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  2. 2. WHAT IS ENERGY OPTIMISATION Energy optimisation means using energy in the built environment whether domestic or industrial to maximize benefits for The climate and for people  For energy consumption reduction  For expanding energy savings and  For reduction in energy bills
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY OPTIMISATION The many benefits of energy efficiency include:  Lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other pollutants, as well as decrease water use.  Lower individual utility bills, Create jobs, And help stabilize electricity prices and volatility.
  4. 4. HOW DO YOU OPTIMISE YOUR ENERGY Steps to reduce your energy consumption Shut down your computer Choose the right light Eliminate vampire power eg unplug idle electronics Use a power strip to reduce your plug load Turn off the lights Improve on the operating power factor
  5. 5. WHY IS ENERGY OPTIMISATION IMPORTANT A high percentage of carbon emissions come from buildings. Implementing energy optimisation will make it possible to Drastically reduce carbon emissions across the building sector and Hopefully reduce or prevent the worst effects of climate change Utility bills are reduced KVA demand is reduced
  6. 6. WHAT IS ENERGY EFFICIENCY Energy efficiency refers to the ratio Between the input of energy—be it a primary source like fossil fuels Or an energy carrier such as electricity or hydrogen—and the output of an energy service, such as light, heat or mobility. Expanding energy savings primarily in existing infrastructure
  7. 7. ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONTD  Energy efficiency refers to the efficient conversion and use of energy and is a measure of the productivity provided per unit of energy consumed.  It is the practice of using less energy to do the same amount of work or using less energy to provide the same quality of service (Give typical example)  Whenever energy is transferred/transformed without doing a productive or meaningful work it is wasted; example is leaving the surrounding light bulbs ON during day time.  A productive work in the context of energy efficiency for businesses can be defined as the work done to add value, contribute or lead-up to a product or services that customers/clients can exchange for money
  9. 9. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LABELS AND RATING Contd  The energy efficiency of an appliance is rated in terms of a set of energy efficiency classes A to G as in the label. A being the most energy efficient, G the least efficient, the table also gives other useful information to the customer as they choose between various models  Energy efficiency label shows the estimated energy consumption of an electrical equipment based on a star rating system, 1 star means the least efficient. With the star rating, you can estimate how much electricity (KWh) the appliance consumes.  The EU energy label gives information about the energy efficiency of a product, the label rates products from dark green (most efficient) to red (least efficient)  A QR code on the energy label will make it possible to access useful product information by scanning the code with a smart phone.
  10. 10. WHICH PRODUCTS ARE RATED WITH ENERGY LABELS The new energy label has been introduced gradually across a range of products from March,1st 2021 whereby new labels started appearing in stores and on-line shops for the following appliances House hold refrigerators and Freezers Wine storage refrigerators Dish washers Washing machines Washer-dryers Television and electronic displays
  14. 14. ENERGY EFFICIENCY POTENTIAL IN NIGERIA  The potential for efficiency in Nigerian industries is high, according to UNIDO between 25 and 40% in developing countries.  Installed machinery is often outdated, processes might run effectively but often not efficiently. Thus, over 40% of total energy used is wasted on old obsolete and inefficient equipment  Manufacturers face frequent blackouts, shortage of fossil fuels and depend on self-generation with diesel, oil or gas generators  Inadequate and unreliable supply of energy to industry is a major cause of low industrial capacity utilization
  15. 15. ENERGY EFFICIENCY POTENTIAL IN NIGERIA (cont,d)  Small firms generate up to 50% of their electricity requirements, while some large firms are fully on self-generated electricity in order to have reliability for their production processes Energy costs often range between 20 to 40% of production costs due to self-generation of power and inefficient practices ( 5 to 15% in Europe) Peak load management, fuel switching, power quality improvement and optimized production processes among others can result in significant efficiency improvement. 15% saving potential exists through good housekeeping measures alone, Retrofitting in industries could save over 25% of energy currently used.
