially or completely.
Secondary progressive MS is a stage of MS which can come after relapsing remitting MS. It means there is a sustained build up of disability, completely independent of any relapses.
MS can affect sexual function for both men and women. There are ways to manage these symptoms, and the more you and your partner understand what&apos;s causing them, the better you can tackle them.
MS is not directly inherited - unlike some conditions, like cystic fibrosis, for example, there is no single gene that causes it. It&apos;s likely that a combination of genes make some people more susceptible to developing MS, but not everyone with this gene combination will develop MS. Genes are only part of the story. While MS can occur more than once in a family, it is more likely this will not happen. There&apos;s only around a two per cent chance of a child developing MS when a parent is affected.
MS is more common in areas further away from the equator. It is virtually unheard of in places like Malaysia or Ecuador, but relatively common in Britain, North America, Canada, Scandinavia, southern Australia and New Zealand. Viruses It is not clear why people further away from the equator are more likely to get MS, but it is possible that something in the environment, perhaps bacteria or a virus, plays a role. No single virus has been identified as definitely contributing to MS, but there is growing evidence that a common childhood virus, such as Epstein Barr virus (which can cause glandular fever), may act as a trigger. This theory is still unproven and many people who do not have MS would have also been exposed to these viruses, so just like genes, they are unlikely to be the whole story. The Epstein – Barr virus (EBV) also called human herpes virus 4 is a virus of the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans. Infection with EBV occurs by the oral transfer of saliva and genital secretions. Most people become infected with EBV and gain adaptive immunity.
Research has shown in order for bodies to be able to be healthy, we need to address helping the smallest unit of the body get healthy again. Normal cells perform a series of functions essential to good health. They take in nutrition, eliminate waste / toxins. Normal cells defend themselves against intruders, unfriendly bacteria / fungi / virus / free radicals and repair the damage done by them. Cells must work together as a team to achieve optimal organ and immune system function. Research has shown cells need certain essential nutrients. 26 vitamins, 72 trace minerals, numerous fatty acids and amino acids. Since our body does not produce these we need to get them from our diet. One day, while researching why Aloe Vera in its raw state was such a powerful healer, a scientist, Dr Bill MacAnally, discovered that a biological sugar present in the plant provided its healing properties. One of them mainly mannose. He then found out how to stabilise the glyconutrients in the Aloe plant. Over the years that passed, scientists have discovered that there are 8 sugars which are called monosacchairdes, that our bodies cells also need for optimal function. (DRAW) Inside cells these sugars combine with protein strands and form complex structures called glycoforms . The exterior surface of all healthy cells are covered in a dense forest of these glycoforms and they can exchange infinite combinations of information depending on their shape and size. Glycoforms are present on the surface of all cells and actually prevent virus’, bacteria and other enemy cells from entering a healthy cell by blocking the entrance to the cells surface. Glycoforms can hold onto an enemy cell until an immune system cell can arrive to destroy it. Healthy immune system cells can also accurately identify normal cells and not interfere with their function. Cells covered with glycoforms enable clear cell to cell communication and system to system communication. Creating an information highway in the body. Glycoforms play a huge role in every physiological process. Immune system response Tissue regeneration Cell replication Growth Structural stability and they are even responsible for attraction of sperm cells to an egg cells surface to foster fertilization. The importance of glyconutrients in health are now known but we are faced with a problem as only 2 of these nutrinets are readily available in our diets. Namely Galactose and Glucose. A fraction of the others can be gotten in our diets but modern agricultural methods, food processing, preservatives, wide spread use of toxic pesticides and chemical fertilizers have all but eliminated them from our food supply. Without glyonutrients and other essential nutrients cells cannot create glycoforms. The result is a breakdown in cell to cell communication and immune system response. Depleted cells are unable to defend themselves affectively, so cell structures can be damaged and are not effective in healing and regenerating. In this weakened state cells are not able to communicate effectively compromising the bodies ability to detect problems. They are also unable to detect pathogens such as virus’, bacteria, fungi. And cannot identify mutated cells so that the immune system can eliminate them for example, when a person suffers from an autoimmune disorder their compromised immune system may respond inappropriately, and treat normal cells as intruders and destroy them. It may allow mutated cells to proliferate or the immune system may not respond at all leaving the body extremely vulnerable to many types of infectious agents. Because these nutrients are not readily and in the required quantity available in our diets there has come a need to supplement. There is a company which holds 80 patents worldwide on the research, technology and development of glyconutrients and they are the only reliable supplier.
