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Declaration of peace and cessation of war booklet

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Declaration of peace and cessation of war booklet

  1. 1. DECLARATION OF PEACE AND CESSATION OF WAR
  2. 2. Declaration of Peace and Cessation of War Copyright© 2016 Heavenly Culture, World Peace, Restoration of Light (HWPL) All rights reserved. No part of this volume may be reproduced in any forms or by any means, except for the brief quotations, without permission from HWPL. Published by Heavenly Culture, World Peace, Restoration of Light (HWPL)
  3. 3. Contents Foreword   2 Declaration of Peace and Cessation of War   5  Preamble      6  Article 1    8  Article 2    8  Article 3    9  Article 4    11  Article 5    12  Article 6    13  Article 7    14  Article 8    14  Article 9    15  Article 10   16 Explanation of the Declaration   18 Take Action   30 Contacts   32
  4. 4. 2 Greetings, I am Man Hee Lee, the peace advocate of Heavenly Culture, World Peace, Restoration of Light (HWPL). It is an honor to be speaking with like-minded believers of peace who dedicate their lives serving their people, country, and creed. As people who share this earth together, the duty appointed to us is to preserve the natural principles and rights of mankind. As we have seen from the past memories of our forefathers, to ensure that our future generations do not enter such periods of darkness depends on how active we remain to protect what is right and just for humanity. It is for this reason that I, to this day, continue to act upon the vision I have received, a vision of life, peace, and harmony. What I desire to share with you is the Declaration of Peace and Cessation of War. Drafted by renowned legal experts, the declaration’s purpose is to cease all wars on earth. What makes this newly-designed declaration unique is its inclusion of provisions designed to prevent religious conflict, often times excluded from legal projects. However, a provision addressing religious issues proves to be crucial in achieving peace; as much as 80% of wars stem from religious roots. If every country in the world adopts legislature inspired by the Declaration of Peace and Cessation of War, I have faith Foreword
  5. 5. 3 that war will no longer break out. Peace, our long-awaited objective, will be achieved, and the world will be transformed back its original and perfect design. Adopting this declaration ensures achieving a world of safety and peace. Not only will citizens support its provisions, but when the heads of state become aware of the declaration, how can they go against its message? Going against the Declaration of Peace and Cessation of War is going against peace. Therefore, if a head of state rejects this declaration, wouldn’t their future descendants question their leader’s stance on morality? Thus, a head of state who encourages war instead of peace will fall into disfavor with the global community, causing an urgency by the people to adopt the declaration. However, when heads of state practice politics based on the declaration, the scourge of wars and conflicts will end, and peace will blossom around the world. When heads of state around the world sign the Declaration of Peace and Cessation of War, surely this will gain the United Nations’ attention, causing the implementation, through the UN and its Security Council, of the declaration on an international level to be much more possible. Fellow workers of peace, this is my declaration to you: to support this movement, and show your support for what life has desired since the beginning. I urge you to show your commitment to establish harmony throughout the world by Foreword
  6. 6. 4 advocating the Declaration of Peace and Cessation of War to be incorporated in all nations. I thank you for your time in reading my message for the world. Our efforts in restoring this earth are beyond what man desires, but instead the hope of all sources of life. Even the beasts and trees yearn of a day when justice will reign, and this work lays in our hands. I look forward to working together towards the hope that our citizens dream of. Most respectfully, Man Hee Lee, Peace Advocate Heavenly Culture, World Peace, Restoration of Light Foreword
  7. 7. Foreword DECLARATION OF PEACE AND CESSATION OF WAR
  8. 8. 6 Preamble Recalling the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and other international instruments, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Acknowledging that all members of the human family enjoy human dignity and equal and inalienable rights, and that these rights represent a necessary tenet of the preservation of freedom, justice and peace throughout the world, Aiming to maintain international peace and security and determined to pass on to successive generations an invaluable inheritance of a world free of wars, Ensuring the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force should not be used, save in accordance with the limitations prescribed by international law, Reaffirming faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women, the promotion of social progress and better standards of life for people and future generations and the need to facilitate peaceful coexistence among the world’s religions, beliefs, and ethnicities; Recognizing that the principle of equal rights and self- determination of peoples constitutes a significant contribution to contemporary international law, and that its effective application is of paramount importance,
  9. 9. 7 DeclarationofPeaceandCessationofWar Bearing in mind the universal commitment of the world’s religions to the promotion of peaceful coexistence, tolerance and mutual respect, and the common spirit that permeates all religious scriptures and holy texts, Bearing in mind the sovereign equality of states, and Convinced that judicial and other dispute resolution measures can replace the rule of war with the rule of law Call upon states to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from international law can be maintained, and in accordance with the common spirit that permeates all religious scriptures, and the rules of international law including fundamental rights guaranteed, to undertake to prosecute and sanction gross and systematic acts of violence undertaken in the name of religion to bring about gradual disarmament of weapons of mass destruction and weapons capable of causing widespread and unnecessary suffering and weapons incompatible with international humanitarian law. The signatories to the present Declaration do hereby urge that all efforts be made so that this Declaration is adopted and respected by all states.
