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Source: Deterding et al., 2011 http://www.slideshare.net/dings/from-game-design-elements-to-gamefulness-defining-gamification
The Bartle Test of Gamer Psychology is a series of questions and an accompanying scoring formula that classifies players of multiplayer online games (including MUDs and MMORPGs) into categories based on their gaming preferences. The test is based on a 1996 paper by Richard Bartle. As of September 2009, the test had been taken over 500,000 times.
Hypothesis: Each game player can be assigned to one player group:
Achievers: are all about being the best or getting the most experience out of a game. They will go to great lengths to achieve rewards that confer them little or no gameplay benefit simply for the prestige of having it.
Explorers: they are players who prefer discovering areas, creating maps and learning about hidden places. They find great joy in discovering different ways to play a game or new strategies to complete a level they have already beaten. They often feel restricted when a game expects them to move on within a certain time, as that does not allow them to look around at their own place.
Socializer: play games for the social aspect, rather than the actual game itself. They gain the most enjoyment from a game by interacting with other players, and on some occasions, computer-controlled characters with personality. The experience of a new culture or friendship will draw them into a game. These players play the game as a means to interact with others.
Killers: they thrive on competition with other players, enjoy destroying an opponent and gloating over it. This is the person who will kill lower level characters over and over again because that’s how they enjoy playing the game.
The position of each type represents the player’s preference. For example: Socialisers prefer INTERACTING with PLAYERS. The basic purpose of Bartle Player Model is to seek a balance between each type of players so as to maintain the level of engagement.