A WORKSHOP HOLDING IN PORT HARCOURT
29TH NOVEMBER TO 2ND DECEMBER,2022
ENGR OGALI BENJAMIN NGOZI MNSE,COREN
WHAT IS ENERGY OPTIMISATION
Energy optimisation means using energy in the built environment
whether domestic or industrial
to maximize benefits for
The climate and for people
For energy consumption reduction
For expanding energy savings and
For reduction in energy bills
IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY OPTIMISATION
The many benefits of energy efficiency include:
Lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other pollutants, as well
as decrease water use.
Lower individual utility bills,
And help stabilize electricity prices and volatility.
HOW DO YOU OPTIMISE YOUR ENERGY
Steps to reduce your energy consumption
Shut down your computer
Choose the right light
Eliminate vampire power eg unplug idle electronics
Use a power strip to reduce your plug load
Turn off the lights
Improve on the operating power factor
WHY IS ENERGY OPTIMISATION IMPORTANT
A high percentage of carbon emissions come from buildings.
Implementing energy optimisation will make it possible to
Drastically reduce carbon emissions across the building sector and
Hopefully reduce or prevent the worst effects of climate change
Utility bills are reduced
KVA demand is reduced
WHAT IS ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Energy efficiency refers to the ratio
Between the input of energy—be it a
primary source like fossil fuels
Or an energy carrier such as electricity or hydrogen—and the
output of an energy service, such as light, heat or
Expanding energy savings primarily in existing infrastructure
ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONTD
Energy efficiency refers to the efficient conversion and use of energy and
is a measure of the productivity provided per unit of energy consumed.
It is the practice of using less energy to do the same amount of work or
using less energy to provide the same quality of service (Give typical
Whenever energy is transferred/transformed without doing a productive
or meaningful work it is wasted; example is leaving the surrounding light
bulbs ON during day time.
A productive work in the context of energy efficiency for businesses can
be defined as the work done to add value, contribute or lead-up to a
product or services that customers/clients can exchange for money
ENERGY EFFICIENCY LABELS AND RATING
The energy efficiency of an appliance is rated in terms of a set of energy
efficiency classes A to G as in the label. A being the most energy efficient, G
the least efficient, the table also gives other useful information to the
customer as they choose between various models
Energy efficiency label shows the estimated energy consumption of an
electrical equipment based on a star rating system, 1 star means the least
efficient. With the star rating, you can estimate how much electricity (KWh)
the appliance consumes.
The EU energy label gives information about the energy efficiency of a
product, the label rates products from dark green (most efficient) to red
A QR code on the energy label will make it possible to access useful
product information by scanning the code with a smart phone.
WHICH PRODUCTS ARE RATED WITH ENERGY
The new energy label has been introduced gradually across a range
of products from March,1st 2021 whereby new labels started
appearing in stores and on-line shops for the following appliances
House hold refrigerators and Freezers
Wine storage refrigerators
Television and electronic displays
ENERGY EFFICIENCY POTENTIAL IN NIGERIA
The potential for efficiency in Nigerian industries is high, according
to UNIDO between 25 and 40% in developing countries.
Installed machinery is often outdated, processes might run
effectively but often not efficiently. Thus, over 40% of total energy
used is wasted on old obsolete and inefficient equipment
Manufacturers face frequent blackouts, shortage of fossil fuels and
depend on self-generation with diesel, oil or gas generators
Inadequate and unreliable supply of energy to industry is a major
cause of low industrial capacity utilization
ENERGY EFFICIENCY POTENTIAL IN NIGERIA
Small firms generate up to 50% of their electricity requirements, while
some large firms are fully on self-generated electricity in order to have
reliability for their production processes
Energy costs often range between 20 to 40% of production costs due to
self-generation of power and inefficient practices ( 5 to 15% in Europe)
Peak load management, fuel switching, power quality improvement and
optimized production processes among others can result in significant
15% saving potential exists through good housekeeping measures alone,
Retrofitting in industries could save over 25% of energy currently used.