  10. 10. 8 Article 1 Prohibition of the threat or use of force 1. States should solemnly reaffirm that they refrain from the use of force in all circumstances, save where permitted by international law, and should condemn aggression as constituting an international crime. 2. States should refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of military force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations Charter or international law in general. 3. States should prohibit any act or threat of violence, whatever its motives or purposes, that occurs for the advancement of an individual or collective criminal agenda. 4. States should abstain from interference in the internal conflicts of other States. Article 2 War potential 1. States should co-operate with a view to the gradual global reduction of armament production.
  11. 11. 9 DeclarationofPeaceandCessationofWar 2. States should not produce, assist in, encourage, or induce; the production of weapons of mass destruction, inter alia, chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, or weapons capable of causing indiscriminate or widespread and unnecessary suffering, or weapons incompatible with international humanitarian law. 3. States should take measures to ensure that existing weapons of mass destruction, weapons capable of causing widespread and unnecessary suffering and weapons incompatible with international humanitarian law are gradually dismantled or destroyed. States should cooperate in disarmament and the reduction of arms stockpiles, ideally under international supervision. Decommissioned weapons manufacturing facilities should be repurposed, so that they may serve purposes that are beneficial to humanity in general. 4. States should strive to reduce excessive standing armies and military bases. 5. States should cooperate to gradually diminish trade in weapons and attempt to reduce the flow of small arms to non-state actors. Article 3 Friendly relations and the prohibition of acts of aggression 1. In accordance with United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2625 (XXV), States should develop friendly relations
  12. 12. 10 based upon respect for the principle of equal rights and self- determination of peoples, and should take appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace. 2. States have the duty to refrain from any forcible action that deprives peoples of their rights to self-determination. 3. States should condemn the illegal occupation of territory resulting from the threat or use of force in a manner contrary to international law. 4. States should promote accountability, including by investigating alleged violations of international law, in particular, grave violation of the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols, and should take measures to ensure that states, citizens and corporations do not contribute to the commission of violations of international law. 5. States should condemn, and should criminalize in their domestic law, the planning, preparation, initiation or execution, by a person in a position effectively to exercise control over, or to direct, the political or military action of a State, of an act of aggression which, by its character, gravity and scale, constitutes a manifest violation of international law, thus amounting to a crime of aggression. 6. States should refrain from allowing their territories to be placed at the disposal of other actors, whether States or otherwise, to engage in armed force against a third State.
  13. 13. 11 DeclarationofPeaceandCessationofWar 7. States should bear in mind the principle of sovereign equality of states, and should seek to consult all other states, on the basis of reciprocal respect, on issues that may relate to them, in order to resolve and pre-empt disputes which may arise. This provision should apply without prejudice to human rights law and human dignity. Article 4 State boundaries 1. In accordance with United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2625 (XXV), every State has the duty to refrain in its international relations from military, political, economic, or any other form of coercion aimed against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations. This is without prejudice to instances when such forms of coercion may be lawfully applied, inter alia, to induce states to cease internationally wrongful acts, or when sanctioned by the United Nations Security Council. 2. Every State has the duty to refrain from the threat or use of force to violate the existing internationally recognized boundaries of another State, or as a means of resolving international disputes, including territorial and frontier disputes, in a manner inconsistent with international law. 3. Every state has the duty to refrain from any act of incitement,
  14. 14. 12 planning, preparation, initiation or commission of an act of aggression by a state, a group of states, an organization of states or an armed group or by any foreign or external entity, against the sovereignty, political independence and territorial integrity of any State. Article 5 Self-determination 1. The duty of every state to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any other state includes the duty not to engage in any action that would result in the dismemberment of any state, or force the secession or annexation of any territorial unit from that state. 2. Subject to the right to self-determination of peoples, states shall not engage in any intervention that seeks to divide or separate a state in a manner that is contrary to the rules of international law. 3. Every state has the duty to refrain from prematurely recognising an entity that has purported to secede from another state, until such a time as the latter entity has developed the necessary attributes, capacities and legitimacy to function as a state. 4. Subject to the provisions of the present article, States should encourage identifiable nation-states that have been divided by longstanding external or historical factors to engage in
  15. 15. 13 DeclarationofPeaceandCessationofWar co-operation and dialogue. States should ensure that divided peoples are provided with their right to self-determination, including, inter alia, measures which may result in unified government. 5. Any political system in which power is exercised in perpetuity by an individual or regime amounting to a manifest denial of the right to self-determination should be condemned. Article 6 Dispute settlement 1. States should recognize the obligation to settle their international disputes through peaceful means including reference to the International Court of Justice, other judicial bodies, regional judicial arrangements, or through arbitration, mediation, conciliation, or other forms of alternative dispute resolution and in such a manner that international peace and security are not endangered. States should carry out any judgment or decision reached by a judicial body in good faith. 2. All states are encouraged to accept the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice, in accordance with Article 36, paragraph 2, of the Statute of the Court, without reservations, as a means of ensuring that disputes are settled peacefully and in accordance with international law.
