1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH WHO IS MOST BENEFICIENT AND
Sunawar Khan (38)
Search Engine Optimization
Department of Computer Science & Information Technology
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2. You've finished your web design, uploaded your files, and set up your blog,
but you're still not getting as many visitors as you hoped for. What
gives? Chances are you haven't started working on one of the most
important ways to market your site, Search Engine Optimization (SEO).
What Is Search Engine?
An internet-based tool that searches an index of documents for a
particular term, phrase or text specified by the user. Commonly used
to refer to large web-based search engines that search through billions
of pages on the internet.
Examples popular Search Engines
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3. What is Search Engine Optimization(SEO)?
SEO is a term described as a set of techniques used to achieve high
ranking in search engines and quality visits, whether organic or
natural, from search engines. Everyone with a website online wants to
get high ranking and a marked increase in traffic through popular
search engines as Google, Yahoo, MSN and AOL. SEO is a large term
that encapsulates Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and Link building
strategies into it.
What is Search engine marketing (SEM)?
SEM is a form of Internet marketing that seeks to promote websites
by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages (SERPs)
through the use of, paid placement, contextual advertising, and paid
SEM is the act of marketing a website via search engines by
purchasing paid listings.
What are paid listings?
These are listings that search engines sell to advertisers, usually
through paid placement or paid inclusion programs. In contrast,
organic listings are not sold.
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4. • Paid inclusions
- Advertising programs where pages are guaranteed to be
included in a search engine's index in exchange for payment
- no guaranteed ranking
- payment made on a Cost Per Click (CPC) basis
- eg Looksmart: a directory that lists pages and sites, not based
on position but based on relevance. Advertisers pay to be
included in the directory on a CPC basis or per-url fee basis
with no guarantee of specific placement
Organic Links V/S Sponsored Links
Sponsors Links are paid for through Pay-Per-Click or Pay-Per-Call
campaigns (also known as "PPC"). Simply put, businesses bid on
keywords that are relevant to their business. Then, according to how
high their bid was, their ad appears in the sponsored link areas when
the search terms are engaged by a user.
Organic links are different from sponsored links. You do not bid on
them. Instead, organic results are achieved by matching the user's
search terms with the HTML and copy on a particular site. In other
words, if you want people searching for "German T-Shirts" to find
your site that sells them, you would have an SEO expert code your
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5. SERP (Search Engine Result Page)
SERP is the detailed list of web pages or web documents that are
returned by the search engine as a response to any search query made.
This is a program that acts like a browser by downloading web pages.
But instead of displaying the information in form of text and graphics,
it works directly on the underlying HTML code of a page.
It's a program that has been designed to automatically follow all the
links embedded in a web page. Crawler helps in determining the pre-
defined set of addresses for the spider. New documents getting on-line
are cached through this crawler program
What is a SEO Algorithm?
• Top Secret! Only select employees of a search engines company
know for certain
• Varies by Search Engine – some give more weight to on-page
factors, some to link popularity
• The SEO algorithm is constantly changed, tweaked & updated
• Websites and documents being searched are also constantly
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6. • On-Page Factors (Code & Content)
• Title tags <title> #3
• Header tags <h1> #5
• ALT image tags #4
• Content, Content, Content (Body text) <body> #1
• Hyperlink text #6
• Keyword frequency & density #2
• Link Popularity (“votes” for your site) – adds credibility
• Anchor text #1
Developers Sheet From developing point of view.
Important SEO HTML tags are discussed below
Important HTML Tags
<h2>Second Most Important</h2>
<h3>Third Most Important</h3>
Bold, Strong(Same Worth)
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<img src=”keyword.jpg” alt=”keyword” />
title=”keyword”>Keywordin Anchor Text</a>
<a href=”http://www.mysite.com/webpage.html” title=”
Search Engine Indexing Limits
Does not apply to websites with significant authority
Page File Size No more than 150 kilobytes (Before Images, CSS and
Amount of links No more than 100 unique links per page
Title Tag No more than 70 characters
Meta Description No more than 155 characters
Parameters in URL No more than 2
Depth of URL No more than 4
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8. *Best Practice
Recommended Title Tag Syntax
In HTML code, the title tag specifies the title of your Web page. It is
code which is inserted into the header of your web page and looks like
<title> Creating Title Tags for Search Engine Optimization & Web
The World Wide Web Consortium describes the title as a required
element in an HTML document.