Xylose Xylose is important for cell-cell communication and also acts as an antibacterial and antifungal. Manufacturers often substitute xylose for sugar (table sugar) in chewing gum and toothpaste. Research findings indicate that xylose may help prevent cancer of the digestive tract and it has been shown that xylose absorption is decreased in some patients with intestinal disorders, including colitis. Fucose Fucose is abundant in human breast milk and certain mushrooms. It has been shown to influence brain development, act as immune modulator by inhibiting tumour growth and its spread and enhancer of cellular communication. It also guards against respiratory tract infections and inhibits allergic reactions. High concentrations of fucose are found at the junctions of nerves, as well as in the kidneys, testes, and in the outer layer of skin.
Galactose Galactose is found in dairy products and human breast milk. In dairy products the galactose is derived from the disaccharide lactose. In animal studies it has been shown that galactose inhibits tumour growth and its spread, particularly to the liver, and to protect from cataracts. Galactose enhances would healing, decreases inflammation, enhances cell-cell communication, and increases calcium absorption. It has also been shown to trigger long term memory formation. Glucose Glucose is a potent fast-energy source that can be released directly into the bloodstream. Glucose metabolism is disturbed in depression, manic-depression, anorexia and bulimia. It has been shown to enhance memory, stimulate calcium absorption, and enhance cell-cell communication. Mannose Mannose is found in Gum Ghatti which is obtained from the sap of the Indian sumac. Mannose plays a major role in tissue remodelling, cell-cell communication, inhibition of tumour growth and spread, and the prevention of bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal infections. Other functions of mannose include lowering blood sugar and triglyceride levels in diabetics, lowering cholesterol; easing the inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis and may help lupus patients as studies indicate these patients have mannose deficiencies. Studies also show that mannose is necessary for the production of cytokines which fight invaders. Scientists at the Glycobiology Institute at Oxford have found that macrophages have mannose receptors that activate immune attacks. N-acetylgalactosamine Research into this saccharide has been limited, yet it has been shown to be essential for cell-cell communication, and that it inhibits tumour spread. Patients with heart disease have lower than normal levels of N-acetylgalactosamine. N-acetylglucosamine Glucosamine, a metabolic product of N-acetylglucosamine, helps repair cartilage, decreases pain and inflammation, and increases range of motion in osteoarthritis. Glucosamine may also help repair the mucosal lining defensive barrier called the glycosaminoglycan layer (GAG) layer. Defects in this layer have been implicated in Crohn&apos;s disease, ulcerative colitis, and interstitial cystitis. N-acetylneuraminic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid is abundant in human breast milk and has been shown to be particularly important for brain development and learning, and is an immune modulator that affects the viscosity of mucus, which in turn repels bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. The saccharide influences blood coagulation, and cholesterol levels, lowering LDL. Animal studies indicate that N-acetylneuraminic acid improves both memory and performance, and levels of this saccharide decrease with age.
There are lots of different ways to manage MS. This might include drug treatments for individual symptoms or relapses, diet, exercise and complementary and alternative therapies. Disease modifying drugs are not a cure for MS, but they can reduce the frequency and severity of relapses. If you experience relapses the drugs may help, but unfortunately they&apos;re not effective for primary progressive MS. Diet, exercise and lifestyle It can be frustrating if treatments aren&apos;t suitable for you or don&apos;t work as well as you like. Lots of people with MS find it useful to actively manage their health. Nutrition. Here we spoke of glyconutrients and the possible benefits they may have on MS.
A physiotherapist works with people with MS to assess physical difficulties and help improve movement and other functions of the body. Exercise is one of the key ways in which they do this. Physiotherapy can be useful to help you find exercises that meet your specific needs and abilities. A physiotherapist may suggest exercises that concentrate on a particular area of the body, or help you manage a specific effect of your MS.