OVERVIEW OF EXTANT POLICIES AND ACTION
National Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy (NREEEP)
National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAP)
National Determined Contributions (NDC)
National Industrial Policy (NIP)
OVERVIEW OF NREEEP
Developed by Ecowas Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy
Efficiency (ECREEE), approved by FEC in April, 2015
First and currently the only approved national Policy relating to
Energy Efficiency (EE)
Mainstreams EE into the power sector reforms programmes and
recognizes that improvements in the efficiency of power utilization
translate directly into newly available power supply
Mandates the establishment and implementation of a National
Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAP)
PRIMARY CAUSES OF INEFFICIENCY
Energy inefficiencies are induced by two primary factors;
ENERGY BALANCE EQUATION;
ENERGY IN= ENERGY OUT
ENERGY IN=ENERGY USED (USEFUL)+ENERGY USED(WASTED)+Losses
loss(energy used to
overcome resistant forces)
END-USER PRIMARY ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Energy Consumption=Power(KW) x Hours of use(Hours)
Reducing power (KW) Reducing time of use
needed to achieve same (Hours)= Energy Conservation
result= Energy Efficiency
COEFICIENT OF EFFICIENCY
Qin = Quseful + Qlosses
The ratio of useful energy and total energy input in a process is called
coefficient of energy transformation (or transformation efficiency)
System boundaries have to be determined.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN INDUSTRY(FUELS AND
Combustion is a chemical process in which a substance reacts rapidly
with oxygen and gives off heat. The original substance is called the
fuel, and the source of oxygen is called the oxidizer. The fuel can be a
solid, liquid, or gas, although for airplane propulsion the fuel is usually
Complete Combustion Characteristics
Energy is wasted
Toxic gas is produced (CO)
What is ‘complete combustion’
To ensure a complete combustion of fuel, combustion chambers are
supplied with excess air. Excess air increase the amount of oxygen to
the combustion process.
When fuel and oxygen from air are in perfect balance, the
combustion is said to be stoichiometric
The combustion efficiency increases with increased excess air
COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY FOR COMMON
Excess air to achieve highest possible efficiency for common fuels:
5-10% for Natural Gas
5-20% for fuel Oil
15-60% for Coal
MEASUREMENT OF COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY
To carry out efficiency measurements, electronic probes are inserted
into say a stack to measure
BOILERS AND BOILER TYPES
Boilers are used to produce steam. The generation part of a steam
system uses boiler to add energy to feed water supply to generate
steam. The energy is released from the combustion of fossil fuels or
from process waste heat.
Boilers are used in power plants in order to produce high pressured
steam, so that the plant can generate electricity (Steam power plants)
Boilers are also needed to generate steam for industrial processes ie
for food industries for packaging etc
The fire triangle or combustion triangle is a simple model for
understanding the necessary ingredients for most fires.
The triangle illustrates the three elements a fire needs to ignite:
An oxidizing agent.
A fire naturally occurs when the elements are present and combined in
the right mixture.
The fire triangle is used to show the rule that a fire
needs three things to burn as earlier stated.
These things are heat, fuel, and oxygen.
If one of these three is removed, the fire will be
put out. In the middle of the fire triangle there is
A chemical reaction.
HEAT TRANSFER IN A BOILER
Heat transfer in a boiler is a natural process that takes place from hot
object to a colder object.
Heat transfer in a boiler takes place in three ways
Radiation wave move. -Heat transfer by wave motion. No material
required, it can occur in space
Convection-Heat transfer through density difference. Effective in
liguid and gases
Conduction- Heat transfer by molecular contact, most effective in
CONDITIONS FOR EFFECTIVE BOILER
For an effective production of steam for all industrial processes, the
following requirements are very important for a boiler
Continuous supply of water
Source of heat
Insulating casing to prevent the loss of heat
Provision of Fan for the supply of air and for the removal of burnt
MAIN PARTS OF A BOILER
The major parts of a boiler are the followings
STEAM BOILER WORKING PROCESS
Water filling to the shell of the boiler at operating pressure
Fuel is burnt in a furnace and hot gases are produced
The hot gases are in contact with the water space
Heat transfer occurs from hot gases to the water in the shell
The water gets heated and converted to steam
The steam is collected in steam space for further use
The steam can be used for power generation, air conditioning and to
perform industrial processes
Boilers are classified by the followings
According to the Tube content