  16. 16. 14 Article 7 Right to self-defence 1. Nothing in the present Declaration should be construed so as to impair the inherent right to individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a State, until such time as the Security Council has taken measures to maintain international peace and security. 2. Measures taken by states in the exercise of their right to self- defence should be immediately reported to the Security Council and should not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the United Nations Charter to take, at any time, such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security. Article 8 Freedom of religion 1. States should unite to strengthen international efforts to foster a global dialogue for the promotion of a culture of tolerance and peace at all levels, based on respect for human rights and diversity of religions and beliefs. 2. States should activate and participate in systems to enforce and protect fundamental human rights, eliminating discrimination on the basis of religion or belief, and should refrain from
  17. 17. 15 DeclarationofPeaceandCessationofWar and prohibit the usage of religion by governments, groups, or individuals in order to justify or to incite acts of violence against others. These systems should include, inter alia, judicial mechanisms. 3. States should foster religious freedom by allowing members of religious communities to practice their religion, whether publicly or in private, and by protecting places of worship and religious sites, cemeteries, and shrines. Article 9 Religion, ethnic identity and peace 1. States should engage in multilateral consultations to deal with situations where differences attributable to religion or ethnicity pose a threat to peace so that necessary remedial action may be taken and to identify the root causes of a situation causing tension between different religious or ethnic groups, in order to adopt necessary measures to promote mutual understanding between the groups concerned. 2. States should take measures to ensure that religious belief or ethnic identity are not utilised as a pretext for gross and systematic acts of violence. In circumstances where individuals or groups perpetrate or assist in such acts in the name of their religion, states should take adequate measures that lead to the prosecution and punishment of such activities.
  18. 18. 16 3. Recognising the threat to peaceful coexistence that violent religious extremism may cause, states should implement, in good faith, legal measures against individuals or groups attempting to perpetrate or assist in gross and systematic acts of violence in the name of religion. Such measures should, in extreme cases, include the proscription of faith groups – including sects or cults – that perpetrate acts of violence against the territorial integrity and political independence of any state. Article 10 Spreading a culture of peace 1. States should recognize and engage with groups and organizations that seek to further the cause of peace as a global movement. States should facilitate such groups in their awareness-raising activities, including providing tuition in human rights and peace studies, as provided for, inter alia, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 1999 UN Declaration on a Culture of Peace. 2. States should recognize that, in order to preserve a lasting culture of peace, public awareness of the need for, and value of, peace should be created. In this regard, states are encouraged to facilitate activities, commemorations, and initiatives that engage public consciousness with peace, including the erection of peace monuments as an alternative to war monuments. 3. Heads of state and heads of government should acknowledge
  19. 19. 17 DeclarationofPeaceandCessationofWar that they are uniquely well placed to encourage a culture of peace, and should act to support this declaration to bring about the cessation of war. 4. States should promote a culture of peace including ensuring conditions in which- (a) citizens are able to participate in the political affairs of the state as equals regardless of religious or ethnic differences; (b) a free media is maintained which allows grievances to be aired and addressed; and (c) education is imparted to promote respect and mutual understanding among different religious, belief and ethnic groups; (d) the right to development of peoples, including the achievement of the UN sustainable development goals, can be realized; and (e) the wellbeing of all human kind with the participation of women and men to ensure peaceful coexistence amongst nations, states, and peoples may be guaranteed.
