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PCBs, or polychlorinated biphenyls, are human-made organic chemicals that were used in hundreds of industrial and commercial applications before their production was banned and their use restricted
January 2009 - NYC agreed to conduct pilot study in five schools to evaluate PCBs in caulk Summer 2010 - NYC took air, dust and soil samples at three schools (one each in Brooklyn, Manhattan and the Bronx) Test results released by NYCDOE showed air and soil levels above health-based benchmarks (some were elevated)
Determined that widespread leaking PCB-containing lighting ballasts were contributing to elevated air levels
Many schools in the United States built before 1979 have light ballasts containing PCBs EPA has also seen evidence of leaking PCBs in light ballasts in schools in Oregon, North Dakota, and Massachusetts If a school was built prior to 1979, it is likely that the lighting fixtures contain PCB ballasts if they have not been updated
In December 2010 EPA released national guidance recommending that schools remove older PCB-containing lighting ballasts
Other Agencies in Region 2 (NY and NJ) are issuing guidance information.
During January and February 2011, EPA conducted seven targeted inspections of lighting fixtures at public schools in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Staten Island and the Bronx 145 samples taken total 113 samples showed results above the EPA regulatory limit of 50 ppm At each school, at least two-thirds of the samples taken showed results above the regulatory limit At PS 306 in Brooklyn, two sample showed a result of approximately 1,000,000 ppm, or 100% PCBs
(Chairs are upside down, they are stored this way).
February 2011 NYC DOE announced its &quot;Comprehensive Plan to Increase Energy Efficiency and Environmental Quality at Schools” The Plan calls for the removal and replacement of all PCB lighting ballasts throughout the entire school system over the course of ten years Approximately 754 NYC schools have PCB-containing ballasts
42 City Council members signed a letter to the RA of EPA Region 2 The New York City Council’s Committee on Environmental Protection and Committee on Education held a hearing on April 13, 2011 Interest from: Representatives Jose E. Serrano, Joseph Crowley and Jerrold Nadler; Senator Charles Schumer; Bronx Borough President Ruben Diaz, among many others
And what do we mean by “a strategic approach to energy management”? Over the past decade, ENERGY STAR has observed that leading organizations are implementing a number best practices in designing and implementing their energy management programs. In fact, EPA has been able to distill the common elements of these successful practices to create a set of guidelines to help other organizations kick-start their energy management efforts. The ENERGY STAR Guidelines for Strategic Energy Management are shown above, and much more information is available online. In short however, these guidelines act as a roadmap to help organizations assess energy performance, set reduction goals, track savings over time, and recognize and reward improvements. The first step is making a top-level commitment to continuous improvement of energy performance. A great way to do this is to join ENERGY STAR as a partner. Today, though, we are focusing on the second critical step, assess performance.
In NYC, need to prevent exposure ASAP Global Issue
NYSERDA, NYPA and LIPA have funding and technical assistance. Other EPA resources: ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual - http://www.energystar.gov/ia/business/EPA_BUM_Full.pdf Energy Efficiency Programs in K-12 Schools - http://www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/documents/pdf/k-12_guide.pdf ENERGY STAR primer on financing energy efficiency projects, including through performance contracting - http://www.energystar.gov/ia/business/COO-CFO_Paper_final.pdf . US Dept. of Energy Resources: DOE’s EnergySmart Schools program - http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energysmartschools/about.html Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools - http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/energysmartschools/ess_o-and-m-guide.pdf Guide to Financing EnergySmart Schools - http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energysmartschools/financing_guide.html