  16. 16. OVERVIEW OF EXTANT POLICIES AND ACTION PLANS  National Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy (NREEEP) National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAP)  National Determined Contributions (NDC)  National Industrial Policy (NIP)
  17. 17. OVERVIEW OF NREEEP  Developed by Ecowas Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE), approved by FEC in April, 2015  First and currently the only approved national Policy relating to Energy Efficiency (EE)  Mainstreams EE into the power sector reforms programmes and recognizes that improvements in the efficiency of power utilization translate directly into newly available power supply  Mandates the establishment and implementation of a National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAP)
  18. 18. PRIMARY CAUSES OF INEFFICIENCY Energy inefficiencies are induced by two primary factors;  Human Behavior  Technical Losses ENERGY BALANCE EQUATION; ENERGY IN= ENERGY OUT ENERGY IN=ENERGY USED (USEFUL)+ENERGY USED(WASTED)+Losses Human Behavior Technical loss(energy used to overcome resistant forces)
  19. 19. END-USER PRIMARY ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURE Energy Consumption=Power(KW) x Hours of use(Hours) Reducing power (KW) Reducing time of use needed to achieve same (Hours)= Energy Conservation result= Energy Efficiency
  20. 20. COEFICIENT OF EFFICIENCY Qin = Quseful + Qlosses The ratio of useful energy and total energy input in a process is called coefficient of energy transformation (or transformation efficiency) ᶯ= 𝑈𝑠𝑒𝑓𝑢𝑙 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 𝑄𝑖𝑛−𝑄𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑄𝑖𝑛 System boundaries have to be determined.
  21. 21. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN INDUSTRY(FUELS AND COMBUSTION) Combustion is a chemical process in which a substance reacts rapidly with oxygen and gives off heat. The original substance is called the fuel, and the source of oxygen is called the oxidizer. The fuel can be a solid, liquid, or gas, although for airplane propulsion the fuel is usually a liquid.
  22. 22. COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY Complete Combustion Characteristics Blue flame No residue Higher temperature High Efficiency Incomplete Combustion Yellow/orange flame Black residue/smoke Lower temperature Energy is wasted Toxic gas is produced (CO)
  23. 23. COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY What is ‘complete combustion’  To ensure a complete combustion of fuel, combustion chambers are supplied with excess air. Excess air increase the amount of oxygen to the combustion process.  When fuel and oxygen from air are in perfect balance, the combustion is said to be stoichiometric The combustion efficiency increases with increased excess air
  24. 24. COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY FOR COMMON FOSSIL FUELS Excess air to achieve highest possible efficiency for common fuels:  5-10% for Natural Gas 5-20% for fuel Oil  15-60% for Coal
  25. 25. MEASUREMENT OF COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY To carry out efficiency measurements, electronic probes are inserted into say a stack to measure Oxygen level Stack Temperature CO Nox Sox Unburned fuel
  26. 26. BOILERS AND BOILER TYPES Boilers are used to produce steam. The generation part of a steam system uses boiler to add energy to feed water supply to generate steam. The energy is released from the combustion of fossil fuels or from process waste heat.  Boilers are used in power plants in order to produce high pressured steam, so that the plant can generate electricity (Steam power plants)  Boilers are also needed to generate steam for industrial processes ie for food industries for packaging etc
  27. 27. COMBUSTION TRIANGLE The fire triangle or combustion triangle is a simple model for understanding the necessary ingredients for most fires. The triangle illustrates the three elements a fire needs to ignite:  Heat  Fuel and  An oxidizing agent. A fire naturally occurs when the elements are present and combined in the right mixture.
  28. 28. COMBUSTION TRIANGLE The fire triangle is used to show the rule that a fire needs three things to burn as earlier stated. These things are heat, fuel, and oxygen.  If one of these three is removed, the fire will be put out. In the middle of the fire triangle there is also A chemical reaction.
