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Organizing Talk.pptx

  1. Organizing Talk
  2. Situation & conversation Human discourse is an ongoing project of meaning-making, and the extent to which an individual or a group or category of individuals actually contributes to meaning depends on their ability to get their contributions heard and attended to Fate of the speaker’s contribution is already at issue- even before it is uttered. Whether speaker is appropriate or the situation is appropriate- is the speaker is part of conversation/situation
  3. Division of labor matters What kinds of speech events and activities take place in these situations and who is thus present to participate in them? Who has the right and/or authority to participate in these events and in what ways? Who is entitled to speak and be heeded on what kinds of topics? How does one get one’s contribution into the flow of speech? And who will be in a position to follow up that contribution in other situations?
  4. Who has right in conversation? What about our society? Usually children are kept away from participating in conversation Females? Men are encouraged to talk on all occasions, speaking being a sign of masculine intelligence and leadership. The ideal woman is submissive and quiet, silent in her husband’s presence. At gatherings where men do much talking, women sit together listlessly, communicating only in whispers or not at all. (Hymes 1972, p. 45)
  5. Access to communication and events Utterance does not depend on speaker who produces it but how it is interpreted, who interprets it? In many communities (based on labor division) females have no right to speak publically, so their ideas do not (directly) put on table. In situations, specially, public affairs are decided. US policy making, Technology, Medical innovations and health of women, their body reaction to drugs and treatments
  6. Women in certain public places US has recently dropped bans on women participating in clubs, golf playing etc Our civic structure is mainly established, modified by men conversation Access to situations may also be a function of the gendered allocation of roles. Religious practices offer many examples. Women do not say mass in the Catholic Church because only priests can do so, and women cannot be priests. Women are not allowed for religious congregations, funeral gatherings
  7. Access to conversation/events is important There are many cases in which gender structures access to speech events not because of formal prohibitions but because of histories of gender imbalance in certain positions. No woman has ever given a state of the union address in the US -- not because women cannot now legally be president, but because they have not yet been president. Thus there is a continuum of access and participation, and there is ongoing change in how gender relates to that continuum.
  8. When You come to know about the speaker/author George Eliot is a famous case of a woman writing under a man’s name in order to get published, read, and attended to. And there are many others. Emily Bront¨e’s prose was read as strong and forceful; when the author’s identity as a woman was revealed, critics found delicacy and gentleness in the works. So it is not only whether one’s words are read or heard but also how they are judged that can depend on whether one is thought to be woman or man.
  9. Speech Activities Different speech activities (sermonizing, lecturing etc) A speech activity may vary with varying situation. An academic argument is different from an argument at dinner table
  10. Gossiping
  11. Argument Argument vs quarrel . Argument canonically involves giving reasons and evidence and using rational principles of inference to support a position. In contrast, quarrels are seen as more emotional, primarily a manifestation of ‘‘temper” and often leading to a rupture in friendly relations among participants. ‘In argument with men a woman ever Goes by the worse.” Milton’s misogynistic line ‘‘quarrelling has a more personal orientation in general, whereas arguing is essentially focused on the subject matter . . . quarrelling [involves] a struggle of wills and a display of tempers.” To be argumentative is not necessarily a bad thing: it can suggest strong convictions and intellectual skill New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary
  12. women quarrel or bicker. That’s why a woman ‘‘ever Goes by the worse” in arguing with men. She is doomed by her inability to engage with him on 102 Language and Gender intellectual grounds, by being at the mercy of her emotions.