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consumption- 19.2 kg.
53-200% increase in per
capita consumption, to 25 kg
in 2025 and to 30-40 kg in
Global capture fisheries
75% of fishing sites being
Need for the development of
has the responsibility. A
5 fold increase in
within the next 5
decades to maintain
current aquatic food
Why do we need technologies for aquaculture?
• While developing, consider the following
• Produce more fish without significantly increasing the usage of the
basic natural resources of water and land.
• Develop sustainable systems that will not damage the environment.
• Develop systems providing a reasonable cost/benefit ratio, to support
economics and social sustainability.
Defined as conglomerates– diatoms, faecal pellets,
exoskeleton, remains of dead organisms, protozoa and
( Decamp, o et al., 2002)
As Natural Feed ( filter feeders- Litopenaeus vannamei) :
It has shown that microbial protein has a higher
availability than feed protein (Yoram, 2005)
A &K Block
Shape: Rectangular with rounded at the corner.
Area: 40*30 m^2 = 1200m^2
Depth: 1.0 m.
Type: Fully lined (side + bottom)
• Side lining is done with High Density Polyethylene Sheet
• Bottom lining is done with Kadapa slab
Check tray: 2
Pond centre cleaning system: Rotatory tool
Outlet: Sluice type
Inlet: Sieve type pipe
Water filling & water cultureFeeding boat
Pond lining & bird netting
• Culture pond water treated to reduce the viral load by eliminating the
• Fill reservoir pond using meshed filter bag.
• Hold water for 48 hours for any eggs to hatch out.
• Apply Nuvan (organophosphate pesticide) during low sunlight. Start
mixing aerator 30 minutes before Nuvan application.
• Run mixing aerator for 4 hours
• Collect any dead animals
• Dosage: 2 ppm between 8 and 10 am.
• Residual effect: The water can be used after 7 days.
RESERVOIR INLET CANAL BIOFLOC POND
OUTLET SETTLEMENT TANK
• Seawater through passing through 250 micron screen.
• Crab fencing
• Bird netting
• Chlorine treatment to the pond & reservoir.
Aeration & Aerator Deployment
• 14 HP of paddle wheel aerators
• Placed in the periphery of the ponds at a distance of about 30% of the width of the
pond from the pond edge
• Aerators were directed to create a clockwise circular motion
• For vertical aeration aspirators were used to keep the solids in suspension
• Seeds were kept inside the FRP TANK along with the
• pH and salinity of the hatchery water has been noted
• Pond water sprayed from the shower into the tank until the
pH and salinity of the hatchery water becomes equal to the
• Released into the pond water
Large amount of foam on the
surface of ponds due to
accumulating dissolved organic
material and inadequate bacterial
Change to brown colour
period- 2 weeks
• The ratio of organic carbon to total nitrogen
• Pond received a regular feed of 35% protein
• At initial due to low amount of feed addition high C/N (15:1)was maintained
Pond fed with 100kg pellets with 35%
protein+ 70 kg molasses
Molasses contain 20% water.
Molasses as dry matter=56 kg
N= 35*15.5%*100=5.4 kg N.
Lowering the C/N
● Up to DOC 30: follow feeding chart (estimate the survival using check
● After DOC 30: check tray, moulting condition, size of the shrimp and as
per % biomass
● In case there is doubt about Biomass, intestine colour check to find out
underfeeding or overfeeding
● Range: 7-7.30 am, 12-1 pm, 4-5 pm and 7-8 pm
Feeding area – Margin area of the pond.
No. of check trays: Less than 0.5 ha. pond – 2
0.5 - 1.0 ha. pond – 4
• Depth: must be more than 2 times the SDR
• Check tray observation from DOC 20 (5.0 gm. feed/kg)
• Check tray feed put through 2” PVC pipe only.
• Cleaned every week and allowed to dry on the catwalk
• Using 16 X 16 mesh up to 5 gm animal size and 10 X 10 mesh above 5 gm Check Tray Time:
● Up to 5gm. - 3.0 hours
● 5 – 25gm - 2.0 hours
● 25– 30 gm - 1.5 hours
● Above 30gm - 1.0 hours
FEED ADJUSTMENT BASED ON CHECK TRAY:
All feed consumed – increase feed by 30%
Feed remained- Go behind previous schedule
Monitoring and control of Biofloc
• All the aerators in the pond must be running
• 1.5 l of water is collected about 20 m in front of the aerator
• Stirred and transferred 1 l of water to an Imhoff cone
• After 30 minutes the side of the cone has tapped to release the biofloc stuck to the walls
• Reading was noted before 60 minutes
• To reduce the biofloc, aerators has stopped for about one hour for the biofloc to settle partially
and the central drain was opened and/or clean using the rotary tool
• This will reduce the aeration requirement and gill choking
• Calculate the feed based on an FCR of 1.2. In case biofloc < 3.0ml/l, increase feed.
• If TAN is > 0.5, increase carbon
Recommended levels of Biofloc for shrimp
pond- 15 ml/l (Avnimelech, 2002).
• Radially aerated pond having a drainage
pit at the centre of the pond.
• Sludge was removed at the end of the
• Drained as long as the outgoing sludge is
black-brown and stopped once got clear
• Two methods:
• 1) Removal by means of operating rotary
• 2) Removal by means of sweeping the
Rotary Tool Sweeping Tool
Water quality maintenance
• Monitoring not only to accumulate in notebooks and computers.
Ranges of Hydro biological parameters in Hitide seafarm, Mahendrapalli
S.No Parameters Unit Biofloc Treatment
(Pond E 4)
1 Temperature (Morning)
0 C 27 -- 30
30 -- 34
2 Salinity ppt 28 -- 40 1 time / day
3 Dissolved oxygen (Morning)
Dissolved oxygen (Evening)
ppm 3.5 – 6.5
1.5 – 9.4
4 pH (Morning)
7.2 – 8.3
7.1 - 8.6
5 Transparency (Secchi disc) cm 14 -- 55 1 time/day
Alkalinity ppm 90 -- 200 Weekly once
7 Nitrite ppm 0.5 – 1.5 Once in 10 day
8 Nitrate ppm 0.1 -- 5.0 Once in 10 day
9 Ammonia ppm 0.0 – 0.20 Once in 10 day
10 TAN ppm 0.1 – 3.0 Once in 10 day
• Starting from the 30th DOC, every week
shrimp was collected by means of lift net
and the health status, ABW (Average
Body Weight), biomass were calculated.
• Health status is estimated by means of
parameters like muscle cramps, white
muscle, tail rot, empty gut, black gut and
• According to the health status, remedial
measures has been taken.
• If any moribund shrimp founded
suddenly it has to check for WSSV
• Harvesting is done by means of draining the water through outlet and capture it
by bag net.
• Then the remaining shrimps were harvested by Hand picking