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9. The first and most important part of your on-page SEO is the title tag
(<title></title>). Many people who outsource or create a site in a
WYSIWYG editor completely forget about the last of the meta tags
that still gives some quality ranking love from search engines.
The benefits of using optimized title tags are three fold:
A user searching for your keyword will see your site's link highlighted
in the search engines if your page's title is the same as the phrase they
searched for. This drastically increases click through and can even
give you more traffic than those who rank above you if their title tags
are not optimized.
Increase your rankings on the search engines.
Help the engines distinguish between pages that might look similar.
What is Canonical URLs?
Canonical URL: the search engine friendly URL that you want the
search engines to treat as authoritative. In other words, a canonical
URL is the URL that you want visitors to see.
Quite often canonical URLs were used to describe the homepage. The
typical example used is that most people treat the following URLs as
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10. Canonical simply means relating to or belonging. It also means
reduced to the simplest and most significant form. Just remember that
a canonical URL is the simplest and most significant (authoritative)
version of the URL that you want to be seen.
What is Redirects?
301 redirect is a catch phrase often used in SEO where nobody really
explains how to do it. Many people feel too dumb to ask "how do I do
a 301 redirect?" because they feel they should just know what one is.
301 redirects are used to permanently move a site to a new location.
Search engines do not apply penalties to 301 redirects the way they
apply them to many other types of redirects.
301 redirect is the most efficient and Search Engine Friendly method
for webpage redirection. It's not that hard to implement and it should
preserve your search engine rankings for that particular page. If you
have to change file names or move pages around, it's the safest option.
The code "301" is interpreted as "moved permanently".
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11. Website Analysis
The first step involves an in-depth analysis of the website which needs
to be optimized for the Search Engines. We check the current website
positioning on the Search Engines, its Search Engine Friendliness and
the amount of traffic it is getting from the Search Engines.
In the second step, we identify the purpose behind doing SEO.
Whether the client wants to achieve high search engine rankings,
increase sales, get newsletter subscribers or improve popularity? Once
we know the client expectations, we set our goals
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12. Keyword Research is one of the most essential steps of any SEO
campaign. The client gives an initial list of keywords and we expand it
to find related keywords which can help drive traffic through the
search engines. The final keywords list is approved by the client.
After the final list of keywords is discussed, we start writing content
for the different sections of the website. Keywords are incorporated to
the text content of the website. New pages are also added to the
website and content is written for the new pages.
The Website Optimization step involves a number of sub-steps and
processes which are carried out on the website pages to make them
Search Engine Friendly. We propose and implement a new navigation
structure for the website if there are problems with the existing
website navigation plan which can cause problems with the Search
Engines. Sitemap is incorporated to the website, and the Title Tags,
Meta Keywords and Meta Description Tags are added to the website
pages. Internal linking of the website is improved and heading tags
and ALT Tags are added to the web pages. On-page
optimization is carried out to make the website Search Engine
Friendly and easy to navigate by the search engine spiders.
Submission of Website
The submission process allows the website to be submitted to some of
the most Prominent search engines and directories on the Internet.
Submission to these directories and search engines allows quick
indexing of the website and its pages.
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13. Link Building
Link Building is the most important step in off-site optimization of a
website. Finding quality link partners for a website can be a tedious
and time consuming task. We hand pick quality sites and contact them
to finalize the link deal using appropriate anchor texts in the incoming
The 8 step process ensures results for our clients within the time
frames we provide to the customer at the start of anyproject.
For more information about our Search Engine Optimization Services,
Search Engine Optimization Technique
1. Avoid Flash, but if you must use Flash, use SWF_Object() and have
a text-only, keyword-centric and fully functional backup site loading
behind it. This is only compliance, anyhow.
2. Use meaningful filenames such as "turtle-food.jpg" instead of
"image1.jpg" for all files including graphics, sound, scripts, etc...
3. Use hyphens in filenames instead of underscores
4. Use the meta description and meta keywords tags and put them
immediately after the page title, as high on the page as possible - and
make different titles as well as meta tags for each page.
5. Get a list of keywords for EACH PAGE and work them into the
tags in number four. Also, use them in the page titles. Put keywords
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14. ahead of the company name in page titles, such as in: "Turtle Food
Experts ¦ ACME Turtleworld!"
