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SCIENTIFIC MODELS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT RALPH TYLER AND HILDA TABA

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SCIENTIFIC MODELS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT RALPH TYLER AND HILDA TABA

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SCIENTIFIC MODELS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT RALPH TYLER AND HILDA TABA:(In detail)
 Two famous scientific models of curriculum development are given by Ralph Tyler known as The Tyler model and Hilda Taba known as The Taba model.
THE TYLER MODEL: FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES:
• Tyler’s model is one of the best known, technical scientific models.
• The Tyler model is often referred to as the “objective model” because of its objective approach to educational evaluation. It emphasizes consistency among objectives, learning experiences, and outcomes.
• In l949 Tyler published Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction , in which he outlined a rationale for examining the problems of curriculum and instruction.
• He mentioned that those involved in curriculum inquiry must try to define the
1) PURPOSES OF THE SCHOOL:
(2) EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES RELATED TO THE PURPOSES
(3) ORGANIZATION OF THE EXPERIENCES
(4) EVALUATION OF THE PURPOSES
THE TABA MODEL: GRASS- ROOTS RATIONALE:
Taba noted seven major steps to her grass roots model in which teachers would have major input:
1) DIAGNOSIS OF NEEDS
2) FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES:
3) SELECTION OF CONTENT
4) ORGANIZATION OF CONTENT:
5) SELECTION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES:
6) ORGANIZATION OF LEARNING ACTIVITIES:
7) EVALUATION AND MEANS OF EVALUATION:
APPLICATION OF THE MODEL:

SCIENTIFIC MODELS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT RALPH TYLER AND HILDA TABA:(In detail)
 Two famous scientific models of curriculum development are given by Ralph Tyler known as The Tyler model and Hilda Taba known as The Taba model.
THE TYLER MODEL: FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES:
• Tyler’s model is one of the best known, technical scientific models.
• The Tyler model is often referred to as the “objective model” because of its objective approach to educational evaluation. It emphasizes consistency among objectives, learning experiences, and outcomes.
• In l949 Tyler published Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction , in which he outlined a rationale for examining the problems of curriculum and instruction.
• He mentioned that those involved in curriculum inquiry must try to define the
1) PURPOSES OF THE SCHOOL:
(2) EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES RELATED TO THE PURPOSES
(3) ORGANIZATION OF THE EXPERIENCES
(4) EVALUATION OF THE PURPOSES
THE TABA MODEL: GRASS- ROOTS RATIONALE:
Taba noted seven major steps to her grass roots model in which teachers would have major input:
1) DIAGNOSIS OF NEEDS
2) FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES:
3) SELECTION OF CONTENT
4) ORGANIZATION OF CONTENT:
5) SELECTION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES:
6) ORGANIZATION OF LEARNING ACTIVITIES:
7) EVALUATION AND MEANS OF EVALUATION:
APPLICATION OF THE MODEL:

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SCIENTIFIC MODELS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT RALPH TYLER AND HILDA TABA