  29. 29. HEAT TRANSFER IN A BOILER Heat transfer in a boiler is a natural process that takes place from hot object to a colder object. Heat transfer in a boiler takes place in three ways  Radiation wave move. -Heat transfer by wave motion. No material required, it can occur in space  Convection-Heat transfer through density difference. Effective in liguid and gases  Conduction- Heat transfer by molecular contact, most effective in solid materials.
  30. 30. CONDITIONS FOR EFFECTIVE BOILER OPERATION For an effective production of steam for all industrial processes, the following requirements are very important for a boiler  Continuous supply of water  Source of heat  Insulating casing to prevent the loss of heat  Provision of Fan for the supply of air and for the removal of burnt gases
  31. 31. MAIN PARTS OF A BOILER The major parts of a boiler are the followings  The shell  The furnace  Boiler mounting  Accessories  Heating space  Gate  Water space  Steam space
  32. 32. STEAM BOILER WORKING PROCESS  Water filling to the shell of the boiler at operating pressure  Fuel is burnt in a furnace and hot gases are produced  The hot gases are in contact with the water space  Heat transfer occurs from hot gases to the water in the shell  The water gets heated and converted to steam  The steam is collected in steam space for further use  The steam can be used for power generation, air conditioning and to perform industrial processes
  33. 33. BOILER CLASSIFICATION Boilers are classified by the followings  According to the Tube content  Method of circulation  Number of tubes  Heat source  Pressure  Shell axis  Location of Furnace  Mobility
  35. 35. BASIC BOILER TYPES Boilers are required to generate steam (Heat carrier) for industrial processes and there are two basic types of Boiler The water- tube Boiler Fire- Tube Boiler  Hot gases flow around tubes Hot gases flow through Tubes that are filled with water. That are submerged in water  Tubes will be connected to a Use a relatively low pressure steam drum  Use Large and high pressure
  37. 37. HEAT FLOW EQUATIONS Q=M x Cp x ΔT (KW) Sensible heat only Q=M x Δh KW) Sensible and latent heat Q=U x A x ΔT (KW) Heat flow through surfaces Where Q= Heat flow M= mass flow rate(Kg/s) ΔT= Change in temperature Cp=Specific heat (eg heat capacity) of flowing material
  38. 38. HEAT FLOW EQUATIONS (Con’t) Δh =Change in enthalty (KJ/Kg) U=K/s= Coefficient of heat transfer K=Thermal conductivity of material A=Area of the Surface
  39. 39. HEAT FLOW EQUATIONS (Con’t) Solved Example 1 A system of weight 7kg is heated from its initial temperature of 300c to its final temperature of 600c.Find the total heat obtained by the system. Note that the specific heat of the system is 0.45 kJ per Kg K Ti= 300oC, Tf=60oC, mass of the system=7Kg Total heat gained by the system Q= Mx C x ΔT Q=M x C x (60-30) Q= 7 x 0.45 x 30=94.5J Q= 94.5J Therefore total heat obtained is 94.5J
  40. 40. HEAT FLOW CALCULATIONS (cont’d) Solved Example 2 How much heat is required in KW to raise the temperature of water flowing at 100kg/h from 20oC to 100oC (Specific heat of water=4.2KJ/kg/oC Solution Q= M x Cp x ΔT (KW) sensible heat only Q= 100 x 4.2 x 80 = 33,600KJ/h, 3,600KJ= 1KWh 33,600KJ/h=9.33KWh/h=9.33KW
  41. 41. ENERGY LOSSES IN BOILER S/N Sources Range Factors A Heat in flue gases, heat in flue moisture content 8-35% Exit Temperature, Excess Air B Incomplete combustion About 1% CO in flue gas C Blowdown water 1-6% Correct checking and maintenance D Radiation in boiler surface 1-3% Casing E Combustibles in Ash 2-5% (Coal) Poor air distribution F Part Load Operation Variable Increases share of Fixed losses
  42. 42. EFFICIENCY MEASURES FOR BOILER S/A MEASURE COST SAVINGS 1 Installation of Economizers Medium 3-8% 2 Combustion air preheat Medium 1% per 20oC Increase 3 Combustion Control Low/Medium 3-5% 4 Blowdown Optimization-heat recovery Medium Up to 5% 5 Installation and repair of insulation Low Up to 10% 6 Load management Low Up to 15% 7 VSD for fan, Blowers and pumps Low/Medium Up to 20% 8 Boilers replacement High Up to 20% 9 General good house keeping measures Low Up to 5%
  43. 43. BOILER CHECKLIST Boiler Maintenance Checklist  Inspect and clean fireside surfaces. Inspect all burner refractory material. Inspect all manhole gaskets for leaks. Inspect and test all system valves. Inspect and test all safety valves. Clean and rebuild low water cut-off. Recalibrate all operating controls. Overhaul feed water pumps.