6. Try to use header tags where possible, around keywords. If using
css, use css to define the size and characteristics of your header tags.
Validate CSS, just like the HTML and XML on the site.
7. Put bold or italics around keywords where possible, and name links
8. Link internally, even to anchor text, using keywords
9. Do not put text in graphics. Use text.
10. Use the ALT tag and combine ALT text with keywords
11. Generate RSS feeds for pages with good content and syndicate
them. Use something like Feedburner
12. Be sure the site is compliant to coding standards
13. Sites with private content should try to have public pages as well
14. Use a sitemap, ideally sitemap.xml (registered with Google and at
the root of your site), but at the least a header/footer/menu that
includes text links
15. Be sure that WebTrends or similar program is installed on the
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15. 16. If using a CMS, try to install a "search-engine-friengly URL"
component or mod_rewrite for Apache (is there an IIS equivalent?)
17. Avoid using frames. If you must use frames, use <NOFRAMES>
18. Manually submit site to at least Google, Yahoo, DMOZ
19. Try to ensure that at least some page content is static and
20. Make sure that links are not "click here" but instead consist of
keywords and keyword phrases. Shorter is not necessarily better.
21. Have a "links/resources" page that will be used for reciprocal
links and other outbound links (to open in "_blank") or better - put
contextual links within the site.
22. Make a custom 404 page that looks good and links to the site's
main sections or includes a sitemap. Have the custom 404 page do a
meta refresh to the main page after a few seconds, and let browsers
know "you will be directed to our main site in X seconds"
23. If the site is geared towards a specific geographic area, try to find
hosting in that area
#) Use lowercase file names. It seems to matter to some search engine
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16. #) Follow The First Letter Capital, Every Other Letter Lowercase
naming convention in links with keywords (where it isnt painful or
displeasing to do so)
#. Don't use a new technology just because it is "cool". Check for seo
implications before implementing.
#. If AJAX is creating any of your page content, know that it is
probably not being indexed.
SEO - what is NOT recommended
Flash and shockwave - spiders do not pick up these files
Image only sites - spiders do not pick up images
Image maps - spiders cannot read image maps.
Do not use them on your home page or critical pages. Frames - only
one page can be titled (titling is critical in search rankings)
- If the spider cannot read the complete page (because of the frames),
it will not be indexed properly.
- Some spiders may not even read a frames web site
Password protected pages – spiders cannot enter password protected
PDF files - can be problematic for spiders. Although some search
engines can index them, the pages must be interpreted into HTML and
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17. can lose much of their content.
- place PDFs lower down in your site
Dynamic pages - spiders cannot index some content on pages using
ASP, CGI or other dynamic languages.
- Make sure important pages are HTML, no dynamically generated
Drop down menus – spiders cannot read them
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18. Keyword Research
Before you can start optimizing your site for the search engines, you
must first know which terms you want to target. A good start would
be to choose 3 or 4 keywords you would like your website to rank
well for. With these keywords in your mind you can then set a goal to
rank in the top 10 results on Google for each of them (we refer to
Google because if you can rank well there, you'll rank well on the
other search engines). These keywords can be either broad or specific,
but you'll want to study our list of pros and cons of each before
A broad keyword is one that many people search for, because they
may only have a vague idea of what they're looking for. Broad
keywords tend to be very short and aren't very specific (e.g. "shoes" or
"sports"). These keywords are difficult to rank #1 for because so many
other websites might have an article or two that mention shoes.
However, if you can rank well for a broad keyword, you will be
receiving a great deal of traffic.
Summary: Hard to rank for, but worth it in the long run. We
recommend that beginners only choose a broad keyword if their
industries are not very competitive.
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19. A specific keyword is something that contains many adjectives or
words that make the search very targeted. The people doing these
types of searches know exactly what they want (e.g. "used black high
heel shoes"). These keywords are much less competitive and are
easier to rank for on search engines. The downside is that they receive
a great deal less volume of searches per month. In terms of traffic, you
will need to have several #1 rankings for specific keywords to equal
one #1 ranking broad keyword.
