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Approaches in Teaching Social Studies.pptx

  1. APPROACHES IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES Prepared by: Ryn Hart B. Picpican BSE – SST 3 SST 136 (Teaching Approaches in Secondary Social Studies)
  2. Discovery Approach • Places the teacher as a facilitator • Requires mental processes, such as: • observing • measuring • classifying • guessing • explaining • drawing conclusions.
  3. • Puts students in their own learning and developing creativity in solving problems. • Encourages the students: • To learn the facts • Develop their own skills • Acquire the knowledge by actively working with the information gathered. • The instructor encourages the learners to generate modules that demonstrate students’ creativity …Discovery Approach
  4. ADVANTAGES • Development of meta cognitive skills (including some higher level cognitive strategies) useful in lifelong learning. • Motivation DISADVANTAGES • (Sometimes huge) cognitive overload, • Potential to confuse the learner if no initial framework is available • Measurable performance is worse for most learning situations. • Creations of misconceptions Weak students have a tendency to "fly under the radar" (Aleven et al. 2003) and • Teacher's failure to detect situations needing
  5. Process Approach • Focuses on the writing process rather than the final product • Indicates an awareness of the linkage between writing, thinking, and learning.
  6. ADVANTAGES • Students can also develop skills, such as drafting and editing texts, which are required when writing • The process approach evolved out of dissatisfaction with more traditional product approaches, which view the end product as their focus, with the supporters of the former rejecting the latter as old fashioned and ineffective DISADVANTAGES • It requires a significant investment of class time to be successful. • It was developed to meet the needs of the native classroom, where learners, who were already verbally fluent, needed to address the issue of the writing process and as a result, it neglects the linguistic element of written language. • Requires an additional investment of a teacher's time as every student is likely to have his own unique mix of problems and therefore each
  7. Inquiry Approach • Allows students to be curious, to wonder and ask questions • Lows students to pursue questions they have and topics they find personally relevant or interesting. • Aids in differentiation of learning without stigmatizing students • They create an active and engaged classroom by offering a diverse set of learning opportunities designed to appeal to the varying learning styles of the students in the classroom.
  8. ADVANTAGES • Greater Interest • Teaches problem- solving • Enhances teamwork skills • Long-term knowledge retention DISADVANTAGES • Poorer standardized testing performance • Student embarrassment. • Teacher unpreparedness
  9. Multimedia Approach • Provide the students chances for interacting with diverse texts that give them a solid background in the tasks and content of mainstream college courses. • One of the important innovations in the field of educational technology to improve the process and product of teaching – learning . • The use of appropriate and carefully selected varieties of learning experiences which when presented to the learner through selected teaching strategies, will reinforce and strengthen one another in such a way that the learner will achieve predetermined objectives in an effective way. • An approach of teaching in which different mediums are incorporated to make the teaching-learning more effective, enthusiastic, inspirational, meaningful & interesting.
  10. ADVANTAGES • Creativity • Variety • Cost-effective • Evaluation • Realistic Approach • Wide Variety of Support • Trendy DISADVANTAGES • Accessibility • Distracting • Costly • Time Consuming • Requires Mastery • Limited Support/Compatibility Fragile
  11. Value Clarification Approach • Helps students clarify their goals, priorities and values, make decisions, and implement changes in their studies. • Has to be a rational process • Important aspect of value clarification in education is moral development of a child • Helps an individual to relate their thoughts and their feelings which results in awareness of their own values. • An integral part of our education system helps children to identify their core personality and it directs them in right path to choose the type of person they want to be. • Value clarification provides a role model for the students not for outer world but within themselves. • It provides an insight on one’s own personality
  12. ADVANTAGES • Values clarification is an analysis technique that can often assist individuals increase awareness of any values that may have an attitude on lifestyle decisions and actions. • This technique can deliver an opportunity for a person to reflect on personal moral problems and allow for values to be analyzed and DISADVANTAGES • One of the disadvantages of the value clarification method is that informal values clarification instruments do not always deliver relevant information.
  13. Mastery Learning • Instructional method where students are allowed unlimited opportunities to demonstrate mastery of content taught • A involves breaking down the subject matter to be learned into units of learning, each with its own objectives • A teaching strategy that involves a pre-specified criterion level of performance which students must master in order to complete the instruction and move on • Involves frequent assessment of students’ progress, it provides corrective instruction and emphasizes on all participation, feedback and reinforcement • Helps the students to acquire prerequisite skills to move to the next unit.