Method of circulation
Number of tubes
Location of Furnace
BASIC BOILER TYPES
Boilers are required to generate steam (Heat carrier) for industrial
processes and there are two basic types of Boiler
The water- tube Boiler Fire- Tube Boiler
Hot gases flow around tubes Hot gases flow through Tubes
that are filled with water. That are submerged in water
Tubes will be connected to a Use a relatively low pressure
Use Large and high pressure
HEAT FLOW EQUATIONS
Q=M x Cp x ΔT (KW) Sensible heat only
Q=M x Δh KW) Sensible and latent heat
Q=U x A x ΔT (KW) Heat flow through surfaces
Q= Heat flow
M= mass flow rate(Kg/s)
ΔT= Change in temperature
Cp=Specific heat (eg heat capacity) of flowing material
HEAT FLOW EQUATIONS (Con’t)
Δh =Change in enthalty (KJ/Kg)
U=K/s= Coefficient of heat transfer
K=Thermal conductivity of material
A=Area of the Surface
HEAT FLOW EQUATIONS (Con’t)
Solved Example 1
A system of weight 7kg is heated from its initial temperature of 300c to its final
temperature of 600c.Find the total heat obtained by the system. Note that the
specific heat of the system is 0.45 kJ per Kg K
Ti= 300oC, Tf=60oC, mass of the system=7Kg
Total heat gained by the system Q= Mx C x ΔT
Q=M x C x (60-30)
Q= 7 x 0.45 x 30=94.5J
Therefore total heat obtained is 94.5J
HEAT FLOW CALCULATIONS (cont’d)
Solved Example 2
How much heat is required in KW to raise the temperature of water
flowing at 100kg/h from 20oC to 100oC (Specific heat of
Q= M x Cp x ΔT (KW) sensible heat only
Q= 100 x 4.2 x 80
= 33,600KJ/h, 3,600KJ= 1KWh
ENERGY LOSSES IN BOILER
S/N Sources Range Factors
A Heat in flue gases, heat in flue moisture
8-35% Exit Temperature, Excess Air
B Incomplete combustion About 1% CO in flue gas
C Blowdown water 1-6% Correct checking and maintenance
D Radiation in boiler surface 1-3% Casing
E Combustibles in Ash 2-5% (Coal) Poor air distribution
F Part Load Operation Variable Increases share of Fixed losses
EFFICIENCY MEASURES FOR BOILER
S/A MEASURE COST SAVINGS
1 Installation of Economizers Medium 3-8%
2 Combustion air preheat Medium 1% per 20oC Increase
3 Combustion Control Low/Medium 3-5%
4 Blowdown Optimization-heat recovery Medium Up to 5%
5 Installation and repair of insulation Low Up to 10%
6 Load management Low Up to 15%
7 VSD for fan, Blowers and pumps Low/Medium Up to 20%
8 Boilers replacement High Up to 20%
9 General good house keeping measures Low Up to 5%
Boiler Maintenance Checklist
Inspect and clean fireside surfaces.
Inspect all burner refractory material.
Inspect all manhole gaskets for leaks.
Inspect and test all system valves.
Inspect and test all safety valves.
Clean and rebuild low water cut-off.
Recalibrate all operating controls.
Overhaul feed water pumps.
BOILER CHECK LIST & MAINTENANCE (Cont’d)
Clean condensate receiver.
Inspect electrical terminals.
Switch boiler automation to summer mode.
Check fuel oil levels.
Clean and inspect chimneys.
Clean and tune boiler and components.
STEAM PRODUCTION/DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Schematic presentation of steam production and distribution system.
WHAT IS A CONDENSATE
Condensate is the liquid formed when steam passes from
the vapor to the liquid state.
In a heating process, condensate is the result of steam transferring a
portion of its heat energy, known as latent heat, to
Equipment being heated.
The condensate water contains up to 20% of the steam energy
Returning this energy to the feed water tank pre-heats the feed
water and thus lowers additional fuel energy input
The condensate water does not need to undergo water treatment
again thus lowering treatment costs
Flash steam contains condensate that should be recovered as well
Every 6 degree centigrade increase rise in feed water temperature
gives 1% saving in fuel
Condensate recovery is a process to reuse the water and sensible heat
contained in the discharged condensate. Recovering condensate
instead of throwing it away can lead to significant savings of energy,
chemical treatment and make-up water.
BENEFITS OF CONDENSATE RECOVERY
Condensate is an excellent source of feed water as it is relatively pure
(compared to most water supplies) being condensed water vapor.
Boiler water cycles of concentration can be increased and blow
down amounts can be reduced with its use
Improves energy efficiency
Reduces water treatment chemical cost
Reduces make-up water costs
Reduces load on sewage system (Effluent Treatment Plant) and
Meet environmental regulations
BENEFITS OF CONDENSATE RECOVERY(Cont’d)
Condensate can also be used as the hot process water for
Heating coils or
Heat exchange units.
In the plating industry the condensate is run directly
Into hot rinse tanks which provides
The hot water necessary for final rinsing of articles that have been
Thus it saves live steam that would otherwise be required for heating
water. But, it is always wise to utilize the maximum heat content of the
CONDENSATES FROM A STEAM SYSTEM
Condensate is discharged from steam plant and equipment through
steam traps from
A higher to
A lower pressure.