There is no single exercise that could be called an ‘MS exercise’. MS affects people in different ways, so what’s suitable will vary from person to person. Exercises might include: Strengthening exercises Aerobic exercises (such as cycling, running or rowing) Stretching (helps keep muscles supple and relaxed) Passive stretching (involves a physiotherapist or carer helping to move your arms or legs to create a stretch and move the joints). Posture exercises help keep your feet, knees, pelvis, shoulders and head properly aligned, to reduce strain on the muscles and bones in the body. If your situation changes, you might want to try a new sport, adjust what you do already, or work with a physiotherapist to discover specific exercises that could benefit you.
Exercising regularly will keep your body working to its full potential. To make it easier, it is important to find exercise that suits you – something you enjoy and find worthwhile. Exercise can: improve the overall health of people with milder MS help people with more severe MS to stay as mobile and active as possible help some people manage MS symptoms and decrease the risk of heart disease improve muscle strength and fitness, helping with mobility or weakness problems worse help manage weight control, especially when combined with a healthy, well-balanced diet By finding the right exercises, perhaps with the help of a physiotherapist, you can stop problems becoming worse than they need to be. Getting fit and keeping fit helps the body and mind to stay as healthy as possible. If we think of the symptoms, exercise helps, Exercising and MS symptoms Fatigue Exercise can bring improvements in strength, fitness and mood – all of which might help you to manage your fatigue. Balance and walking Carefully designed physiotherapy programmes, outdoor walking and aerobics can help people improve their balance and walking. Muscle spasms or stiffness Physiotherapy, including stretching and range-of motion exercises is a key part of treating and managing muscle spasms or stiffness. Yoga may also improve your flexibility and reduce muscle stiffness. Research has also found some benefits from t’ai chi exercise, including reduced muscle stiffness. Bladder and bowel A continence advisor, MS nurse or physiotherapist can help you with pelvic floor exercises for bladder control. Bowel problems are less common, but can be awkward and distressing. Keeping physically active may help some people with bowel control. One study found that people with MS had improvements in their bowel functions after following a 15-week course of aerobic training. Low mood, anxiety or depression If issues such as low mood, anxiety or depression arise, exercise may help. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to be beneficial in relieving mild to moderate depression.
Occupational therapy can help people with multiple sclerosis stay active in daily life. By improving skills, teaching alternative ways to complete tasks, or introducing handy equipment, an occupational therapist can help people with MS perform everyday activities with greater ease and satisfaction. Who Should Consider Occupational Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis? Occupational therapy can be quite beneficial when symptoms of multiple sclerosis are hindering you from: Being productive at home, work, or school Having fun, such as enjoying pastimes and finding new ways to spend time Performing self-care measures, such as dressing, bathing, grooming, and eating
How Can Occupational Therapy Help Multiple Sclerosis? If you have multiple sclerosis, occupational therapy generally provides assessment, treatment, and recommendations in the following areas: Arm and hand therapy Handwriting aids Home modification information Driver evaluation and vehicle modification information Cooking and homemaking adaptations Eating and dinnerware adaptations Computer modifications Workplace or work equipment modifications Leisure skill development Manual or electric wheelchair use Bathtub and toilet equipment use Dressing and grooming aids
Multiple Sclerosis ppt
Also called: MS
Stacey Louisa Bock
I feel . . . by Jayne Adler, May 2000
MS is an unnerving disease
I feel like a jumble of loose, unattached parts
like a sackful of detached, separate and separating parts
a connect-the-dots portrait
I feel like I'm at the seashore with the sand disappearing from beneath
as the tide roll out.
I have tides within my body. They speak to me in Morse code, all dashes
dots, telling me what ?
tides rage within me
when I stand, swaying motion threatens to pull me over
pushing and pulling, the waves crash within me
The ebbing and flowing within
my personal tides
threaten my integrity
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition of the central
In MS, the coating around nerve fibres (called myelin) is
damaged, causing a range of symptoms.
It's normally diagnosed in people between the ages of 20
and 40, and affects almost three times as many women as
Once diagnosed, MS stays with you for life, but treatments
and specialists can help you to manage the symptoms.
We don't know the reason as to why certain people are
more susceptible in developing MS then others, and we
haven't yet found a cure, but research is progressing fast.
WHAT HAPPENS IN MS?
how the central nervous
• MS is complex and can cause many
• It is not uncommon for a diagnosis to take
or even longer.