  14. ADVANTAGES • Mastery leaning facilitates student learning and often leads to higher achievement than more traditional classes • Mastery learning students often retain the things they have learned for longer periods of time • Enforces better study habits rather than procrastinating and cramming for tests • Mastery learning can break the cycle of failure DISADVANTAGES • Students who learn quickly receive less instruction than their classmates • Teachers must assist and keep track of multiple students who are at different levels of learning • Extra time may be required in order to provide slower paced learners time to learn content • Potentially takes too much of the responsibility for learning away from students creating students who may not learn how to learn independently
  15. Eclectic Approach • Refers to a teaching approach that is not based on a single method but that draws on several different method principles that are made use of in practice • A fusion of knowledge from all sources • A peculiar type of educational philosophy which harmoniously combines all good ideas and principles from various schools of thought • This approach is not rigidly confined to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but draws upon multiple theories to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.
  16. ADVANTAGES • Does not restrict to one perspective so allows new ideas to be formed. • Therapeutic methods treat the entire disorder and not just one symptom. • Humans are complex and it is not always possible to identify one precise cause. • Combining methods is a useful way of validating ideas. • The strengths of one method can be used to offset the weaknesses of another. DISADVANTAGES • It does not lend itself to prediction and control of behavior. • It's difficult to identify the relative contributions of each approach. • Explanation of behavior may become "watered down" when combining many perspectives. • There are practical difficulties in investigating the integration of the approaches. • It does not lend itself to hypothesis testing.
  17. ADVANTAGES • Trying to identify causation precisely risks reinforcing stereotypes. • Individuals' needs are better matched to treatments when more options are available. • Provides a fuller, more detailed understanding of human behaviour. • Research design does not have to be dictated by the researcher's paradigmatic stance. DISADVANTAGES • Research methods chosen must be compatible with the paradigmatic stance of the researcher. • Explanations of behavior are not parsimonious so may lead to confusing explanations of behavior. • The researcher must have a solid grounding in combining methods to ensure that research is rigorous and robust. • There are practical difficulties when providing eclectic therapy. It may be too complex for one clinician to manage.
  18. Teaching Strategies
  19. What is Teaching? What is Strategy? • Can be defined as engagement with learners to enable their understanding and application of knowledge, concepts and processes. It includes design, content selection, delivery, assessment and reflection. • Strategy is the intelligent allocation of resources through a unique system of activities to achieve a goal. Simply put, strategy is how you plan to achieve a goal.
  20. How to Select a Strategy? Regardless of which instructional strategies we employ, a few general best practices should guide us. These practices facilitate student learning and increase engagement and motivation, and they apply equally well to both online and face-to-face modalities. 1. Begin with the objectives 2. Align your teaching strategies with the objective 3. Align your assessment strategy with the objective 4. Make modifications to the teaching strategies and assessments as you get to know your students and their strengths
  21. Begin with the objectives Before selecting appropriate teaching strategies, determine the learning objectives for the course A learning objective is an outcome statement that captures specifically what knowledge, skills, attitudes learners should be able to exhibit following instruction (Teacher and Educational Development, 2005) Example: • The students will be able to incorporate a range of assessment strategies (formative, summative, peer, and self) in a unit plan.
  22. Align your teaching strategies with the objective Once the objectives are written, you can focus on selecting teaching strategies and learning activities that will facilitate students meeting the objectives through the course. The teaching strategies we use to teach students about assessment include: 1. Reflecting on the types of assessment students experience in the course (detailed in table 1), 2. Reading about a variety of assessment techniques and actively participating in class discussions related to the readings, 3. Presenting an assessment technique to the class, 4. Developing assessments in class with their peers 5. Participating in an online environment.
  23. Specific assessment Type of assessment Blackboard assignments where they interact with each other Formative Concept map Summative Presentation of an assessment strategy Formative and Peer Reflection Formative Develop lesson plans Formative and summative Peer teaching Summative and Self Development of a unit plan Summative
  24. Align your assessment strategy with the objective • After learning objectives are written and teaching strategies and activities are chosen, develop assessment strategies that evaluate the learning objective. The assessments of the objectives included: • Presentation of an assessment strategy which includes peer assessment (formative) • Reflection (formative) • Develop lesson plans (formative and summative) • Peer teaching (summative) • Develop a unit plan (summative)
  25. Make modifications to the teaching strategies and assessments as you get to know your students and their strengths • The first three steps are effective only if the needs, knowledge, and experiences of the students in the class are considered throughout the class. • It is necessary for college instructors to plan a course before getting to know their students; however, this is contradictory to effective teaching literature, which advocates for pretesting and planning based on the knowledge students bring to class. Instructors can pre-test and not distribute the syllabus the first day, but they also need to do pre-planning before the semester begins. • It is imperative as the semester proceeds to make notes and pay attention to what students are learning and experiencing and make necessary adjustments to the course schedule, activities, and
  26. Classification of Strategies Expository Strategies • It is a kind of method that interprets or explains a comprehensive topic or subject matter. • The teacher is completely in charge and guides the lesson. He/she is also in charge of the discussion and asks questions by calling on students for answers. Conditions for Effective Exposition 1. The teacher’s thorough understanding of the subject matter to be explained. 2. The teacher’s comprehension of the students’ ability to understand the explanation. 3. The use of language and illustrations within the students’ experiences and understanding.