  44. 44. BOILER CHECK LIST & MAINTENANCE (Cont’d) Clean condensate receiver. Inspect electrical terminals. Switch boiler automation to summer mode. Check fuel oil levels. Clean and inspect chimneys. Clean and tune boiler and components.
  46. 46. STEAM PRODUCTION/DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Schematic presentation of steam production and distribution system.
  47. 47. WHAT IS A CONDENSATE Condensate is the liquid formed when steam passes from the vapor to the liquid state. In a heating process, condensate is the result of steam transferring a portion of its heat energy, known as latent heat, to The product  Line, or  Equipment being heated.
  48. 48. CONDENSATES (Cont’d) The condensate water contains up to 20% of the steam energy Returning this energy to the feed water tank pre-heats the feed water and thus lowers additional fuel energy input The condensate water does not need to undergo water treatment again thus lowering treatment costs Flash steam contains condensate that should be recovered as well Every 6 degree centigrade increase rise in feed water temperature gives 1% saving in fuel
  49. 49. CONDENSATE RECOVERY Condensate recovery is a process to reuse the water and sensible heat contained in the discharged condensate. Recovering condensate instead of throwing it away can lead to significant savings of energy, chemical treatment and make-up water.
  50. 50. BENEFITS OF CONDENSATE RECOVERY Condensate is an excellent source of feed water as it is relatively pure (compared to most water supplies) being condensed water vapor. Boiler water cycles of concentration can be increased and blow down amounts can be reduced with its use Improves energy efficiency Reduces water treatment chemical cost Reduces make-up water costs Reduces load on sewage system (Effluent Treatment Plant) and disposal costs Meet environmental regulations
  51. 51. BENEFITS OF CONDENSATE RECOVERY(Cont’d) Condensate can also be used as the hot process water for  Heating coils or  Heat exchange units. In the plating industry the condensate is run directly  Into hot rinse tanks which provides The hot water necessary for final rinsing of articles that have been treated. Thus it saves live steam that would otherwise be required for heating water. But, it is always wise to utilize the maximum heat content of the condensate.
  52. 52. CONDENSATES FROM A STEAM SYSTEM Condensate is discharged from steam plant and equipment through steam traps from  A higher to  A lower pressure. As a result of this drop in pressure, Some of the condensate will re-evaporate into 'flash steam'. Flash steam is a name given to the steam formed from hot condensate when the pressure is reduced. Flash steam is no different from normal steam, it is just a convenient name used to explain how the steam is formed.
  53. 53. STEAM TRAPS The duty of a steam trap is to discharge condensate, air and other incondensable gases from a steam system while not permitting the escape of live steam. A steam trap is an automatic valve that holds the steam at the load until it gives up its heat energy and condenses to water (condensate). After the steam condenses to water, the steam trap allows only the condensate to pass, thereby contributing to plant efficiency.
  54. 54. STEAM TRAP TYPES There are four distinct groups of Steam Trap Based on Operation Principles. Mechanical Steam Traps. Thermodynamic Steam Traps. Thermostatic Steam Traps. These traps are designed to keep live steam from passing its point of use while expelling air and condensate from the steam supply into the return line.