TYPES OF MS
Relapsing remitting MS is the most
common type of MS, affecting around 85
per cent of everyone diagnosed.
TYPES OF MS
Secondary progressive MS is a stage
of MS which can come after relapsing
TYPES OF MS
Primary progressive MS affects about
10 to 15 per cent of people diagnosed with
MS. Symptoms gradually get worse over
time, rather than appearing as sudden
TYPES OF MS
• If you have a small number of relapses
followed by a complete recovery, you may
be described as having benign MS.
Benign MS can only be diagnosed
MS in CHILDREN
• MS in children is rare. Around five to ten
per cent of young people with MS will
experience MS symptoms before the age
As the central nervous system links all bodily
activities, many different types of symptoms can
appear in MS.
The specific symptoms that appear depend upon
which part of your central nervous system is
affected and the job of the damaged nerve.
Physical symptoms of MS
Stiffness / or spasms
Other symptoms might include problems with:
MEMORY, THINKING &
• MS can affect memory and thinking, and
also have an impact on emotions. Like all
MS symptoms, you might experience this
in varying degrees, or not at all.
MS can affect sexual function for both men
and women. There are ways to manage
CAUSES OF MS
No one knows the exact cause of MS, but it
is likely that a mixture of genetic and
environmental factors play a role.
GENES AND FAMILY
• There is no single gene that causes it.
• It's likely that a combination of genes
make some people more susceptible to
• While MS can occur more than once in a
family, it is more likely this will not
• MS is more common in areas further away
from the equator.
• …possible that something in the environment, perhaps
bacteria or a virus, plays a role.
• No single virus has been identified as definitely
contributing to MS, but there is growing evidence that a
common childhood virus, such as Epstein Barr virus
may act as a trigger.
• There is also a growing amount of
research that suggests that a lack of
vitamin D could be a factor in causing MS.
• We get most of our vitamin D from
exposure to sunlight. Low levels of vitamin
D have been linked to higher numbers of
people developing many different
conditions, including MS.
BUT WHAT CAUSES MS?
“Multiple sclerosis is a disease that affects
the brain and spinal cord, resulting in loss
of vision, balance and sensation.”
It is an autoimmune disease.
“With MS, the nerves of the brain and spinal cord
are damaged by one’s own immune system.
Thus, the condition is called an autoimmune
disease. Autoimmune diseases are those
whereby the body’s immune system, which
normally targets and destroys substances
foreign to the body such as bacteria,
mistakenly attacks normal tissue.”
RESEARCH IN THE AREA OF
THE CELL STRUCTURE
• Essential nutrients:
– 26 vitamins
– 72 trace minerals
– Fatty acids
– Amino acids
ALOE VERA IN ITS NATURAL
MANAGEMENT OF MS
Disease modifying drugs
-reduce the frequency and severity of relapses
Diet, exercise and lifestyle
-actively manage health
A physiotherapist works with people with MS
to assess physical difficulties and help
improve movement and other functions
of the body. Exercise is one of the key
ways in which they do this.
BENEFITS OF EXERCISE
Improve overall health of people with milder MS
Help people with more severe MS to stay as mobile &
active as possible
Help some people manage MS symptoms and
decrease the risk of heart disease
Improve muscle strength and fitness, helping with
mobility or weakness problems
Help manage weight control, especially when
combined with a healthy, well-balanced diet
(OT) IN MS
Occupational therapy can help people with
multiple sclerosis stay active in daily life.
skills, teaching alternative ways to complete
tasks, or introducing handy equipment
HOW CAN OT HELP?
By providing recommendations in the following areas:
Arm and hand therapy
Home modification information
Driver evaluation and vehicle modification information
Cooking and homemaking adaptations
Eating and dinnerware adaptations
Workplace or work equipment modifications
Leisure skill development
Manual or electric wheelchair use
Bathtub and toilet equipment use
Dressing and grooming aids
Speech therapy is a type
of rehabilitation Oral that exercises
focuses on improving
movement of the mouth area. Speech
therapy may be Voice part of training
a multiple sclerosis
treatment Special plan communication if weak facial devices
or lesions (damaged areas in the brain)
have affected your ability to talk or
Altered positions while eating