  27. ACTIVITIES THAT CAN BE USED IN EXPOSITORY TEACHING METHOD 1. Teacher talk (lecturing) 2. Demonstration 3. Assignments and homework 4. Memorizing 5. Reviewing 6. Questioning 7. Discussion
  28. Enabling Strategy • Unit method • The teacher divides the subject to be taught into different units first and then, teaches it one by one. • Textbooks may come with units to make teaching and learning easy. • the teachers prepare their own set of units to give a personalized instruction of their convenience and by considering the understanding level of particular students in the class. • Fieldtrip • An organized trip to a place which has a significant relation with the subjects taught makes learning more interesting. • It also helps to improve student-student and student-teacher interactions. • It is an opportunity for students to observe, ask questions and have an out of the regular classroom experience.
  29. • Deductive • In these methods of teaching, learners are given rules first followed by examples and after that, they practice the lesson • This is a teacher-centered approach which is ideal for teaching languages. It is really helpful for lower level learners who require a clear base to start a lesson. • Inductive method • In contrast to the deduction method, this is more like a student centric approach. • This is a reverse model to teach a new language in which examples are given first and the learners are then asked to find the rules. • They can detect or notice patterns and work out a personalized rule. • Lecture method • He most commonly followed methods in teaching in various educational institutions • Considered as the most ideal method for a teacher to address large classrooms. • An oral presentation of lessons to a group of students.
  30. • Project method • Project-based learning lets students to understand and to remember a subject for a longer period than just reading the textbook content. • Working on a project improves their critical thinking, collaboration, communication and self-management skills. • Tri-question method • Used in conducting of current events lessons • Questions to be asked are: • What happened? • Why did it happened? • What might be the consequences? • Role playing and socio-drama • This technique allows students to explore realistic situations as part of their learning process. • Students get an opportunity to express themselves through dialogues and gestures thus improving their imagination and memory. • This is one of the meaningful communication activities that can be tried out in any classroom that promotes teamwork.
  31. • Moral dilemma method • Moral dilemmas are situations in which the decision-maker must consider two or more moral values or duties but can only honor one of them • Moral dilemma constitute challenges that decision-makers should prepare for • Debate • This method of teaching helps to explore the range of views on a subject. • Students will be split into groups and then, they can debate on the subject provided to them. • Debate is meant to develop critical thinking.
  32. • Modular • Modular learning is a form of distance learning that uses Self-Learning Modules (SLM) based on the most essential learning competencies (MELCS) developed by the teachers with the aid of curriculum developers. • The modules include sections on motivation and assessment that serve as teachers’ and students’ guides to achieve desired competencies. • Feedback mechanisms aid teachers in monitoring student achievement and identify those who require follow-up interventions. • Reporting • Aims to provide students with information in a direct way and in uninterrupted manner. The student-reporters act like an authority of the topics assigned to them. • It is highly cognitive. The aim of the activity is to be able to deliver factual information about a topic. • It is student-centered. When a student is assigned to report, he or she has to collect, organize and share certain information.
  33. • Discussion • One of the best interactive methods in teaching in which both teachers and students in the classroom exchange ideas on the topic of discussion. • When used effectively, it can help students to develop their thinking, learning, understanding and problem-solving skills. • Demonstration • Instead of just giving an oral explanation of a subject, the teacher produces enough materials or proofs to make things clear. • It can be a demo of a step-by-step process that helps students to easily connect it to theory. • Semantic web spider web/ fact storm web/strand web • The Semantic Web, also known as Web 3.0, is not a separate Web but an extension of the current one, in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation (Berners-Lee, Hendler and Lassila, 2001) • The users can search the Web, retrieve easily meaningful information and sort out irrelevant data • Semantic Web tools can give each teacher candidate or student the ability to process information at their own pace
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