  20. 20. EXPLANATION OF THE DECLARATION
  21. 21. 19 DeclarationofPeaceandCessationofWar The Declaration of Peace and Cessation of War (hereinafter DPCW) is a declaration drafted by the HWPL International Law Peace Committee and proclaimed on March 14, 2016. The DPCW has been drafted with the intent of promoting the respect of funda- mental human rights and international law, and of further involv- ing States in the active protection of those rights. The full text is available at www.peacelaw.org The DPCW consists of a preamble and ten articles, which have been elaborated taking into high consideration the existent international treaties and human rights protection instruments. While the preamble states the object and purpose of the DPCW, the first part of the Declaration (Articles 1-7) affirms some fundamental norms of international law, especially with regard to the role of States in the promotion of peace, justice and freedom. The last part of the Declaration (Articles 8-10) provides a contribution to the further development of the protection of the freedom of religion and the rights that aim at empowering the participation of citizens in their communities. The preamble describes the legal context in which the declaration has been developed, as well as the fundamental values on which it is based. Furthermore, it includes three specific appeals to the international community. With regard to the context presented by the preamble, the incipit of the declaration recalls the Charter of the United Nations (UN Charter) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UNDHR). Both documents represent milestones of the protection and promotion of human rights at the international
  22. 22. 20 level, and both served as inspiration for the drafting of the declaration. The UN Charter was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, and came into force on 24 October 1945. The UNDHR was proclaimed by the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in Paris on 10 December 1948 and constitutes a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations. It set out, for the first time, fundamental human rights to be universally protected, and nowadays it continues to serve as the basis for the development of new international legal instruments (including the DPCW). The preamble of the DPCW also introduces some of the cornerstones of the document, referring to specific values and fundamental human rights. The core values introduced in the preamble – that coincide with the broad aim of the declaration – are freedom, justice, peace, security, inter-generational solidarity, the promotion of social progress and standards of life, tolerance and respect in the context of religious beliefs and traditions. The preamble refers also to some fundamental norms of international law that are further developed in the articles of the declaration. The principles that are introduced in the preamble and later expanded in the text of the articles are the prohibition of the threat or use of force, the principle of non-discrimination, the principle of self-determination, the sovereign equality of States, and the role of the peaceful resolution of disputes. In the last part of the preamble, the DPCW calls upon States
  23. 23. 21 DeclarationofPeaceandCessationofWar to promote the protection and progressive development of international law, to refrain from the use of force (in accordance with the common spirit of all religions and without using religious beliefs as grounds for disputes), and to proceed towards gradual disarmament. Following the preamble, Article 1 DPCW affirms the prohibition of the threat or use of force. The article condemns the use of force, and, in general, any interference with the territorial integrity, the political independence, and the internal conflicts of a State. It is consistent with Article 2(4) UN Charter which reads “[a] ll Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.”, and with its predecessor, Article 10 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. Consistent with what was affirmed by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in its Nuclear Weapons Advisory Opinion, the DPCW condemns the threat to use of force together with the use of such force. Similar to Article 2(4) UN Charter, Article 1 DPCW also touches upon another of the paramount principles of international law: the principle of territorial integrity, which reflects fundamental international objective in the stability of boundaries. The concept is further developed in Articles 3-5 DPCW.
  24. 24. 22 Article 2 DPCW focuses on the fundamental issue of war potential. In particular, it calls upon States to proceed towards disarmament (ideally, under international supervision), and specifically towards the reduction of the production and trade of weapons (including the flow of arms to non-state actors) and of the proliferation of standing armies and military bases. The DPCW acknowledges the need for a culture of peace and for significant arms reduction worldwide and has been developed in accordance with one of the goals of the UN: multilateral disarmament and arms limitation, both central to the maintenance of international peace and security. In this context, Article 2 DCPW stands next to a number of key UN instruments, such as the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Chemical Weapons Convention, the Biological Weapons Convention the Comprehensive Nuclear- Test-Ban Treaty, and the Mine-Ban Convention. In accordance with the every-day action of international institutions such as the UN, Article 2 DCPW promotes not only the goal of “traditional” disarmament but also the goal of preventive disarmament. Article 3 DCPW is dedicated to friendly relations and to the prohibition of acts of aggression. Article 4 and Article 5 DCPW regard, respectively, State boundaries and Self- determination, connecting the goals of the DCPW with those affirmed in the UNGA Resolution 2625 (XXV) – the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States –, and expanding what is already introduced by Article 3.