EPA PCB Presentation
Presentation by Judith Enck, EPA Regional Administrator, US EPA Region 2 October 2011 PCBs in Lighting Fixtures in NYC Schools
What are PCBs? <ul><li>Polychlorinated biphenyls </li></ul><ul><li>Man-made organic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial and commercial applications; used as flame retardants </li></ul>
Health Effects of PCBs <ul><li>Probable human carcinogen </li></ul><ul><li>Cause cancer in animals </li></ul><ul><li>Serious non-cancer effects on the immune, reproductive, nervous and endocrine systems </li></ul>
Testimonials on the Health Effects of PCBs at the NYC Council Hearing of the Committees on Education and Environmental Protection April 13, 2011 <ul><li>New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (NYCOSH) </li></ul><ul><li>“ PCBs in schools constitute a significant health risk for the following reasons: they cause serious chronic health effects, they have been found in air and on surfaces at levels above health-based guidelines, and, unless removed, staff and students will inhale them, ingest them, and absorb them through the skin, for many years.” </li></ul><ul><li>Mt. Sinai Children’s Environmental Health Center </li></ul><ul><li>“ Well-conducted, highly credible epidemiological studies demonstrate that babies born to mothers with elevated levels of PCRs in their bodies have diminished intelligence as measured by decreased 1.0. scores and motor delays.” </li></ul>
Testimonials on the Health Effects of PCBs at the NYC Council Hearing of the Committees on Education and Environmental Protection April 13, 2011 <ul><li>David O. Carpenter, M.D., University at Albany, State University of New York </li></ul><ul><li>“ The health effects known to be associated with exposure to PCBs include cancer (Cogliano, 1998), suppression of immune (Weisglas-Kuperus et al.. 2000) and thyroid (Schell et al., 2008) function, elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (Goncharov et al., 2008) hypertension (Goncharov et al., 2010) and diabetes (Lee et al., 2010).” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Studies on teachers working in PCB-contaminated schools in Germany have found that their blood showed elevations in the lower-chlorinated PCB congeners that were present in the air (Schwenk et al., 2002), provided proof that humans working in an environment with elevated air-borne PCBs absorb them.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ There is no such thing as a "safe" level of PCBs.” </li></ul>
EPA/NYC Pilot Project <ul><li>January 2009- EPA enters into agreement with NYC to perform pilot study, driven by parents’ concerns about caulk </li></ul><ul><li>Since that time, NYC has collected air, dust and soil samples at pilot schools </li></ul><ul><li>Levels above health-based benchmarks in some schools </li></ul>
Widespread Issue <ul><li>Nation-wide </li></ul><ul><li>See EPA national guidance, available at: http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/tsd/pcbs/pubs/ballasts.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Schools built prior to 1979, without a lighting upgrade </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of leaks in Massachusetts, Oregon, North Dakota </li></ul>
EPA National Guidance This ballast sparked a fire at a southern California school in 1999 An old ballast that burst unexpectedly Recommends that schools take steps to address exposures to PCBs from older fluorescent lighting fixtures.
2011 New Jersey Department of Education Letter Letter to all NJ Chief School Administrators and Business Administrators referencing the EPA national guidance and recommending that schools “survey and inventory all light fixtures in schools built before 1979 and develop a plan to replace those identified to contain PCBs within the ballasts.”