As a result of this drop in pressure,
Some of the condensate will re-evaporate into 'flash steam'.
Flash steam is a name given to the steam formed from hot condensate
when the pressure is reduced. Flash steam is no different from normal
steam, it is just a convenient name used to explain how the steam is
The duty of a steam trap is to discharge condensate, air and other
incondensable gases from a steam system while not permitting the
escape of live steam.
A steam trap is an automatic valve that holds the steam at the load
until it gives up its heat energy and condenses to water (condensate).
After the steam condenses to water, the steam trap allows only the
condensate to pass, thereby contributing to plant efficiency.
STEAM TRAP TYPES
There are four distinct groups of Steam Trap Based on Operation
Mechanical Steam Traps.
Thermodynamic Steam Traps.
Thermostatic Steam Traps.
These traps are designed to keep live steam from passing its point of
use while expelling air and condensate from the steam supply into the
EFFECT OF STEAM TRAP BLOCKAGE
When a steam trap is blocked due to
Joint material or debris
condensate cannot be discharged. Condensate will build up all the
way through the steam tracer / heat exchanger. Steam is unable to pass
through and provide adequate heating to the vessel / heat exchanger
STEAM SYSTEMS IMPROVEMENTS
To ensure improved steam system delivery, the following steps are
Use high quality steam Traps
Establishment of a program for the regular systematic inspection,
testing and repair of steam traps
Return of condensate to feedwater tank
SCALING IN BOILERS
Scaling is a deposit formed
On the inside of piping and
Heat transfer surfaces
when the water is heated and impurities precipitate or settle out.
These deposits can build up and interfere with heat transfer or, in
extreme cases,cause tube and system failure.
CAUSES OF SCALES ON BOILERS
Boiler scale is caused by
Impurities being precipitated out of the water directly on heat
transfer surfaces or
By suspended matter in water settling out on the metal and
becoming hard and adherent.
Scales in a boiler causes impurities to concentrate, This interferes with
heat transfers and may cause hot spots.
PREVENTION OF SCALING IN BOILERS
Some of the ways to prevent scale formation in boilers are:
Boiler Water Treatment: Scaling is caused by the presence of
insoluble salts, calcium, and magnesium in the feed water. ...
Water Softeners: Installing water softeners can help in preventing
lime scale in the steam boiler.
Corrosion in the boiler proper generally occurs when
The boiler water alkalinity is low or
when the metal is exposed to oxygen bearing water either during
operation or idle periods.
Boiler corrosion leads to the destruction of boiler metal. It occurs
when the oxygen within the boiler dissolves into the water. The
dissolved oxygen then causes a reaction with iron-rich (ferrous) boiler
metal in a process known as oxidation.
High temperatures and stresses in the boiler metal tend to accelerate
the corrosive mechanisms.
EFFECTS OF CORROSION IN BOILER
• Pinpoint penetration of metal
• Rusting of ferrous metals
• Pits can penetrate deep into the metal that can result in rapid failure
of feed lines, economizer tubes and boiler tubes
• Ultimate failure of boiler metal, steam mains and condensate lines
CAUSES OF CORROSION IN BOILERS
Dissolved oxygen in boiler water.
Presence of corrosive gases such as Oxygen (O2), Carbon Dioxide
(CO2), Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) in the boiler water
Sludges of bicarbonate and carbonate
Low feed water temperature
Acidity imparted to water due to decomposition of Carbon Dioxide
(CO2) or Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)
PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR CORROSION
Eliminating corrosive gases
Removal of dissolved oxygen
High PH value of boiler water
Mechanical deaeration of boiler water
Higher feed water temperature i.e. reduces its oxygen content.
Chemical de-oxygenation by use of oxygen scavengers i.e. sodium
Hot condensate return as it contains less Oxygen than feed water
and also saves fuel.
A heat exchanger is a system used to transfer heat between
A source and
A working fluid.
They are used at various points in a steam system to extract heat from
a carrier and used in both cooling and heating processes.
TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• Types of Heat Exchangers
Shell and tube heat exchangers.
Double pipe heat exchangers.
Plate heat exchangers.
Condensers, evaporators, and boilers.
WHERE CAN WE FIND A HEAT EXCHANGER
The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in
An internal combustion engine in which
A circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator
coils and air flows past the coils
which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air.
IMPORTANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
Heat exchangers regulate fluid temperatures in processing systems to
meet requirements for
Filling operations and
In the food and beverage industry, heat exchangers reduce or eliminate
microbial to make products safe for consumption and to prevent
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