Summary: Easier to rank for and it's highly targeted traffic. The only
downside is that the number of visitors you will receive is relatively
Unique or Branded Keywords
These are the words that are specific to only your company. They are
one of the most easiest ways to get traffic. However, some companies
will release a new product, with a unique name, and then forget to
optimize for that keyword on their website. Their SEO savvy
competitors can then pick up the slack and take over the top rankings
for these terms. If you have a popular brand or product, make sure that
you have optimized for these freebie keywords.
Keyword Research Tools
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20. Keyword research tools are 2 parts voodoo magic and 1 part hard
statistic. This is partly due to Google not releasing actual numbers and
partly due to overeager SEO Tool developers trying to sell their
products. Because there is such a sizable uncertainty in all keyword
research tools, it is best to use as many different sources as you can,.
Even with multiple sources, you should only take the information you
gather as a recommendation, rather than a fact.
Yahoo has been releasing their keyword search information for years,
and many tools are based off of this specific data. We've collected a
wide variety of helpful tools that will give you a general idea of which
keywords you should target when making and optimizing your
How many times is your keyword mentioned on your site? If it's too
much, you'll look like a spammer; if it's too little, you won't look like
a relevant match and the search engines won't consider your site.
Altering versions of your keywords will help you capture hidden
search engine traffic.
These are closely related topics to your keywords that will aide the
search engines in correctly categorizing your traffic.
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21. You may have found a couple of high traffic keywords using a
keyword research tool, but those estimates often group similar
keywords, alternate spellings, and plurals into a single word. Valuable
traffic is hidden when using those tools. This hidden traffic lies in all
the subtle variations of your keyword that someone may search for.
The easiest way to optimize your site is to include the plural version
of your keyword at least a couple of times on your page. Nearly every
keyword can do this (instead of "free hat", try "free hats").
Although it may make your site look a little unprofessional, including
a very common misspelling of your keyword is one of the easiest
ways to rank #1 for that exact spelling and get some free traffic. This
is one of the fun things to experiment with after you've optimized the
rest of your site.
If your keyword is an acronym like SEO, write out the words
completely (Search Engine Optimization) so that you can target those
people who do not know the acronym.
If you want a page to rank for a keyword that is particularly difficult,
be sure to focus on getting the keyword in your anchor text. Many
newbies will request links to the page they're trying to boost and
forget about the anchor text. While getting links to the page is most
certainly going to help, you should try to get at least part of your
keyword into the anchor text whenever you get the chance.
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22. What is PageRank?
PageRank is a ranking system that previously was the foundation of
the infamous search engine, Google. When search engines were first
developed, they ranked all websites equally and would return results
based only on the content and meta tags the pages contained. At the
time, however, the PageRank system would revolutionize search
engine rankings by including one key factor: a site's authority.
To determine how important, or authoritative, a site was Google chose
big sites, such as cnn.com, dmoz.org, and espn.com. These sites were
clear authorities, and Google figured that if these websites chose to
link to another site (let's say site B), then site B would receive a piece
of that site's authority. If site B were to link to another site (how about
C), then site C would also receive a piece of authority, though much
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23. Using this system of passing authority, Google would then count up
how much authority a site had and give it a PageRank from 0 to 10.
The PageRank system has become more complicated since then, but
this is how it all started.
What's my PageRank?
If you would like to see what PageRank your site has or other sites
have, install Google's Toolbar. Google has made a small green bar
that starts at 0 page rank (a blank bar) all the way up to 10 (a full
green bar, which is 100% authoritative). It should be noted that the
PageRank shown in the toolbar is an estimate released by Google, and
it is only updated every 3 months or so.
Who Uses PageRank?
When PageRank first came out, only Google was using the
technology, but as other search engines have seen how much it
improved Google's accuracy, nearly every search engine has added the
PageRank system in to be at least part of their algorithm. In the past,
while many of the search engines were still working on adding
PageRank to their search algorithm, some couldn't wait to make their
own and instead signed deals with Google to have them power their
results (Yahoo did this for quite some time).
Apart from search engines, SEOs (Search Engine Optimization
specialists), link buyers, webmasters, marketers, and anyone interested
in a site's value will often look to the Google PageRank when trying
to quickly determine the importance of a site.
How Important is PageRank?
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24. When Google was in its childhood, PageRank was the single most
important factor for ranking well. However, as soon as the SEO
community caught on to this, there was a great deal of people who
found ways to artificially boost their clients' PageRank. Those sites
became more authoritative than Google thought they should be. Since
then, Google and other search engines have constantly refined how
important PageRank is, and its importance has definitely declined
through the years.