New York State Education Dept. <ul><li>Excerpt from NYSED’s Office of Facilities Planning, May 2011 Newsletter: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The department recommends that school districts take a prudent approach to potential PCB contamination and inspect lighting systems in particular to investigate whether PCBs exist in the facility.” </li></ul>
NJ Dept. Of Health and Senior Services <ul><li>From statement on NJDDHSS website: </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is necessary for schools to inspect and replace any leaking light fixtures to reduce the potential for exposures to school occupants.” </li></ul>
EPA Inspections of NYC Public Schools January-February 2011 <ul><li>Most important: 113 of 145 samples above 50 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 or more of samples at each school elevated </li></ul><ul><li>PS 306 in Brooklyn had most disturbing results </li></ul>
Summary of EPA Sampling Results Exceeds one million parts per million; pure PCBs School Borough Date of Sampling Event Number of Samples Taken Number of Samples > 50 ppm (mg/kg) Range of Exceedances in ppm (mg/kg) PS 53 Staten Island 1/8/2011 33 22 51 – 260,000 PS 11 Brooklyn 1/15/2011 28 18 51 – 3,000 PS 13 PS 358 Brooklyn 1/22/2011 7 7 70 - 560 PS 68 Bronx 1/29/2011 13 10 61 – 1,260 PS 206 PS 37 PS 112 Manhattan 2/5/2011 10 1 3 (14 total) 9 1 2 (12 total) 95 – 7,600 PS 45 Brooklyn 2/12/2011 19 19 830 –670,000 PS 306 Brooklyn 2/19/2011 31 25 480 –1,200,000
NYC’s Comprehensive Plan <ul><li>754 schools (largest school system in the country) </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Energy Projects </li></ul><ul><li>10 year time frame (with evaluation in 3 yrs to determine if overall effort can be accelerated). EPA believes too long </li></ul><ul><li>$149 M for ongoing effort </li></ul><ul><li>Additional $738 M allocated </li></ul>
ESCOs and Performance Contracts <ul><li>ESCOs are “businesses that develop, install, and arrange financing for projects designed to improve the energy efficiency and maintenance costs for facilities” –National Association of Energy Service Companies </li></ul><ul><li>An energy savings performance contract (or simply, performance contract) is an agreement between a building or facility owner or occupant and a performance contractor (i.e. the ESCO). The contractor identifies, designs, and installs energy conservation measures and guarantees their performance. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The more energy-cost savings generated, the more the performance contractor earns — and the more money the school has to put toward other projects .” –US Dept. of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>* From the National Association of Energy Service Companies </li></ul>
How Performing Contracting Works <ul><li>Payment for financing the energy conservation project is recovered from the energy cost savings </li></ul><ul><li>The ESCO(s) may completely cover the upfront costs of the project and then are repaid by energy saving alone </li></ul><ul><li>Or the building owner/occupant pays a portion of the upfront costs of the project </li></ul>
Status of NYC’s Lighting Retrofits <ul><li>Approximately 50 schools have been addressed </li></ul><ul><li>NYC selected 5 ESCOs to perform energy efficiency projects and lighting retrofits </li></ul><ul><li>3 year contract for each ESCO </li></ul><ul><li>$20 M per contract, $100 M total </li></ul><ul><li>Assigning work to the ECSOs in October </li></ul><ul><li>ESCOs will be managed by NYC’s School Construction Authority (SCA) </li></ul>
Benefits of Lighting Replacement <ul><li>Prevent exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Save energy </li></ul><ul><li>Create jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Save $ </li></ul>Lighting efficiency upgrades can reduce lighting energy use by up to 50%
Congressional, Elected Official and Public Interest <ul><li>Letters to EPA Region 2 </li></ul><ul><li>City Council Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive media coverage </li></ul>
Energy Star Tools and Resources for Schools <ul><li>Help schools achieve measurable energy efficiency – </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Building Upgrade Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Cash Flow Opportunity Calculator </li></ul><ul><li>Training – web-based and in-person workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Help: Service and Product Providers </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition: improvements and top performance </li></ul>
What is Portfolio Manager? <ul><li>Free, online, benchmarking tool for existing buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Whole-building Actual Energy Performance Score </li></ul><ul><li>Measures and Tracks energy intensity, cost, ghg emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Normalizes for weather, operating hours, occupant density, plug load </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to understand 1 to 100 score </li></ul><ul><li>Measures and tracks water use </li></ul><ul><li>Tracks green power purchases and REC </li></ul><ul><li>Provides ENERGY STAR Certification </li></ul>
Looking Forward Need this issue addressed in every school building older than 1979 that has not replaced its lighting
For Additional Information <ul><li>EPA Region 2’s website: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.epa.gov/region2/pcbs/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>EPA’s national website: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information on PCBs http://www.epa.gov/wastes/hazard/tsd/pcbs/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENERGY STAR for K-12 School Districts http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=k12_schools.bus_schoolsk12 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your state energy agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NYSERDA, NYPA, LIPA </li></ul></ul>