  25. 25. 23 DeclarationofPeaceandCessationofWar Articles 3-5 DCPW, touching upon numerous core norms of international law, affirm the principle of equal rights and self- determination, the prohibition of illegal occupation of the territory of a State resulting from the threat or use of force, the prohibition of aggression (and, in general, of any direct and indirect contribution of a State to the violation of international law on its territory or in the territory of another State), the principle of sovereign equality of States, and the positive role of the mechanisms that promote the peaceful resolution of disputes. Articles 3 and 4 condemn the crime of aggression, meaning – according with what was affirmed in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court – the “the planning, preparation, initiation or execution, by a person in a position effectively to exercise control over or to direct the political or military action of a State, of an act of aggression which, by its character, gravity and scale, constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations”. As an act of aggression entails the use of armed force by a State against the sovereignty, territorial integrity, or political independence of another State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the UN Charter, Articles 3-5 of the declaration further promote the protection of the aforementioned principles. The principle of sovereign equality protects the fundamental rights of States, including the rights to independence, equality, respect, and self-preservation. It constitutes one of the general principles of international law that serve as the basis for the existence and activities of the UN (see e.g. Article 2(1) UN
  26. 26. 24 Charter). The general concept of sovereignty applies to the internal dimension of the life of any State, as well as to its external dimension, and one of its corollaries is the concept of domaine réservé, entailing that at least some matters remain within the regulatory competence of States. Strictly connected with the concept of sovereignty are the concepts of territorial integrity and political independence. In the international legal framework, they protect States from any external interference or threat, and the State’s right to make decisions affecting their own territory. Articles 3 and 4 DCPW explicitly refer to the UNGA Resolution 2625 (XXV), which introduced one of the most authoritative and comprehensive formulations of the principle of self-determination, embodying it among the basic principles of international law. The Resolution affirms the right of all peoples “to freely determine, without external interference, their political status and to pursue their economic, social and cultural development” as well as the duty of every State “to respect this right in accordance with the provisions of the Charter”. Article 3 DCPW refers to the Resolution and, affirming the principles of equal rights and self-determination, supports also what is affirmed in the UN Charter, particularly in the following provisions: Article 1(2) UN Charter, which states that it is one of the purposes of the UN to “develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace”; Article 55 UN Charter, which refers “to the creation of
  27. 27. 25 DeclarationofPeaceandCessationofWar conditions of stability and well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples”; as well as in Article 73 UN Charter and Article 76(b) UN Charter. Moreover, Article 3 DCPW refers to the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols. They constitute the body of international law that regulates the conduct of armed conflict and seeks to limit its effects. As such, they specifically protect wounded and sick soldiers on land during war, shipwrecked military personnel at sea during war, prisoners of war, and civilians, including those in occupied territory. Article 6 DCPW aims at promoting the strengthening of the dispute settlement mechanism at the international level. The declaration acknowledges two connected objectives: the prevention of disputes and – when disputes arise – the creation of an effective mechanism to solve them. In this context, the DCPW promotes the recourse to the traditional means of dispute settlement, and encourages States to accept the compulsory jurisdiction of the ICJ: these two elements of Article 6 DCPW go hand in hand, as the first reaffirms the duty to settle disputes in a peaceful way and the second aims at solving the contradictions that arise in the absence of a compulsory mechanism. With regard to the dispute settlement mechanism, the content of Article 6 DCPW is connected with two fundamental provisions: Article 2(3) UN Charter, which affirms the duty to
  28. 28. 26 settle disputes in a peaceful way, and Article 33 UN Charter, which lists the means that are available to peacefully settle international disputes. With regard to the role of the ICJ, Article 6 DCPW calls upon States to grant the ICJ compulsory jurisdiction. The ICJ is the principal judicial organ of the UN, and its role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized UN organs and specialized agencies. The jurisdiction of the ICJ is based on the consent of the States. Such consent can be given in different forms: through the conclusion of a special agreement on a case by case basis, through the inclusion of specific provision in treaties and conventions, or (in accordance with Article 36 (2) ICJ statute, as recalled by Article 6 DCPW) granting the ICJ compulsory jurisdiction in legal disputes, unconditionally or on condition of reciprocity on the part of several or certain States, or for a certain time. While the DCPW does not prohibit the use of force tout court, Article 7 DCPW describes the only case in which States may recur to the use of force, providing an exception to the general prohibition on the use of force found in Article 1 DCPW. The scope of Article 7 DCPW is not to promote the use of force, but to limit it and regulate it on the basis of the most advanced international law standards, and, mainly, support the mechanism introduced by the UN charter with regard to the right to self-defence.