  58. 58. EFFECT OF STEAM TRAP BLOCKAGE When a steam trap is blocked due to  Dirt  Pipe scale  Rust  Packing and  Joint material or debris condensate cannot be discharged. Condensate will build up all the way through the steam tracer / heat exchanger. Steam is unable to pass through and provide adequate heating to the vessel / heat exchanger
  59. 59. STEAM SYSTEMS IMPROVEMENTS To ensure improved steam system delivery, the following steps are followed  Use high quality steam Traps  Establishment of a program for the regular systematic inspection, testing and repair of steam traps  Return of condensate to feedwater tank
  60. 60. SCALING IN BOILERS Scaling is a deposit formed  On the inside of piping and  Heat transfer surfaces when the water is heated and impurities precipitate or settle out. These deposits can build up and interfere with heat transfer or, in extreme cases,cause tube and system failure.
  61. 61. CAUSES OF SCALES ON BOILERS Boiler scale is caused by  Impurities being precipitated out of the water directly on heat transfer surfaces or  By suspended matter in water settling out on the metal and becoming hard and adherent. Scales in a boiler causes impurities to concentrate, This interferes with heat transfers and may cause hot spots.
  62. 62. PREVENTION OF SCALING IN BOILERS Some of the ways to prevent scale formation in boilers are:  Boiler Water Treatment: Scaling is caused by the presence of insoluble salts, calcium, and magnesium in the feed water. ...  Water Softeners: Installing water softeners can help in preventing lime scale in the steam boiler.
  63. 63. BOILER CORROSION Corrosion in the boiler proper generally occurs when The boiler water alkalinity is low or when the metal is exposed to oxygen bearing water either during operation or idle periods. Boiler corrosion leads to the destruction of boiler metal. It occurs when the oxygen within the boiler dissolves into the water. The dissolved oxygen then causes a reaction with iron-rich (ferrous) boiler metal in a process known as oxidation. High temperatures and stresses in the boiler metal tend to accelerate the corrosive mechanisms.
  64. 64. EFFECTS OF CORROSION IN BOILER • Pinpoint penetration of metal • Rusting of ferrous metals • Pits can penetrate deep into the metal that can result in rapid failure of feed lines, economizer tubes and boiler tubes • Ultimate failure of boiler metal, steam mains and condensate lines
  66. 66. CAUSES OF CORROSION IN BOILERS Dissolved oxygen in boiler water. Presence of corrosive gases such as Oxygen (O2), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) in the boiler water Sludges of bicarbonate and carbonate Low PH Low feed water temperature Acidity imparted to water due to decomposition of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) or Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)
  67. 67. PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR CORROSION  Eliminating corrosive gases  Removal of dissolved oxygen  High PH value of boiler water  Mechanical deaeration of boiler water  Higher feed water temperature i.e. reduces its oxygen content.  Chemical de-oxygenation by use of oxygen scavengers i.e. sodium sulphite  Hot condensate return as it contains less Oxygen than feed water and also saves fuel.
  68. 68. HEAT EXCHANGERS A heat exchanger is a system used to transfer heat between  A source and  A working fluid. They are used at various points in a steam system to extract heat from a carrier and used in both cooling and heating processes.
  70. 70. TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS • Types of Heat Exchangers Shell and tube heat exchangers. Double pipe heat exchangers. Plate heat exchangers. Condensers, evaporators, and boilers.
  71. 71. WHERE CAN WE FIND A HEAT EXCHANGER The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in  An internal combustion engine in which  A circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air.
  72. 72. IMPORTANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS Heat exchangers regulate fluid temperatures in processing systems to meet requirements for  PASTEURIZATION  Filling operations and  Food safety. In the food and beverage industry, heat exchangers reduce or eliminate microbial to make products safe for consumption and to prevent spoilage.