One tactic Google uses is to update Google Toolbar PageRank values
four times a year instead of every week, making it difficult for SEOs
to know a site's real PageRank. Another tactic is to prevent a site that
has been known to sell links from passing any of its PageRank
(authority) on to sites that it links to. However, Google can't use that
tactic too much because then they run the risk of preventing good sites
from being ranked as they should be.
This is a battle between Google and SEOs that will not be ending
Where do I Get PageRank for my Site?
Now we've come to the part where you actually have to do work! It's
tough, but getting a high PageRank for your site should definitely be
part of your long-term SEO strategy.
The only way to get PageRank is to get a link from a site that already
has PageRank. This means that getting a ton of links from PageRank 0
sites will not help your score. However, a single link from a site with
a PageRank 6 can immediately boost your site to a PageRank 5 if the
site is trusted by Google and is not linking to a massive amount of
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25. The process of increasing your PageRank is directly tied to link
acquisition. Link acquisition is getting links from other sites, be it via
natural or through link purchasing. We cover both of these topics in
greater detail, and you should read each lesson to learn more about the
benefits and drawbacks of each.
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26. SEO Tools
There are a lot of repetitive tasks to be done when optimizing your site
for the search engines. To make your life easier, we've compiled a list
of the most popular SEO Tools (nearly all 100% free) and categorized
them into the following:
Find popular keywords that your site should be targeting.
Estimate how much search traffic a specific keyword receives each
Analyze how well a specific webpage is targeting a keyword.
Determine how popular your site is on the internet.
Track of your site's rankings for a keyword in the search engines.
Install these add-ons to turn your browser into an SEO research
Before you can begin to optimize your site for search engines, you
must first know which keywords you are going after. Use these tools
to find which things people are searching for in your industry!
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27. Google Adwords
Google's tool is probably the easiest to use and maybe the best if you
think about the fact that Google is the most used search engine in the
world (meaning they have access to the most data).
Ad Center Keyword Group Detection
Microsoft's unique tool that will analyze a word or phrase that you
give it and determine related phrases.
This tool will take a URL that you give it and return the relevant
keywords from that page. It might be smart to insert an article about
your industry and see what keywords they're using.
This program finds out what terms a site is advertising on with their
Pay per Click campaigns. Let them continue to pay for those
keywords while you work on ranking #1 in the search engines and
getting all your traffic for free!
If you have no idea what you want to have your site be about, consider
using this tool which keeps track of the most popular search terms
Almost as important as knowing what people are searching for is
determining how many people are searching for it. Use these tools to
get a rough estimate of the number of people searching for a keyword
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28. Google Adwords External Tool
This has become a lot more helpful, as it now displays the actual
volume of searches in a month.
SEO Book Keyword Suggestion Tool
This tool uses word tracker’s API to get the estimated number of
searches a keyword receives on each search engine (Google,
Microsoft, and Yahoo).
Term Target - This tool takes a URL and the keyword you're
attempting to target and returns a letter score (A-F) on how well you
have done. Fun, but it's hard to determine exactly how accurate it is as
the search engines have not released their formulas for determine how
relevant pages are for a given keyword.
Rank Checker - Keeps track of your ranks in the search engines
without sharing it with anyone but yourself. However, you do have to
download it and install it to your computer.
One of the first popular keyword trackers out there. It will tell you
your daily, weekly, and monthly changes for each term that you enter.
It also has a nice graph feature so you can see your progress
A very unique name, and it does what it says.
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Although this isn't really related to SEO, Google Analytics has a
section that displays all the search terms that your visitors used to get
to your site.
Looks at a given URL to check for any common problems that might
prevent your site being crawled properly by a search engine.
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Search Engine Wikipedia
Search Engine Optimization Wikipedia
Search Engine Marketing Wikipedia
Paid Listings http://www.unisa.edu.au/wag/design/seo.p
OrganicLinks V/S Sponsored
Canonical URLs http://ask.enquiro.com/2009/what-is-a-
What is Redirects?
Keyword Research http://www.tizag.com/SEOTutorial/
SEO Tools http://www.tizag.com/SEOTutorial/
Page Ranking http://www.tizag.com/SEOTutorial/
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