  29. 29. 27 DeclarationofPeaceandCessationofWar The latter represent a norm of customary international law, protected under Article 51 UN Charter, that, similarly to Article 7 DCPW, affirms that “[n]othing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of collective or individual self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. Measures taken by members in exercise of this right of self- defence shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security”, and has been reaffirmed by the ICJ in the Nicaragua Case. In accordance with article 51 UN Charter, Article 7 DCPW describes the only legal ground and procedure that allow States to recur to the use of force: the necessity to protect a State against an armed attack, the duty to notify the UN Security Council of the actions taken, and to limit those actions to the time preceding any action taken by the Security Council itself. Finally, Articles 8-10 DCPW include the most original rules developed in the document with regard to the promotion of the freedom of religion and of a culture of peace. In the context of the object and purpose of the DCPW described in the preamble, and having affirmed the most fundamental norms of international law, Article 8 DCPW affirms the freedom of religion. It calls upon States to foster religious freedom, protecting it actively and refraining from using religious beliefs
  30. 30. 28 as grounds for conflicts and acts of violence. Article 9 DCPW further expands the content of Article 8, explicitly condemning any form of religious extremism and highlighting the importance of the role of States in promoting pluralism and the creation of peaceful and effective means of dispute resolution. The primary sources of law underpinning the freedom of religion or belief are Article 18 of the UNDHR, Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the UNGA Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief. Traditionally, freedom of religion is considered to protect several aspects of the private and public life of individuals, as it entails the freedom to adopt, change or renounce a religion or belief, the freedom from coercion, the right to manifest one’s religion or belief, the freedom to worship, and the protection of places of worship, religious symbols, and the observance of holidays and days of rest. The last Article of the declaration, Article 10 DCPW, is dedicated to the aim of spreading a culture of peace. The Article invites States to engage in the active promotion of a lasting culture of peace, based on education, pluralism, freedom of the press, and participation in general. Article 10 DCPW touches upon two specific legal instruments (the 1999 UNGA Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace, and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals adopted in 2015 with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development) and upon several fundamental human rights.
  31. 31. 29 DeclarationofPeaceandCessationofWar Particular importance is reserved to the rights that aim at empowering individuals and groups, allowing them to be active in their political and social community: the right to participation, which is protected under Article 25 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 21 of the UNDHR, Article 8 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and several other instruments, such as the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; the freedom of the press, in accordance with the UNDHR that affirms that “[e]veryone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers”; the right to education, which is also protected under Article 26 of the UNDHR and Articles 13 and 14 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Right; and the right to development, which was proclaimed in the Declaration on the Right to Development, adopted in 1986 by the UNGA Resolution 41/128, and defined as “[t]he right to development is an inalienable human right by virtue of which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized.”
  32. 32. 30 Take Action In order to raise awareness and gather pledges of support for the Declaration of Peace and Cessation of War to be implemented throughout the world, HWPL has initiated a worldwide campaign with its two subsidiaries, the International Women’s Peace Group (IWPG) and the International Peace Youth Group (IPYG). Today is the day that the marginalized voices of the world are finally heard, urging leaders, governments, and even the United Nations to adopt and implement peaceful strategies to end all wars. Let’s be part of the making of history together and pledge for a better tomorrow.   How to Participate Online Campaign 1. Visit the website: http://peacelaw.org 2. Click the “Pledge” tab 3. Fill out the blanks 4. Click “Pledge Now”
  33. 33. 31 DeclarationofPeaceandCessationofWar Offline Campaign For more information regarding the offline campaign, please visit either the IWPG website: www.internationalwomenspeacegroup.org, or the IPYG website: www.ipyg.org
  34. 34. Contacts Headquaters   Address: 46, Cheongpa-ro 71-gil Yongsan-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea 04304  Phone: +82-2-514-1963  Fax: +82-514-1961  Email: hwpl_hq@peacelaw.org New York, USA   hwpl_ny@peacelaw.org Washington D.C., USA  hwpl_dc@peacelaw.org London, UK  hwpl_london@peacelaw.org Hague, Netherlands  hwpl_hague@peacelaw.org Geneva, Switzerland  hwpl_geneva@peacelaw.org Pretoria, South Africa  hwpl_pretoria@peacelaw.org © 2016 Heavenly Culture, World Peace, Restoration of Light

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