  1. 1. PAPER-VIII CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT POWERPOINT PRESENTATION WORD DOCUMENT TOPIC-SCIENTIFIC MODELS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT SANA FATIMA M.ED(SEM-II)2018-20 GHULAM AHMED COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, BANJARA HILLS,HYD. OSMANIA UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. SCIENTIFIC MODELS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT RALPH TYLER AND HILDA TABA  Curriculum Development can be defined as the systematic planning of what is taught and learned in schools as reflected in courses of study and school programmes.  In curriculum development, there are always changes that occur that are intended for improvement. To do this, there are models presented to us from well-known curricularists like Ralph Tyler, Hilda Taba, Galen Saylor and William Alexander and many other which would help to clarify the process of curriculum development.  A model is a format for curriculum design developed to meet unique needs, contexts, and/or purposes. In order to address these goals, curriculum developers design, rearrange one or more key curriculum components.  Two famous scientific models of curriculum development are given by Ralph Tyler known as The Tyler model and Hilda Taba known as The Taba model. THE TYLER MODEL: FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES:  Tyler’s model is one of the best known, technical scientific models.  The Tyler model is often referred to as the “objective model” because of its objective approach to educational evaluation. It emphasizes consistency among objectives, learning experiences, and outcomes.  In l949 Tyler published Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction , in which he outlined a rationale for examining the problems of curriculum and instruction.  He mentioned that those involved in curriculum inquiry must try to define the (1) Purposes of the school – What education purpose should schools seeks to attain? (2) Educational experiences related to the purposes – What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? (3) Organization of these experiences and –How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? (4) Evaluation of the purposes- How can we determine whether these purposes are attained or not? 1) PURPOSES OF THE SCHOOL: By “purposes,” Tyler was referring to objectives. He indicated that curriculum planners should identify these general objectives by gathering data from three sources: (i) The subject matter (ii) The learners, and
  3. 3. (ii) The society. After identifying numerous general objectives, the curriculum planners were to refine them by filtering them through two screens  The use of philosophy in selecting the objectives and  The use of psychology of learning in selecting the objectives. (2) EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES RELATED TO THE PURPOSES : Tyler then discussed how to select educational experiences that would allow attainment of objectives. Learning experiences had to take into account both the previous experiences and the perceptions that the learner brings to a situation. Also, the experiences were to be selected in light of what educators know about learning and human development. (3) ORGANIZATION OF THE EXPERIENCES: Tyler next talked about the organization and sequencing of the experiences. He purported that the ordering of the experiences had to be somewhat systematic so as to produce a maximum cumulative effect. He thought that organizing elements, such as ideas, concepts, values, and skills, should be woven as threads into the curriculum fabric. These key elements could serve as organizers and means and methods of instruction, and they could relate different learning experiences among different subjects. The ideas, concepts, values, and skills could also link content within particular subjects. (4) EVALUATION OF THE PURPOSES: Tyler’s last principle deals with evaluating the effectiveness of planning and actions. Tyler considered evaluation to be important in curriculum development. He realized that it was necessary if educators were to find out whether the learning experiences actually produced the intended results. Also, it was important to determine whether program was effective or ineffective. An evaluation should relate to all the objectives. TYLER’S CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTMODEL:
  4. 4. THE TABA MODEL:GRASS-ROOTS RATIONALE:  Hilda Taba followed the grass-roots approach in developing curriculum. The grass- roots approach, a model whose steps or stages are similar to Tyler’s.  She believed in an inductive approach (starting with specifics and building to a general design)  Hilda Taba believed that those who teach curriculum should participate in developing it.  Taba felt that curriculum should be designed by the users of the programme. Teachers should begin with the process by creating specific teaching-learning units for their students.  For her, it should be the teachers who should design the curriculum rather than the higher authorities. Taba noted seven major steps to her grass roots model in which teachers would have major input: 1) DIAGNOSIS OF NEEDS: The teacher (curriculum designer) starts the process by identifying the needs of the students for whom the curriculum is to be planned. 2) FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES: After the teacher has identified needs that require attention, he or she specifies objectives to accomplished. 3) SELECTION OF CONTENT: The objectives selected or created suggest the subject matter or content of the curriculum. Not only should objectives and content match, but also the validity and significance of the content chosen needs to be determined. 4) ORGANIZATION OF CONTENT: A teacher cannot just select content, but must organize it in some type of sequence, taking into consideration the maturity of the learners, their academic achievement, and their interests. 5) SELECTION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES: Content must be presented to pupils and pupils must engage the content. At this point, the teacher’s instructional methods involve the students with the content. 6) ORGANIZATION OF LEARNING ACTIVITIES: Just as content must be sequenced and organized, so must the learning activities. Often the sequence of the learning activities is determined by the content. But the teacher needs to keep in mind the particular students whom he or she will be teaching.
  5. 5. 7) EVALUATION AND MEANS OF EVALUATION: The curriculum planner must determine just what objectives have been accomplished. Evaluation procedures needs to be considered by the students and teachers. APPLICATION OF THE MODEL: The model is currently used today in most curriculum design. The steps that are still used are: 1. Identifying the needs of the students. 2. Developing objectives 3. Selection of instructional methods. 4. Organizing learning experiences 5. Evaluation. REFERENCES: Ornstein, A., & Hunkins, F. (2009) Curriculum Design. In Curriculum: Foundations, Principles and Issues (5th Ed.), Boston, MA: Pearson publications. Curriculum development: Process and models (2019) retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/DianneCarmelaDelacruz/curriculum-development-processes-and-models

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